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V. Age of Revolution


Title: Slide 1 Author: Joseph Tenbusch Last modified by: Joseph Tenbusch Created Date: 2/10/2006 4:19:28 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: V. Age of Revolution

V. Age of Revolution
  • I. Renaissance
  • II. Reformation
  • III. Scientific Revolution
  • IV. Enlightenment
  • V. Age of Revolution
  • VI. Industrial Revolution
  • VII. Penetration of Africa and India
  • VIII. World Wars
  • IX. Cold War
  • X. Modern World

Change Over Time
  • Explain the development and change in the current
    of thought in the Western World from 1450-1800.
  • Have intro with ORIGINAL THESIS!!!

  • Compare and contrast how revolutions in one
    country incited revolutions elsewhere.
  • Choose three countries
  • France
  • Haiti
  • Brazil
  • Mexico
  • Spanish South America

Causes of American Revolution
  1. Enlightenment philosophy
  2. Frustrations over Mercantile policies of England
  3. Taxation without Representation

Colonial America
  • 17th century Britain colonizes east coast of N.
  • 1756-1763 French-Indian War/7 Years War
  • Problems
  • 1) cost of war
  • 2) cost of administering colonies
  • 3) war with Native Americans
  • Britain passes series of tax and mercantile laws

No taxation without representation
  • Proclamation Act of 1763 colonists could not
    travel west past Appalachian Mountains
  • Sugar and Currency Acts of 1764
  • Stamp Act of 1765
  • Townsend Duties in 1767
  • Tea Act of 1773
  • Boston Massacre1770
  • Boston Tea Party 1772
  • Intolerable Acts
  • Thomas Paine
  • Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence

American Revolution
  • Paul Revere/Minutemen/Lexington
  • Guerilla tactics
  • Second Continental Congress organized army with
    G. Washington
  • 1777 Saratoga France commits ships, soldiers,
    weapons, and money
  • 1781Yorktown
  • 1783 Independence recognized
  • Articles of Confederation
  • 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
  • 1791 Bill of Rights

  • British Empire in America
  • Most colonies had British governors appointed by
  • Each American colony had a representative
  • British Parliament passed laws for the colonies
  • Navigation Acts in 1600s passed to protect GB
  • Sugar Act of 1764
  • increased cost of foreign molasses and endangered
    colonial exports
  • lower New England profitable trade with French
    and Spanish Caribbean sugar colonies 
  • Currency Act of 1764
  • Outlawed colonial practice of issuing paper money
  • This caused restricted trade and limited money
  • This lead to widespread anger
  • Which caused organized boycotts of British goods
  • Stamp Act of 1765
  • Imposed a direct tax to be paid on all legal
    documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and nearly all
    other types of printed material

  • 1765 NY protest
  • Women organized boycott
  • Sons of Liberty held public meetings,
    intimidated royal officials, and enforced the
  • violent protest
  • trade boycott
  • repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766
  • Colonial Power play Great Britain
  • Created new taxes and duties, gave more power to
    colonial governors, and sent British troops to
    quell urban riots
  • New England
  • New boycotts
  • -cut British imports by 2/3
  • Destroyed property
  • Bullied or attacked royal officials (tar and
  • Great Britain
  • Dissolved the colonial legislature of
  • Dispatched a warship and 2 regiments of soldiers
    on British streets
  • Boston Tea Pary
  • March 5, 1770 British troops fired into an angry
    British crowd and killed 5 people
  • This massacre of innocent Americans radicalized
    public opinion

