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Digestive Systems

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Title: The Ruminant Digestive System Author: Department of Education Last modified by: Raegan Harris Created Date: 8/30/2001 1:27:00 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Digestive Systems


1
Digestive Systems
2
Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resource Standards
Addressed
  • AS.03.01. Analyze the nutritional needs of
    animals.
  • AS.03.01.01.a. Identify and summarize essential
    nutrients required for animal health and analyze
    each nutrients role in growth and performance.
  • AS.03.02 Analyze feed rations and assess if they
    meet the nutritional needs of animals.
  • AS.03.02.01.c. Select appropriate feedstuffs for
    animals based on a variety of factors (e.g.,
    economics, digestive system and nutritional
    needs, etc.)

3
The Ruminant Digestive System
Small intestine
Rectum
Rumen
Cecum
Esophagus
Reticulum
Omasum
Colon
Abomasum
4
The Non-Ruminant Digestive System
Rectum
Colon
Stomach
Esophagus
Small intestine
Cecum
5
The Cecal Fermenter Digestive System
Rectum
Small intestine
Esophagus
Stomach
Cecum
Colon
6
The Digestive Process
  • Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth where
    food is chewed and broken down into smaller
    pieces

Peristalsis a muscular contraction that causes
food to move through the digestive tract
  • Chemical digestion enzymes and acids reduce
    food particle size and change particles into
    forms that can be used by the animal

Absorption nutrients are absorbed into the
blood stream through the intestinal villi
Metabolism nutrients are removed from the
bloodstream and used by the body organs for
things like bone and hair growth, maintaining
body temperature, etc.
7
Major Nutrients Functions
  • Protein- Development and repair of body organs
    and tissues. Production of wool, milk, eggs.
    Fetal development. Production of hormones and
    enzymes. Antibody development. Transmission of
    DNA.
  • Carbohydrates- Support bodily functions such as
    breathing, digestion, and exercise. Help
    maintain body temperature. Store fat.
  • Lipids- Enhance palatability and caloric value of
    feed. Provide energy. Provide fatty acids for
    healthy skin and coat. Aid in absorption of fat
    soluble vitamins. Help maintain body
    temperature. Provide essential materials for
    hormone secretion.

8
Major Nutrients Functions cont.
  • Water- Support biochemical reactions
    (respiration, digestion, conversion of food to
    absorbable components). Transport of nutrients.
    Help maintain body temperature. Helps give the
    body its form. Carries waste form the body.
  • Vitamins- Regulate digestion, absorption,
    metabolism, gland activity, and cell formation.
    Necessary for normal vision. Fights diseases.
    Develop a healthy nervous system.
  • Minerals- Furnish structural material for teeth
    and bones. Aid in building body tissue,
    digestion, muscle activity, and transmission of
    messages through the nervous system. Part of
    hormones.

9
Marketing Concepts
  • Nutritional value markets food based on
    specific nutritional content of the food.
  • All purpose based on the concept that one food
    is adequate for all stages of the pets life.
  • Price uses low price concept or more for
    your money. Price can be very misleading.
  • Palatability markets based on how the food
    tastes to the pet

10
Cost per Feeding Analysis
  •       Determines cost per day and per year
  •       Compares pet foods for economical value
    (which one gives you more for your money)
  • The most economical pet food may be the more
    expensive one!

11
What is Dry Matter
  • Dry matter nutrient content of a food after all
    water has been removed
  • When comparing a wet food to a dry food is
    necessary to first determine the dry matter
    content. This gives a more accurate nutritional
    comparison.
  • Dry matter 100 - moisture
  • I.e. A canned food with 70 moisture has 30 dry
    matter
  • 100 - 70 30 dry matter

12
Calculating MER Maintenance Energy Requirements
  • MER Maintenance Energy Requirements
  • MER is the amount of energy needed by an animal
    to keep it in good health. It varies with age,
    activity level, production, reproduction, and
    environmental conditions.
  • MER is measured in kilocalories per day
    (Kcal/day)
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