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Food words
Risk assessment Controls and assessment putting
in place safety measures to limit injury or
illness. Hazard Anything that could go wrong
during buying/ storing/ making/ packaging/
transport of a product that is a hazard Risk The
risk is the likelihood of it happening Risk
assessment Risk assessment means thinking about
what could happen/ when it could happen and
taking steps to prevent it happening.
COSHH Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health Correct storage of chemicals including
bleach, washing up liquids and cleaning fluids.
Also DATA sheets saying how to deal with spills ,
swallowed and or chemicals in cuts or eyes.
HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
Points How to store food, limit cross
contamination and health and safety i.e. Blue
plasters and magnets to remove foreign
bodies. Hazard A hazard is anything that will
cause harm to the consumer Analysis Analysis is
when you look in detail at something Critical Cri
tical means it is very serious. Control points A
control point is a step in the process where
hazards or risks are likely to occur
Cross-contamination This is wear food of
different sorts touch each other and bacteria is
able to move from one food to another. i.e. Raw
meet dripping blood on to a salad in a
refrigerator, this can cause food poisoning.
Key words
Vegan People who eat no animal products including
meat, dairy (from animals milk) eggs and fish.
Many vegans avoid wearing animal products also.
Vegetarian / vegetarianism. People who chose for
a moral, religious or health reason to exclude
meat from their diets. (this can include fish,
shellfish, animal meats and poultry) .
Gluten Is found in grass related grains, wheat,
maize, rice ,rye and barley. People who have an
allergy towards gluten should avoid these foods
and or eat alternatives.
Lactose Intolerance Is an allergy towards milk
it can cause suffers to suffer from allergic
reactions and in some cases this can cause
Peanut allergy This often effects small children
and as a health warning children under 3 years
due to the effects the allergy can cause.
Key words
Genetically Modified Foods Foods that have been
altered genetically to contain one trait or
other. Normally to be resilience against bacteria
or pests. GM foods first went on sale in 1990s.
If a field has been used for GM crops it must be
left for 7 years before it can be used for
organic food crops.
Smart products Smart foods are foods that have
been developed using new and improved processes,
and often human intervention. Examples of smart
foods are instant desserts. Genetically modified
foods are examples of smart foods. Smart foods
can be foods with new molecular structures, such
as modified starches and sweeteners functional
foods e.g. probiotic yoghurts, cholesterol-lowerin
g spreads and fortified eggs meat analogues e.g.
tofu, textured vegetable protein, mycoprotein
modern biotechnology e.g. soya bean, tomato
plant, particular enzymes Smart foods
could have a special function other than
providing the consumer with nutrients and energy.
perform a function that cannot be done by normal
foods. have been invented with other uses in
mind before being made available to the general
Food plate
Alternative proteins. For people who dont eat
meat or animal products. TVP Textured vegetable
protein (made from soya bean) Quorn A
mycoroprotein which is related to the
mushroom. Tivall Made from wheat and vegetable
protein. Its texture is similar to meat. Tofu
and bean curd Made from soya beans.
The recommended guidelines say you should not
exceed 6g of salt per day
3 a day Dairy portions.
5 a day bread, cereals and potatoes portions.
5 a day fruit and veg. A portion of fruit or veg
is about the size of your clenched fist.
Meat, fish and alternatives. 2 or 3 portions a day
Sugary and fatty foods small amounts only.
Organic Organic foods are made according to
certain production standards. The use of
conventional non-organic pesticides, insecticides
and herbicides is greatly restricted and avoided
as a last resort. However, contrary to popular
belief, certain non-organic fertilisers are still
used. If livestock are involved, they must be
reared without the routine use of antibiotics and
without the use of growth hormones, and generally
fed a healthy diet. In most countries, organic
produce may not be genetically modified. Historica
lly, organic farms have been relatively small
family-run farms1 which is why organic food
was once only available in small stores or
farmers' markets. However, since the early 1990s
organic food production has had growth rates of
around 20 a year, far ahead of the rest of the
food industry, in both developed and developing
nations. As of April 2008, organic food accounts
for 1-2 of food sales worldwide.