Articles of Confederation
Basic Ideals and Structures of the Articles of Confederation Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Loose Association of States States quarreled over such things as boundary lines and trade. The government had no power to end such disputes.
Limited central government powers Congress would not regulate trade and could not issue an official currency
One vote per state in Congress Vote of 9 out of 13 states needed for important measures. Change required unanimous vote of states
No taxation powers for Congress Congress could not collect taxes to pay the nations debts or for necessary programs
No national executive branch No national executive to enforce laws
No national judicial branches No national courts to interpret laws or to judge those who broke them
Bill of Rights
Amendment I Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly,
Petition (1791) Amendment II Right to Bear
Arms (1791) Amendment III Quartering of Troops
(1791) Amendment IV Search and Seizure (1791)
Amendment V Grand Jury, Double Jeopardy,
Self-Incrimination, Due Process (1791)
Amendment VI Criminal Prosecutions - Jury
Trial, Right to Confront and to Counsel (1791)
Amendment VII Common Law Suits - Jury Trial
(1791) Amendment VIII Excess Bail or Fines,
Cruel and Unusual Punishment (1791) Amendment
IX Non-Enumerated Rights (1791) Amendment X
Rights Reserved to States (1791)
Amendment XI Suits Against a State (1795)
Amendment XII Election of President and
Vice-President (1804) Amendment XIII Abolition
of Slavery (1865) Amendment XIV Privileges and
Immunities, Due Process, Equal Protection,
Apportionment of Representatives, Civil War
Disqualification and Debt (1868) Amendment XV
Rights Not to Be Denied on Account of Race
(1870) Amendment XVI Income Tax (1913)
Amendment XVII Election of Senators (1913)
Amendment XVIII Prohibition (1919) Amendment
XIX Women's Right to Vote (1920) Amendment XX
Presidential Term and Succession (1933)
Amendment XXI Repeal of Prohibition (1933)
Amendment XXII Two Term Limit on President
(1951) Amendment XXIII Presidential Vote in
D.C. (1961) Amendment XXIV Poll Tax (1964)
Amendment XXV Presidential Succession (1967)
Amendment XXVI Right to Vote at Age 18 (1971)
Amendment XXVII Compensation of Members of
Congress (1992)
The French Revolution
(No Transcript)
French Society
First Estate Clergy Clergy 130,000 Owned 10 of land Gained wealth trough tithes and ecclesiastical fees
Second Estate Nobles high administrative, judicial, military, and church positions Important participants in wholesale trade, banking , manufacturing, and mining
Third Estate 95 of population Everyone else wealthy financier homeless beggar. Bourgeoisie (boor-swah-ZEE) middle class Gained wealth from commerce and manufacturing. Owned 1/3 of the nations land 80 of French population were peasants. Artisans and other skilled workers, small shopkeepers and peddlers, and small land owners held a more privileged position in society.
Problems before Revolution
  • War Debt
  • War of the Austrian Succession
  • 7 years war
  • American Revolution
  • Droughts in French harvests
  • Poor become poorer (1760 25,000 prostitutes
    40,000 orphans yearly)
  • Extravagant court of King Louis XV

Revolution begins
  • Louis XVI calls Estates General (all 3 estates)
  • June 17, 1789 3rd estate forms National Assembly
  • Tennis Court Oath
  • July 14, 1789 peasants storm the Bastille
  • Great Fear
  • NA abolish feudal and estate system
  • August 1789 The Declaration of the Rights of
  • October 1789 March to Versailles

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the
  • Inspired be Declaration of Independence (17??)
  • Manifested enlightenment ideas (Locke,
    Montesquieu, Rousseau, Jefferson)
  • Popular sovereignty and Representative government
  • Equality, Fraternity, Liberty
  • Freedom of speech, press, and religion
  • Equal protection before the law
  • Did not grant equal rights to women

Starving Women Gone Wild
  • Poor French harvest 1/3 unemployment in Paris
    high cost of bread.
  • Parisian market women organized thousands of
    people to march 12 miles to Versailles
  • Demanded action from NA
  • Arrived and demanded bread Let them eat cake.
  • Took bread and flour forced royal family to go
    to Paris aristocrats heads on pikes

Pg. 570 Hell hath no fury like a woman
1791 New Constitution (1)
  • Kept Monarchy, but created unicameral legislation
    Legislative Assembly
  • Seized church lands priests to take loyalty
    oaths gtgtgt counterrevolutionary movements
  • Neither side content
  • Austria and Prussia invade France patriotic
    French army prevails by end of 1792
  • King and queen fail in escape to Austria
  • August 1792 LA imprisons king call for National
    Convention by popular election

National Convention New Constitution (2)
  • National Convention becomes ruling body
  • Monarchy abolished France declared a Republic
  • 1793 NC convicts Louis XVI of treason

Committee of Public Safety (New Constitution 3)
  • Foreign threat (Austria, Prussia, Great Britain,
    and Spain) and internal chaos
  • Committee of Public Safety
  • Jacobins
  • French victory at Valmy saves Paris and
  • sans-culottes
  • Maximillian Robespierre
  • 1793-94 Reign of Terror 40,000 under
    guillotine 30,000 jailed
  • Radical, or just plain silly, ideas
  • If you live by the guillotine1794 guillotine
    splits Robespierre and CPS

The Directory (New Constitution 4)
  • 1795 Directory 5 man executive government
  • Protected land ownership
  • Weakened power of masses
  • Weak domestic policy
  • Age of republic dead
  • Strong military
  • Napoleon Bonaparte general by age 24

Napoleon (New Constitution 5)
  • 1799 Napoleon returns to France and overthrows
  • Popular authoritarianism
  • Declares himself First Consul with new
  • France dominated Europe
  • 1804 declares himself Emperor

