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Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Observing the Universe Lesson 2 Early History of Space Exploration Lesson 3 Recent and Future Space Missions Chapter Wrap-Up – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter%20Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Observing the
Universe Lesson 2 Early History of Space
Exploration Lesson 3 Recent and Future Space
Missions Chapter Wrap-Up
NASA/Ames Wendy Stenzel
2
Chapter Introduction
  • How do humans observe and explore space?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Astronomers put telescopes in space to be
    closer to the stars.
  • 2. Telescopes can work only using visible light.
  • 3. Humans have walked on the Moon.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 4. Some orthodontic braces were developed using
    space technology.
  • 5. Humans have landed on Mars.
  • 6. Scientists have detected water on other bodies
    in the solar system.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Observing the Universe
  • How do scientists use the electromagnetic
    spectrum to study the universe?
  • What types of telescopes and technology are used
    to explore space?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Observing the Universe
  • electromagnetic spectrum
  • refracting telescope
  • reflecting telescope
  • radio telescope

8
Lesson 1-1
Observing the Sky
  • Telescopes enable astronomers to observe many
    more stars than they could with their eyes alone.

telescope from Greek tele, means far and Greek
skopos, means seeing
9
Lesson 1-1
Observing the Sky (cont.)
  • Astronomers use many kinds of telescopes to study
    the light energy emitted by stars and other
    objects in space.

Michael Matisse/Getty Images
10
Lesson 1-2
Electromagnetic Waves
  • Stars radiate energy into space. This energy
    travels as electromagnetic waves.
  • The entire range of radiant energy carried by
    electromagnetic waves is the electromagnetic
    spectrum.

11
Lesson 1-2
  • Most wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum
    are not visible to the human eye.

12
Lesson 1-2
Electromagnetic Waves (cont.)
  • The type of radiant energy a star emits depends
    on the stars temperature.
  • Some stars are so far away that it takes billions
    of years for their radiant energy to reach Earth.

13
Lesson 1-3
Earth-Based Telescopes
  • Optical telescopes gather visible light.
  • Refracting telescopes and reflecting telescopes
    are the two types of optical telescopes.

14
Lesson 1-3
  • A telescope that uses a convex lens to
    concentrate light from a distant object is a
    refracting telescope.

15
Lesson 1-3
Earth-Based Telescopes (cont.)
Which electromagnetic waves do refracting
telescopes collect?
16
Lesson 1-3
  • A telescope that uses a curved mirror to
    concentrate light from a distant object is a
    reflecting telescope.

17
Lesson 1-3
Earth-Based Telescopes (cont.)
  • Radio telescopes collect invisible radio waves
    and some microwaves. They look like TV satellite
    dishes.

Steve Allen/Brand X Pictures
18
Lesson 1-4
  • Telescopes in space collect energy of all
    wavelengths, including those absorbed by Earths
    atmosphere.

19
Lesson 1-4
Space Telescopes
Why do astronomers put some telescopes in space?
20
Lesson 1-4
Space Telescopes (cont.)
  • The first optical space telescope, the Hubble
    Space Telescope, is a reflecting telescope that
    orbits Earth.

CORBIS
21
Lesson 1-4
  • Scheduled for launch in 2014, the Webb telescope
    will help astronomers study the origin of the
    universe.

22
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Reflecting telescopes use mirrors to concentrate
    light.

23
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Earth-based telescopes can collect energy in the
    visible, radio, and microwave parts of the
    electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Space-based telescopes can collect wavelengths
    of energy that cannot penetrate Earths
    atmosphere.

24
Lesson 1 LR1
What determines the types of electromagnetic
waves that a star emits?
A. age of the star B. distance of the star from
Earth C. size of the star D. temperature of the
star
25
Lesson 1 LR2
Which of these is NOT an optical telescope?
A. radio telescope B. reflecting telescope
C. refracting telescope D. the Hubble Space
Telescope
26
Lesson 1 LR3
Which phrase refers to any telescope that uses a
curved mirror to concentrate light from a
distant object?
A. radio telescope B. reflecting telescope
C. refracting telescope D. space telescope
27
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Astronomers put telescopes in space to be
    closer to the stars.
  • 2. Telescopes can work only using visible light.

28
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Early History of Space Exploration
  • How are rockets and artificial satellites used?
  • Why do scientists send both crewed and uncrewed
    missions into space?
  • What are some ways that people use space
    technology to improve life on Earth?

29
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Early History of Space Exploration
  • rocket
  • satellite
  • space probe
  • lunar
  • Project Apollo
  • space shuttle

30
Lesson 2-1
Rockets
  • A rocket is a vehicle designed to propel itself
    by ejecting exhaust gas from one end.
  • Rocket engines carry oxygen with them and can
    operate in space where there is very little
    oxygen.

31
Lesson 2-1
Rockets (cont.)
How are rockets used in space exploration?
32
Lesson 2-2
Artificial Satellites
  • Any small object that orbits a larger object is a
    satellite.

satellite from Latin satellitem, means
attendant or bodyguard
33
Lesson 2-2
Artificial Satellites (cont.)
  • Rockets place satellites into orbit around Earth
    or other objects in space.
  • Satellites send information back to Earth.

