Interactions within Communities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Interactions within Communities PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 8253b1-YTQwY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Interactions within Communities

Description:

Interactions within Communities SBI4U Ecological Niches Community All populations in a given ecosystem at a specific time Types of niches Ecological niche The role of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:87
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 16
Provided by: CarloF153
Learn more at: http://www.manningsscience.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Interactions within Communities


1
Interactions within Communities
  • SBI4U

2
Ecological Niches
  • Community
  • All populations in a given ecosystem at a
    specific time
  • Types of niches
  • Ecological niche
  • The role of an organism within the biotic and
    abiotic factors of the environment
  • Fundamental niche
  • The theoretical role an organism can reach within
    the environment
  • Realized niche
  • The actual role an organism can achieve due to
    limiting factors in the environment

3
Types of Interactions
  • Interspecific Competition
  • Interactions between individuals of different
    species for common resources
  • Intraspecific Competition
  • Interactions between individuals of the same
    species for common resources

4
Coevolution
  • Process in which one species evolves in response
    to the evolution of another species.
  • Eg. Hummingbird beaks that have adapted evolved
    over time to have the shape of the plant/flower
    the pollinate.

5
Types of Interactions
  • Types of interactions
  • Competition
  • Interactions that may be harmful to both species
  • Predation/Herbivory
  • Beneficial to one species, loss of life for the
    other
  • Symbiosis
  • Parasitism
  • Beneficial to one species, harmful but not lethal
    for the other
  • Mutualism
  • Beneficial to both species
  • Commensalism
  • Beneficial to one species but does not affect the
    other

6
Competition
  • Interference competition
  • Different species aggressively fighting over
    resources
  • Exploitative competition
  • One species out consuming the other for resources
  • Resource partitioning
  • Avoidance of competition by occupying different
    ecological niches

7
Predation
  • A predator-prey relationship is when one species
    feeds on another and the relationship can affect
    the population of both species
  • Some species have developed defense mechanisms
  • Camouflage, chemical defence, behavioural
    defense, mimicry, spines armour.
  • E.g. horns, hooks, spines, needles, as well as
    chemical defences, also hiding and camouflage

8
Symbiosis
  • Mutualism
  • Obligatory mutualism is when both species need
    each other for survival
  • Commensalism
  • A relationship where one species benefits and the
    other neither benefits or is harmed
  • Parasitism
  • Microparasites
  • Microscopic parasites (plasmodium)
  • Macroparasites
  • Larger parasites (tapeworm)
  • Endoparasites
  • Parasites that feed inside the body
  • Ectoparasites
  • Parasites that feed outside the body
  • Social parasites
  • Parasites that manipulate other organisms to
    complete their life cycle (cowbird)

9
How are these species influencing each other?
Tomato hornworm covered with braconid wasp pupae.
10
How are these species influencing each other?
Egyptian plovers taking insects off rhino back.
11
How are these species influencing each other?
Lion defending its kill from the hyena
12
How are these species influencing each other?
13
Interspecific Interactions
SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES B SPECIES B
SPECIES A Positive () Neutral (0) Negative(-)
Positive () MUTUALISM -cowbirds cows
Neutral (0) COMMENSALISM -barnacles on whales NEUTRALISM - probably non-existent
Negative (-) PREDATION or PARASITISM - only the predator or the parasite benefit AMENSALISM - bread mould produces penicillin that kills bacteria COMPETITION - both species have decreased fitness
14
Disruption of Equilibrium
  • Things tend to stay as they are
  • Natural disasters and the introduction of
    invading species
  • Purple loosestrife
  • Rabbits in Australia
  • Ecological disturbances that that change the
    equilibrium

15
Credits
  • http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileEdge-of-a-w
    ood.JPG
  • http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileCulexNil.jp
    g
  • http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileWater_Buffa
    lo_fight.jpg
  • http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileWolves_and_
    bones.jpg
  • http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileCommon_clow
    nfish_curves_dnsmpl.jpg
  • http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileJenga.gif
  • http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileHomework_-_
    vector_maths.jpg
  • http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileRed-billed_
    oxpeckers.jpg
  • http//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/FileHummingbird
    _Texas.jpg
About PowerShow.com