Recycling symbol
Fair trade Is an organised social movement and
market-based approach that aims to help producers
in developing countries earn a liveable wage.
Allowing farmers to educate their children and
improve their standard of living.
Knives and boards
  • As used in professional kitchens, this set of
    differently coloured chopping boards ensures
    ideal food hygiene and avoids transfer of
    flavours between foods. Use the following for the
  • red board for raw meat,
  • blue for fish,
  • green for vegetables,
  • yellow for cooked food.

  • Parts of the egg
  • COMPOSITION OF A WHOLE EGG  65.5 Water11.8
    Protein11.0 Fat11.7 Ash
  • Egg yolks structure
  • ½ water
  • 1/6 protein
  • 1/3 fat
  • Emulsifiers (lecithin)
  • All of the eggs vitamins A, D and E are in the
    yolk. Egg yolks are one of the few foods
    naturally containing vitamin D. The yolk also
    contains more phosphorus, manganese, iron,
    iodine, copper, and calcium than the white, and
    it contains all of the zinc.
  • Egg whites structure.
  • 7/8 water
  • 1/8 protein
  • 0 fat
  • Niacin, riboflavin, chlorine, magnesium,
    potassium, sodium and sulphur.

Contains vitamins and minerals.
Easy to prepare.
Egg facts
Good source of vitamins D, A , B2 and iodine.
Good choice as part of a healthy balanced diet.
Need to be handled with care to avoid food
Good source of protein.
Eggs contain cholesterol high levels of
cholesterol in the blood can cause heart attacks.
High risk food for pregnant, very young children
and elderly people.
There is no recommended daily amount.
The yellow part of the egg is the yolk, the white
part is named albumin.
To limit exposure to salmonella use pasteurised
Eating raw eggs, runny yolks or food which
includes this such as mayonnaise and peppermint
creams can cause a food poisoning known as
Store eggs in a cool place such as the
Always wash your hands after touching egg shells.
Egg shells are often unwashed and are more likely
to carry salmonella than the egg yolk or whites.
Eggs are in the meet and nuts section of the food
plate, and should make up about 12 of your daily
Bacteria can spread very easily from eggs to
other foods, hands, worktops, etc. There can be
bacteria on the shell, as well as inside the egg,
so you need to be careful how you handle eggs,
when they are still in the shell and after you
have cracked them
Egg facts
Each egg is about 75 -80 Kcals.
Wash hands before and after handling eggs.
So remember toKeep eggs away from other foods,
when they are still in the shell and after you
have cracked them. Be careful not to splash egg
onto other foods, worktops or dishes. Always
wash and dry your hands thoroughly after touching
eggs or working with them. Clean surfaces,
dishes and utensils thoroughly, using warm soapy
water, after working with eggs.
Never re-use left over egg dishes
Bacteria can also spread onto worktops, dishes
and utensils that are touched by eggs, and then
the bacteria can spread to other foods that touch
the worktops, dishes or utensils.
Never use dirty, cracked or broken eggs .
Cooking eggs properlyIf you cook eggs until both
the white and yolk are solid this will kill any
bacteria. If you are cooking a dish containing
eggs, make sure you cook it until the food is
steaming hot all the way through.
Foods that are made with raw eggs and then not
cooked, or only lightly cooked, can cause food
poisoning. This is because any bacteria in the
eggs won't be killed.
Egg facts
If you're concerned, when you're eating out or
buying food that isn't labelled and you're not
sure whether a food contains raw egg, ask the
person serving you.If you buy commercially
produced mayonnaise, salad dressings, sauces, ice
cream, desserts, or ready-made icing, these will
almost always have been made using pasteurised
egg. Check the label but ask if you're not sure.
All the following might contain raw
eggshome-made mayonnaise Béarnaise and
hollandaise sauces some salad dressings ice
cream icing mousse tiramisu and other
desserts For the safest choice, you could use
pasteurised egg instead (available from some
supermarkets), because pasteurisation kills
Storing eggs safelyHere are some tips to help
you store your eggs safelyDo store eggs in a
cool, dry place, ideally in the fridge. Do store
eggs away from other foods. It's a good idea to
use your fridge's egg tray, if you have one,
because this helps to keep eggs separate. Do eat
dishes containing eggs as soon as possible after
you've prepared them, but if you're not planning
to eat them straight away, cool them quickly and
then keep them in the fridge. Don't use eggs
after their 'best before' date for the safest
choice. Don't use eggs with damaged shells,
because dirt or bacteria might have got inside
Store eggs away from strong smelling foods.