(No Transcript)
Napoleons Europe
  • Domestic policy
  • reforms in agriculture, infrastructure, public
  • Normalized relations with Church
  • Restored tolerance and stability
  • Napoleonic Codes (1804) recognized equality of
    French citizens (male) protected property
    rights instituted some enlightenment ideas and
    human rights rule of law
  • Civil liberties limited
  • Foreign policy
  • Conquered Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal,
    kingdoms of Italy
  • Dissolved HRE into confederacy of German states
  • 1810 empire at peak
  • Conflicts with GB
  • Nationalistic uprisings
  • 1812 attacked Russia
  • Mistake
  • Army decimated
  • 1814 Napoleon forced into exile on Elba
  • Monarchy restored
  • Napoleon returns from exile

The Congress of Vienna
  • Prince von Metternich of Austria
  • Alexander I of Russia
  • Duke of Wellington of Britain
  • 1815 decrees balance of power among existing
  • France cut to pre-Napoleonic borders no
  • New kingdoms in Poland and Netherlands
  • Reinstate absolute monarchs in France, Spain,
    Holland, Italian city-states
  • Restore royal order and erase ideals of French
    Revolution and Napoleon

Ebb and Flow of Chaos
  • Return of conservative monarchies
  • Still movements for democracies and national
  • 1821 Greek against Ottoman control (1830
    recognized with RS, FR GB help)
  • 1830 King Charles X abdicates French throne
    enfranchisement extended
  • Revolutions of 1848 Second French Republic
    voting rights for men, slavery abolished, end of
    death penalty, and 10-hour workday elected Louis
    Napoleon (nephew) who becomes dictator and
    Emperor Napoleon III until 1871.
  • Other revolutions Vienna, Rome, and Berlin all
    failed in the end

  • Fiscal Crisis
  • Poor were growing rapidly
  • Led many to crime and beggary
  • Streets swarmed with beggars prostitutes
  • - 25,000 prostitutes in 1760
  • - 40,000 children abandoned yearly by parents
  • Periodic outburst of violent protest because of
    increase of fees and dues and lack of
  • - descent housing
  • - steady employment
  • - food
  • Tax Raising Problems
  • Estates General in order to raise taxes
  • 1788-1789 Three Estates come together.
  • 3rd Estate wanted delegates to have individual
  • Third Estate breaks away from the Estates General
    and becomes known as National Assembly.
  • National Assembly took Tennis Court Oath
  • Great Fear
  • Wave of violence that spread throughout France
    after fall of the Bastille
  • Fearful Nobles of the National Assembly passed
    reforms to destroy feudalism
  • -abolition of feudal dues and tithes
  • -tax the nobility
  • -open the government, army and church office to
    all male citizens
  • National Assembly also passed the Declaration of
    the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
  • End of Old Order
  • August 4, 1789, nobles in NA vote to end
    feudalism in France (no more dues)
  • Nobles began to pay tax
  • All male citizens could hold government, army or
    church office
  • Estate system over

  • National Convention
  • August 1792, radicals kill imprisoned nobles and
    clergy in the September Massacre
  • Radicals take over the Assembly and calls for
    National Convention to create new constitution
  • French victory at Valmy saves Paris and
  • NC convicts Louis XVI of conspiracy
  • Left, Moderate, Right
  • Jacobins middle class members of the National
    Convention who were extreme radicals The
  • Girondists members of the NC who wanted to
    protect the middle class moderates
  • Conservatives wanted to keep things as they were
  • Reactionaries wanted to return things to how
    they use to be
  • Sans-culottes
  • Ordinary citizens for whom the revolution was
    being fought
  • Wore pants
  • Saw themselves as heroes and heroines of the
  • Supported by the Jacobins
  • Reign of Terror July 1793-1794
  • Jacobins set out to crush opposition in France
    during a period called the Reign of Terror
  • Maximilien Robespierre
  • Swift trials an harsh punishments (many false
  • 40,000 people killed from Marie Antoinette to
    commoners (85)
  • 30,000 imprisioned
  • Guillotine

