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The Scientific Method

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Observations are made with our sense and instruments Qualitative Data or ... Example of the Scientific Method Example of the Scientific Method: Problem: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Scientific Method


1
Science
The study of the universe and its natural laws.
2
Biology
The study of life.
3
The Scientific Method
  • An organized way to solve a problem

4
Steps of the Scientific Method
  • State the problem
  • Formulate a question that needs to be answered
  • 2. Propose a hypothesis
  • A hypothesis is an educated guess about what the
    solution to the problem is.

5
  • 3. Test the hypothesis.
  • Through experimentation. All experiments should
    contain a variable or a condition which can be
    changed.
  • Experiments also include a control in
    which no change is made. The control serves as
    the reference.

6
Independent Dependent Variables
  • Independent/Manipulative Variable controlled by
    the experimenter the part of experiment you are
    testing.
  • Dependent/Responding Variable The thing that
    you measure in the experiment, gives you data.
    (Ex. Height of plant)
  • Conventionally the independent variable is
    plotted on the horizontal axis (also known as the
    x-axis) and the dependent variable on the
    vertical axis (or the y-axis)

7
  • 4. Observations and data.
  • The results of the experiment are recorded as
    data. Observations are made with our sense and
    instruments
  • Qualitative Data or Observations qualities
    information that can't actually be
    measured. Color, odor, taste
  • Quantitative Data information about quantities
    information that can be measured and written
    down with numbers. Height, density, length, mass,
    volume. Numbers and measurements

8
  • 5. Analysis Conclusions
  • The data from the experiment needs to be looked
    at and analyzed. After this is done, a
    conclusion or answer to the problem.
  • 6. Report Repeat
  • Conclusions must be reported so that other
    scientists can repeat the experiments

9
Laws Theories
A hypothesis has been put through the steps over
and over again, it may become scientific theory
(ex. Theory of Evolution, Theory of Relativity)
A scientific law is a theory that has been proved
so thoroughly over a long period of time that it
is considered a fact or truth (ex. Law of Gravity)
10
Example of the Scientific Method
  • Example of the Scientific Method
  • Problem Does the green plant need sunlight to
    survive?
  • Hypothesis A green plant will wilt and die if
    kept in the dark.
  • Test of hypothesis (experiment) Take two plants
    of the same type, size and in the same soil.
  • place one in sunlight (the control)
  • place the other in complete darkness (variable)
  • water each plant at the same time every day with
    the same water
  • Make Observations Record in writing the
    differences you observe between the two
    plants.
  • Conclusion Analyze the observations and draw
    your conclusions.
  • Repeat the Experiment Do another experiment to
    assure the same results.
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