Store eggs away from raw meats.
Store eggs at a constant temperature below 20c
preferably in a refrigerator.
Food that contain eggs
Coddled egg
Boiled egg
Fried eggs
Dinner / evening meal
Micro waved
Lemon curd
Spanish omelette
Yorkshire pudding
Scotch eggs
Meat balls
Peppermint creams
Pies (crust)
Ice cream
Meat loaf
Pan cakes
Eggs can bind ingredients as in meatloaves or
croquettes. They can also leaven such baked high
rises as souffles and sponge cakes. Their
thickening talent is seen in custards and sauces.
They emulsify mayonnaise, salad dressings and
Hollandaise sauce and are, frequently used to
coat or glaze breads and cookies. They clarify
soups and coffee, in boiled candies and
frostings, they retard crystallization. As a
finishing touch, they can be hard cooked and used
as a garnish.
Egg facts functions
Coat or glaze To add shine and crispness to the
surface or to brown the surface as in pastries.
Clarify Raw egg whites coagulate around foreign
particles in a hot liquid.
Retard crystallization Egg thickens and causes
crystals which stick together to produce a whole.
Bind (stick together) To hold a variety of parts
together. Egg binds breadcrumbs and meat in a
meat loaf.
Garnish To add decoration to food such as salads.
Leaven An agent that works subtly to lighten or
modify a whole.
Aeration Egg whites increase six to eight times
in volume . As egg white foam is heated, the air
bubbles become stable, enabling foods to rise
during the cooking process.
Thickening Eggs coagulate and thicken mixtures
such as custards.
What is salmonella ?
  • Salmonella is a type of bacteria. It is usually
    found in poultry, eggs, unprocessed milk and in
    meat and water. It may also be carried by pets
    like turtles and birds.The salmonella bacteria
    attacks the stomach and intestines. In more
    serious cases, the bacteria may enter the lymph
    tracts, which carry water and protein to the
    blood, and the blood itself. The bacteria attack
    all age groups and both sexes. Children, the
    elderly and people who are already ill are much
    more likely to get a serious infection.
  • What are the symptoms of salmonella
    poisoning?Diarrhoea or constipation. Headaches.
    stomach cramps. Nausea and vomiting. Fever.
    Possibly, blood in the faeces.

Test for freshness
  • You can test an egg to see how old it is and if
    its still fresh enough to use.
  • Mix 2 tablespoons of salt in about 2 cups of
  • Drop the egg gently in to the bowl of the water
    solution .
  • If the egg sinks to the bottom and stays there,
    its about 3 to 6 days old.
  • Sinks, but floats at an angle, its more than a
    week old.
  • Sinks, but then stands on end, its about two
    weeks old.
  • Floats , its too old and should be discarded.
  • Eggs act this way in water because of the air sac
    present in all eggs. As the egg ages, the air sac
    gets larger because the egg shell is a
    semi-permeable membrane ( allowing air to pass in
    to the egg over time). The air sac, when large
    enough, makes the egg float. Eggs are generally
    good for about three weeks after you buy them.

Best before dates
  • 'Best before' dates appear on a wide range of
    frozen, dried, tinned and other foods. The 'best
    before' dates are more about quality than safety,
    except for eggs. So when the date runs out it
    doesn't mean that the food will be harmful, but
    it might begin to lose its flavour and texture.