  • The Directory
  • Robespierre sends other Jacobin leaders to the
  • Robespierre, in turn, sent to the Guillotine
  • The Directory is formed
  • New constitution only those who owned property
    could vote
  • Executive council of 5 members
  • 1975-99 used army to put down protests
  • Absolutely inept people wanted new government
  • 1799, Napoleon stages coup detat against the
    Directory in Paris
  • New constitution with 3 consuls for executive
  • 1802, named himself consul for life
  • 1804, named himself Emperor of France
  • Napoleon rewrote the French law with The Civil
    Code 1804 (Napoleonic Code)
  • Napoleonic Code
  • Equality of citizen before the law
  • Religious toleration
  • Advancement based on merit
  • Protection of property
  • Placed the rights of the state above the rights
    of the individual (Restricted rights of free
    speech and press through censorship)
  • Discrimination worsened against women
  • Napoleons System Depended on French Arms and
  • Defeated Austria, Italy, and Prussia
  • Napoleon failed to defeat Britain in 1805 at
    Battle of Trafalgar
  • By 1812
  • -Napoleon is king of Italy
  • -brother Joseph is king of Spain
  • -brother Louis is king of Holland
  • Nationalism emerges in countries that are paying
    taxes and sending soldiers to France
  • Also, in 1812 600,000 soldiers to Russia Two
  • Russia scorched earth, then Russian winter with
    no shelter
  • France retreats, Russia attacks, 400,000 of
    French army die

  • Napoleons Next Objective, Russia
  • June 1812, the campaign starts with 600,000 men
  • Inconclusive battle at Borodino
  • Napoleon press on Moscow
  • Russians set city on fire brutal winter
    destroyed army (30,00 men return)
  • Austria and Prussia ally with Great Britain and
  • Napoleons Downfall
  • April 1814, he is exiled to Elba island
  • French Monarchy is restored
  • 1815 - Napoleon escapes for Elba
  • Goes back to France
  • After 100 days in Power he is defeated in
    Waterloo in Belgium
  • Final exile on St. Helena, South Atlantic where
    he died 1821

Haitian Revolution
  • I. Hispaniola with brutal slave regimes Saint
    Domingue (1/2 French) and Santo Domingo (1/2
  • II. French Revolution
  • A. 1789 Estates General called
  • 1. wealthy white planters
  • 2. gens de coleur
  • 3. Colonial authority weakened
  • B. 1791 Reaction on the island
  • 1. warfare between free whites and blacks
  • 2. Slave rebellions from North of island
  • III. War for Independence
  • A. Toussaint LOuverture
  • B. 1794 French National Convention abolishes
  • C. 1798 Defeat of British and freed slaves in
    Santo Domingo
  • D. 1802 Defeat troops of Napoleon
  • 1. women fighting
  • 2. Toussaint LOuverture died in French jail
  • E. free Republic of Haiti (2nd independent
    nation in Western hemisphere)

Patriots v. Loyalists (Royalists)
Long Live Pedro!!!
Independence of Brazil
  • 1807 Napoleon invades Portugal
  • 1808 Royal family of Portugal flees to Brazil
  • 1821 King John VI returns to Portugal son Pedro
    stays and joins side for independence
  • 1822 Pedro declares Brazil independent
    Constitutional monarchy with Emperor Pedro
  • 1889 Monarchy overthrown by republicans

Spanish South America
  • 1808 Napoleon invades Spain places brother
    Joseph Bonaparte on throne
  • -Junta Central Spanish patriots fighting
    against Napoleon claim power over Spanish
  • 1808-1809 Local juntas in Spanish colonies
    overthrow colonial officials in Venezuela,
    Mexico, and Bolivia
  • -Draconian repression by Spanish officials
    galvanizes sense of independence from Spain
  • 1810 new independent revolutions

Politics make strange bedfellows
  • Creoles from Caracas
  • (Venezuela)
  • Revolutionary junta of large landowners
  • 1. popular sovereignty
  • 2. representative democracy
  • 3.retain slavery
  • Opposed full citizenship of blacks and mix-ed
    race majority
  • Defense of the Spanish Empire
  • Loyalists in colonial administration
  • Church hierarchy
  • Free blacks
  • Slaves

Spanish South American Independence
  • Simon Bolivar (1783-1830)
  • 1813-1817 balanced war between patriots and
  • 1820 Patriots take control
  • Bolivars army controls Venezuela, Columbia,
    Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
  • By 1824 last Spanish armies defeated

  • I. Mexico
  • A. Spains richest and most populous colony
  • B. Class conflict Spanish, creole, native
  • II. War for Independence
  • A. Central Mexico wealthy ranchers and farmers
    force Amerindians from native land
  • B. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
  • 1. Parish priest from Dolores
  • 2. Rang church bells and delivered fiery
    speeches to rebel against Spanish officials
  • 3. Rural and urban poor united by oppression
    fought poor military discipline without weapons
  • 4. 1811 wealthy Mexicans captured and executed
    Hidalgo another parish priest, Jose Morelos,
    takes up mission
  • C. Colonel Augustin de Iturbide
  • 1. Forms alliance with insurgesnts and some
  • 2. 1821 declares Mexicos independence
  • 3. Conservative origin monarchical government
    Iturbide crowned emperor
  • D. Mexican republic
  • -army overthrows Iturbide republic established
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