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India

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India What have we learned from the artifacts left behind by the people of the Indus River Valley? How were the cities of t his time so advanced? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: India


1
India
  • What have we learned from the artifacts left
    behind by the people of the Indus River Valley?
  • How were the cities of t his time so advanced?

2
Indus River Valley
  • Farming began here around 4000 B.C.
  • By 3000 B.C. farmers learned to irrigate their
    fields.
  • By 2,500 B.C. two major cities of Harappa and
    Mohenjo Daro were established.
  • Farmers here grew
  • dates, melons, wheat, barley, rice and cotton.
  • These farmers were the 1st in the world to
    harvest cotton!

3
Two Major Cities
  • Harappa and Mojenjo-Daro were the two major
    cities in the Indus River Civilization
  • They each had populations of more than 40,000
    people.
  • Buildings faced paved streets and formed rows of
    square blocks making a grid.
  • Houses have indoor plumbing and are connected to
    underground sewers.
  • In the center of each city was a citadel. A
    citadel is a walled in area, like a fortress
    where people went for protection.

4
Indus River Valley
  • The Indus River Valley became a civilization
    because it had a system of writing, religious
    beliefs, architecture, etc.
  • Due to a monsoon, flood, or earthquake, the
    Harappan civilization vanished sometime around
    1700b.c.

5
The Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro
6
The Aryans
  • A new group of people migrated to the Indus
    Valley in 1500 B.C. called Aryans or noble
    ones.
  • They spoke Sanskrit which was a language only
    used by their people.
  • Aryans brought new technology by riding chariots
    and developed villages and towns where they
    farmed and traded.
  • The Aryans left behind jewelry, pottery, ruins of
    buildings and their language of Sanskrit.

7
Aryan Migration
8
The Aryan Chariot and the Vedas
9
Aryan Culture Spreads
  • The Aryans formed groups that were headed by a
    rajah a priest leader.
  • They had a class system similar to the Egyptians.
    The brahmins (priests or teachers) were the
    highest, warriors/kings/rulers were next, and at
    the bottom were the sudras(slaves).
  • The Aryan culture spread east to the Ganges River
    and included sixteen states.

10
Brahmins
11
The Aryans Arrive
  • The chariot was a new piece of technology brought
    to India by the Aryans.
  • The Aryans left behind the Vedas or Book of
    Knowledge. The book contained stories about
    wars with humans and gods. (Similar to the
    Bible.)

12
The Persian Empire
  • Cyrus II was said to be the founder of the
    Persian Empire.
  • King Darius I followed his lead and brought the
    Persian Empire to India.
  • The development of roads and trade by the
    Persians connected India with other lands in
    Central Asia.
  • India was no longer cut off by its mountains.

13
The Persian Empire
14
The First Indian Empire
  1. Chandragupta Maurya started the first Indian
    empire known as the Mauryan empire.
  2. The Mauryan Empire had an organized government,
    civil service workers and a powerful army.
  3. Ashoka used rock markers to explain policies of
    tolerance and nonviolence.
  4. After Ashokas death, the empire began to fall
    apart.

15
Ashokas Stone Tablets
16
Arts and Sciences
  • During the Gupta Period, achievements were made
    in science and mathematics.
  • - They developed a number system of nine
    digits, a zero, and a decimal.
  • Advancements were made in literature, poetry, art
    and education.
  • Economy began to flourish as well as trade.

17
A Statue Portraying Gupta Music
18
What was left behind?
  • Archaeologists found hundreds of decorated bowls
    and vases. Jewelry, cloth, razors, mirrors and
    fishhooks were popular items of trade.
  • Stone seals were also discovered showing drawing
    of animals and a form of writing.

19
Time to Review
  • What is a citadel?
  • What was so unique about Mojenjo-Daro and
    Harappa?
  • What were some artifacts left behind of the Indus
    Valley people?
  • What are some similarities and differences
    between Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus River
    Valley?
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