    About a third of the food we buy ends up being
    thrown away and most of this could have been
    eaten. So think carefully before throwing away
    food that is past its 'best before'
    date.However, you shouldn't eat eggs after the
    'best before' date. This is because eggs can
    contain salmonella bacteria, which could start to
    multiply after this date.And remember, the 'best
    before' date will only be accurate if the food is
    stored according to the instructions on the
    label, such as 'store in a cool dry place' or
    'keep in the fridge once opened'. So, if you
    want to enjoy the food at its best, use it by its
    'best before' date and make sure you follow any

  • The Lion Quality mark on egg shells and boxes
    means that the eggs have been produced to the
    highest standards of food safety. The Lion
    Quality mark, which is a registered trademark,
    can only be used by subscribers to the BEIC
    (British Egg Industry Council) on eggs which have
    been produced in accordance with UK and EU law
    and the Lion Quality Code of Practice.
  • www.britegg.co.uk

Look for the Lion Quality mark on the egg shell
and egg box - it shows that the eggs have been
produced to the highest standards of food safety
Buy eggs from a reputable retailer where they
will have been transported and stored at the
correct temperature (below 20C) Keep eggs
refrigerated after purchase Store eggs in their
box and, as eggs are porous, away from
strong-smelling foods Make sure you use eggs by
the 'best before' date shown on the egg or box -
for Lion Quality eggs, this guarantees that they
are fresher than required by law Wash hands
before and after handling eggs Discard dirty or
cracked eggs Eat cooked egg dishes as soon as
possible after cooking or store in a fridge
Lion code of practice
  • Key requirements of the Lion Code of Practice
  • The Lion mark was re-introduced on egg boxes in
    November 1998 to denote eggs produced to a
    stringent new Code of Practice incorporating the
    latest research and advice on Salmonella and eggs
    from scientists and vets. Latest controls in the
    Lion Code of Practice, which are additional to
    current legislation, include
  • All hens producing Lion Quality eggs must have
    been vaccinated against Salmonella Enteritidis.
  • A registration and passport system ensures
    complete traceability of Lion Quality eggs, hens
    and feed.
  • There are increased hygiene controls and
    Salmonella testing right through the production
  • The Lion Code of Practice also incorporates
    higher standards of animal welfare than required
    by law.
  • The Lion Code of Practice includes stringent feed
    controls, including production of feed to
    Universal Feed Assurance Scheme (UFAS) standards
    and the banning of growth promoters,
    canthaxanthin and lasalocid in laying birds.
  • A best-before date and Lion logo must be printed
    on the shell of Lion Quality eggs as well as on
    the egg box.
  • The Lion Quality mark is a registered trademark
    and can only be used by BEIC subscribers on egg
    shells and egg boxes which have been produced in
    accordance with the Lion Code of Practice and UK
    and EU law.
  • The Lion Code of Practice is monitored by an
    independent agency in accordance with the EN
    45011 standard. Farms and packing stations are
    regularly audited including unannounced audits.

Producer identity A unique code denoting where
the egg was produced. E.g. UK54321, UK 543SCO or
Egg labelling
Method of production 0 Organic 1 Free Range 2
Barn 3 Caged
British Lion Quality Mark Only found on eggs that
have been produced in accordance with UK and EU
law and the British Lion Quality code of practice.
Best-before date All British Lion Quality eggs
must include a best-before date printed on the
shell of the egg
Egg recipes
  • Pouring batter mix (Yorkshire
  • puddings/pancakes/toad in
  • the hole)
  • 100g (4oz) plain flour
  • Pinch of salt
  • 1 medium egg
  • 300ml (1/2 pint) milk (or milk
  • and water mix)
  • Mix flour and salt in a basin, make a hollow in
    the centre and drop in egg.
  • Stir with a wooden spoon and add liquid
    gradually, until all the flour is worked in.
  • Beat well and add remaining liquid.
  • N.B. The consistency should be like single cream
  • Meringue
  • 4 egg whites
  • 115g (4 ½ oz) icing sugar
  • 115g (4 ½ oz) caster sugar
  • Heat oven to 100c, 110F gas mark ½ .
  • Tip the egg whites in to clean glass bowl
  • Beat eggs with an electric whisk until the
    mixture resembles a fluffy cloud and stands up
  • Gradually add the caster sugar a spoonful.
  • Sift a 1/3 of the icing sugar over the mix and
    fold in with a metal spoon.
  • Repeat till all icing sugar is added, mixture
    should look like snow drift. (Hold the bowl over
    your head and the mixture should stay put).
  • Spoon on to baking sheet and cook.
  • Sponge cake
  • (fairy cakes- Victoria sponge, swiss roll)
  • 100g (4oz) margarine
  • 100g (4oz) Self rising flour
  • 100g (4oz) caster sugar
  • 2 eggs
  • Heat oven to 180c, 350F gas mark 4.
  • Cream margarine and sugar.
  • Beat egg.
  • Gradually add egg to mixture and mix well.
  • Gently fold in flour.
  • Mix until even.
  • Place in baking tray or cake cases.

Egg recipes
  • Vanilla Ice Cream (4-6servings)
  • Ingredients
  • 1 vanilla pod or reel vanilla extract
  • 1 1/4 pints (700ml) milk
  • 6 egg yolks
  • 10 oz (275g) caster sugar
  • a pinch of salt
  • Preparation Method for Vanilla Ice Cream
  • If using a vanilla pod, halve it lengthways and
    put it into a heavy saucepan with the milk.  Heat
    gently to near boiling point, then remove from
    the heat and set it aside for 30 minutes 
  • If using vanilla extract, no need to heat the
    milk.  Add vanilla extract to taste once the
    custard has cooled
  • Combine the egg yolks, sugar and salt in a bowl. 
    Whisk until the mixture is very pale and falls
    back leaving a trail when the beaters are
  • Strain the milk and gradually whisk it in. 
    Return the mixture to the pan and cook it over a
    very low heat, or in the top of a double boiler,
    string constantly until the custard is thick
    enough to coat the back of a wooden spoon.
  • Remove the custard from the heat and set it aside
    to cool, stirring it time to time to prevent a
    skin formation.  Vanilla extract should be added
    at this point nothing that the flavour will fade
    with freezing.
  • Freeze in a sorbetière following the
    manufacturer's instructions.  Or still-freeze
    (refer to home), vigorously whisking the
    partially frozen ice at least once during the
    freezing process.

Omelette Ingredients1 tsp olive oil2 large
eggs5g/¼oz fresh herbs, chopped e.g. chives and
flat-leaf parsleysalt and freshly ground black
pepper Method1. Heat the oil in a small
omelette/frying pan.2. In a small bowl, beat the
eggs then stir in the herbs and season.3. Pour
the egg mixture into the hot pan.4. Using a
fork, frequently drag the cooked egg mixture from
the edges of the pan into the centre of the pan
to ensure an evenly cook omelette.5. Once the
egg is completely set, turn out and serve.
Egg recipes
Boiled egg166 calories per portion Serves 2
Ingredients2 Large Lion Quality eggsWater for
boilingPinch of saltButtered toast cut into
soldiers to serve (optional) Method 1. Place egg
in a small pan. Cover with at least 2.5cm (1") of
cold water, add a pinch of salt and place the pan
on a high heat. 2. When the water is almost
boiling, gently stir the egg and set a kitchen
timer for one of the timings below3 minutes
for really soft boiled yolk and set white4
minutes for slightly set yolk and set white5
minutes for firmer yolk and white6 minutes for
hard boiled with lightly soft yolk7 minutes for
firmly hard boiled 3. Reduce heat slightly to
keep water bubbling but not fast boiling and stir
the egg once more. 4. Once cooking time is
complete, remove the egg from the pan with
slotted spoon, place into egg cup and serve
immediately with hot buttered toast
soldiers. Cooking Tip
Quiche Ingredients1 tsp olive oil2 large
eggs5g/¼oz fresh herbs, chopped e.g. chives and
flat-leaf parsleysalt and freshly ground black
pepper Method1. Heat the oil in a small
omelette/frying pan.2. In a small bowl, beat the
eggs then stir in the herbs and season.3. Pour
the egg mixture into the hot pan.4. Using a
fork, frequently drag the cooked egg mixture from
the edges of the pan into the centre of the pan
to ensure an evenly cook omelette.5. Once the
egg is completely set, turn out and serve.
A buffet is a meal laid out on a table or
sideboard so that guests may serve themselves.
High risk foods which include chicken, fish and
mayo should not be left as room temperature for
long as this can increase bacteria in the food.
Business regulations state that food should be
chilled at or below 8c.
Business regulations state food should be kept at
or above 63c
The temperature can not drop below 63c for more
than 2 hours
The server should know how long the food has been
standing, if in doubt dont eat it.
Rice, fish, chicken and other high risk food
should not be reheated.
A ban-Marie can be used to keep hot food hot
during a serving.
The temperature can not rise above 8c for more
than 4 hours.
Iced slabs can be used to keep the food cold
during a serving .
Should be kept in a fridge for as long as possible
High risk foods which include chicken, fish and
mayo should not be left as room temperature for
long as this can increase bacteria in the food.
Different cultures use buffets for celebrations
as well as a method of serving food. Pella is
served at Spanish festivals. Spit roast pork can
be served during summer solutes by many religious
groups. BBQ traditional in Australia and American
out door eating.
  • Buffet eating is an alternative to formal
  • Allowing people to pick and choose their own
  • Reduces the number of servers required for a
  • Allows party goes to mingle during selecting food

Cold buffet food
Jam tart
Fairy cakes
Prawn cocktail
Cream cakes
Stuffed eggs
Sausage on stick
Mayo dips
Fresh cream dips
Cheese and pineapples
Carrots and peppers
Pickled onions
Cold chicken legs
Fruit salad
Potato salad
Cold meats
Preserves and sauces
Liver pate
Stuffed Veg
Onion bhaji
Open sandwiches
Spring rolls
Scotch eggs
Stuffed peppers
Egg fried rice
Boiled rice
Egg noodles
Egg Foo yung
Peking duck
Hot buffet food
Honey ham
Roast meat
Tea smoked duck
Asian lamb hotpot
Apple pie
Spare ribs
King prawns
Beef curry
Stuffed Veg
Beef in black bean sauce
Hot sandwiches
Regulations for buffets
Any company serving a buffet should follow all
HACCP and food safety legislation.
Staff should have completed basic food hygiene
Food should be prepared in an hygienic
environment .
All cuts should be covered with blue plasters.
Hair should be tired up hats or hair nets
should be worn.
HOT at or above a minimum temperature of 63
Degrees C (having first meet a core temp of 70c
for at least 2 mins)
CHILLED at or below a maximum temperature of 8
Degrees C (ideally below 5c)
The danger zone for both hot and cold foods is
between 8c and 63c . At this temperature
bacteria is able to multiply
Correct chopping boards should be used for
different food types.
Clean aprons should be worn to prepare food.
Hands and work surfaces should be washed with
warm soapy water.
Food should be stored in the correct setting for
the food.
Staff should check best before dates and
regularly rotate stock to cut down on wastages.
All utensils used in preparing the food should be
Regulations for buffets
The Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2006 apply
to all types of food business - from a hot dog
van to a five star restaurant, from a village
hall, where food is prepared, to a vending
machine.  If you are a caterer or retailer, or if
you manufacture products which are not of animal
origin, you will need to follow this advice,
whether the food is sold publicly or privately,
for profit or for fund raising. The Regulations
do not apply to food cooked at home for private
  • All these areas should be temperature controlled
    to offer the safest food to dinners.
  • Preparation 
  • handling
  • processing
  • packaging
  • manufacturing
  • storage
  • transporting
  • selling
  • distribution
  • supplying
  • High risk foods
  • (food that are the most likely to cause food
    poisoning and or illness)
  • Dairy foods.
  • Foods containing milk / cream
  • Soft cheeses
  • Fresh ice cream
  • Cooked produce
  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Eggs
  • Poultry
  • Rice dishes, pulses
  • mayonnaise
  • Food exempt from the temperature control. These
    are food which offer no risk if left at room
    temperature for long periods of time. (normally
    stored at room temperature foods)
  • Crisps
  • Peanuts (and other nuts)
  • Dried fruits
  • Breads bread sticks
  • Pretzels
  • Bombay mix

Or any food with these ingredients in.
Dos and don'ts.
Do ask servers advice about the length of time
food has been standing.
Dont reheat high risk food
If in doubt dont eat it
Do dispose of food if it has been left out beyond
the recommend timing .
Dont eat food that has started to go dry around
the edges, this has been standing to long.
Store spare or additional food in suitable
temperature controlled storage units.
Dairy products may start to smell as they start
to curdle, if it smells wrong dont touch it.
Ask how the food was made.
Never take food from a buffet home to eat the
next day.
Ensure meats and vegetarian dishes are separated
to reduce cross- contamination.
Religion and food
Food is an important part of religious observance
and spiritual ritual for many faiths including
Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism and
Buddhism. The role of food in cultural practices
and religious beliefs is complex and varies among
individuals and communities. Any introduction to
such a diverse and complex topic will not be able
to include everything. Instead, here is a sample
of some ways in which various religious groups
include food as a vital part of their
faith.Understanding the role of food in
cultural and religious practice is an important
part of showing respect and responding to the
needs of people from a range of religious
communities. However, it is important to avoid
assumptions about a persons culture and beliefs.
If in doubt, ask.
Islam (Muslim) Halal foods Prohibited foods Haram Ramadan Pork and any food not slaughtered Halal style can not be eaten. Pork, alcohol, animal fats, margarines, Bread which contains yeast, caffeinated drinks, A fast which takes place around October time in which adults fast during day light hours (when the sun shines) and the fast is broken each night after prayers.
BuddhismThe dietary rules of Buddhism, which is more of a life philosophy than a religious doctrine, depend on which branch of Buddhism is practiced and in what country. In his multiple lives on Earth, Buddha cycled through various animal forms before attaining the form of a human being. Most Buddhists choose to become vegetarian to avoid killing animals. Similarly to the Hindu concept of Karma, Buddhism proposes that violence or pain inflicted on others will rebound on you, hence the need for a vegetarian lifestyle. Some Buddhists believe that a contributing cause of human aggression is violence against animals. Some Buddhists avoid meat and dairy products, while others only shun beef. This is affected by cultural, geographical and dietary influences. Religious dates vary from one region to the next. Mahayana Buddhism, for example, celebrates three festivals for the birth, enlightenment and death of Buddha, while Theravada Buddhists observe all three events on a single day. Buddhist monks tend to fast in the afternoon. Buddhist monks and nuns are not allowed to cultivate, store or cook their own food instead, they must rely on alms, which are donations from believers. This sometimes includes meats, as monks and nuns arent allowed to ask for specific foods.
Christianity Some Catholics and orthodox Christians. Observe feast and fast days during the year. Avoid meat on Fridays. Friday fish day
Christianity Holy communion (by most Christian groups) Eating bread and drinking wine
Christianity Seventh Day Adventists Avoid caffeine and dont eat meat or dairy
Christianity The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons). Avoid alcohol, caffeine and regally follow fasting days
Christianity Salvation Army Avoid alcohol
Hinduism Hindus believe in the interdependence of life. People who practice the Hindu religion dont eat meat from animals or any food that has involved the taking of life. They also avoid foods that may have caused pain to animals during manufacture. Karma is believed to be the spiritual load we accumulate or relieve ourselves of during our lifetime. If a Hindu consumes animal flesh, they accumulate the Karma of that act, which will then need to be balanced through good actions and learning in this life or the next. Many Hindus are vegetarian but this is not compulsory. In many cases beef is forbidden while pork is sometimes restricted or avoided. Prohibited animal products tend to vary from one country or region to the next. For example, duck and crab may be forbidden in one geographical location while fish may be part of the staple food for people living in other areas. Most Hindus do not eat beef or beef products, because the cow is held to be sacred. Dairy products including milk, butter and yoghurt may be eaten. Foodstuffs such as alcohol, onions and garlic are thought to inhibit the Hindus quest for spiritual enlightenment. They are therefore avoided or restricted. Fasting depends on the persons caste (or social standing) and on the occasion for example, rules regarding fasting depend on whether the day has religious or personal significance.
Judaism Kosher foods Orthodox Jews Kosher food must be slaughtered in a correct manor. Mother and child must not be served together- for example milk and beef. Separate cooking and preparation areas must be available in the kitchen areas- this inc. Sinks, plates and pre areas.
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