CORBIS
34
Lesson 2-2
Artificial Satellites (cont.)
  • Today, Earth-orbiting satellites are used to
    transmit television and telephone signals and to
    monitor weather and climate.
  • An array of satellites called the Global
    Positioning System (GPS) is used for navigation
    in cars, boats, airplanes, and even for hiking.

35
Lesson 2-2
Artificial Satellites (cont.)
How are Earth-orbiting satellites used?
36
Lesson 2-3
Early Exploration of the Solar System
  • In 1958, the U.S. Congress established the
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    (NASA), which oversees all U.S. space missions,
    including space telescopes.
  • In the same year NASA was founded, Explorer 1 was
    launched. It orbited Earth 58,000 times before
    burning up in Earths atmosphere in 1970.

37
Lesson 2-3
Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.)
  • A space probe is an uncrewed spacecraft sent
    from Earth to explore objects in space.

Digital Vision/Getty Images
38
Lesson 2-3
Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.)
probe Science Use an uncrewed spacecraft Common
Use question or examine closely
39
Lesson 2-3
Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.)
  • Space probes are robots that work automatically
    or by remote control, taking pictures and
    gathering data.
  • Probes are cheaper to build than crewed
    spacecraft, and they can make trips that would be
    too long or too dangerous for humans.

40
Lesson 2-3
Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.)
Why do scientists send uncrewed missions to space?
41
Lesson 2-3
Early Exploration of the Solar System (cont.)
  • The first lunar probes were sent to the Moon by
    the United States and the former Soviet Union in
    1959.
  • The term lunar refers to anything related to the
    Moon.

42
Lesson 2-4
Human Spaceflight
  • In 1961, the first humanan astronaut from the
    former Soviet Unionwas launched into Earths
    orbit, followed shortly thereafter by the first
    American astronaut to orbit Earth.
  • In 1961, U.S. President John F. Kennedy
    challenged the American people to place a person
    on the Moon by the end of the decade.

43
Lesson 2-4
Human Spaceflight (cont.)
  • Project Apollo was a series of space missions
    designed to send people to the Moon.
  • In 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, Apollo
    11 astronauts, were the first people to walk on
    the Moon.

NASA
44
Lesson 2-4
Human Spaceflight (cont.)
  • Space shuttles are reusable spacecraft that
    transport people and materials to and from space.

Stocktrek/age fotostock
45
Lesson 2-4
Human Spaceflight (cont.)
  • The International Space Station is an
    Earth-orbiting research laboratory where
    astronauts from many countries work and live.

Brand X Pictures/PunchStock
46
Lesson 2-5
Space Technology
  • The space program requires materials that can
    withstand the extreme temperatures and pressures
    of space.
  • Many of these materials have been applied to
    everyday life on Earth, including in firefighting
    gear, athletic clothing, and medical
    applications, such as orthodontic braces.

47
Lesson 2-5
Space Technology (cont.)
What are some ways that space exploration has
improved life on Earth?
48
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Exhaust from burned fuel accelerates a rocket.
  • Some space probes can land on the surface of a
    planet or a moon.
  • Technologies developed for the space program
    have been applied to everyday life on Earth.

Stocktrek/age fotostock
49
Lesson 2 LR1
Which term refers to an uncrewed spacecraft sent
from Earth to explore objects in space?
A. satellite B. space probe C. space
shuttle D. space station
50
Lesson 2 LR2
Which term refers to a vehicle designed to propel
itself by ejecting exhaust gas from one end?
A. space probe B. satellite C. rocket D. orbiter
51
Lesson 2 LR3
The term lunar refers to anything related to
which of these?
A. space B. rockets C. the Moon D. Earth
52
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. Humans have walked on the Moon. 4. Some
orthodontic braces were developed using space
technology.
53
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Recent and Future Space Missions
  • What are goals for future space exploration?
  • What conditions are required for the existence of
    life on Earth?
  • How can exploring space help scientists learn
    about Earth?

54
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Recent and Future Space Missions
  • extraterrestrial life
  • astrobiology

55
Lesson 3-1
Missions to the Sun and the Moon
  • A major goal for future space travel is to expand
    human space travel within the solar system.

56
Lesson 3-1
Missions to the Sun and the Moon (cont.)
What is a goal of future space exploration?
57
Lesson 3-1
Missions to the Sun and the Moon (cont.)
  • Scientists study data collected by solar probes,
    like Ulysses, to better understand the Suns
    high-energy radiation and charged particles that
    can harm astronauts and damage spacecraft.

58
Lesson 3-1
Missions to the Sun and the Moon (cont.)
  • NASA and other space agencies also plan to send
    several probes to the Moon to collect data that
    will help scientists select the best location for
    a future lunar outpost.

59
Lesson 3-2
Missions to the Inner Planets
  • Scientists have sent many probes, such as
    Messenger, to the inner planets to learn how they
    formed, what geologic forces are active on them,
    and whether any of them could support life.

NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics
Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington
60
Lesson 3-3
Missions to the Outer Planets and Beyond
  • Missions to the outer planetsJupiter, Saturn,
    Uranus, and Neptuneare long and difficult
    because the planets are so far from Earth.

Craig Attebery/NASA
61
Lesson 3-4
Human Space Missions
  • The first destinations for human space travel are
    the Moon and Mars.
  • The next mission to the Moon is planned for as
    early as 2020 and is to build a lunar outpost,
    where people can live and do research in the
    harsh lunar environment.

62
Lesson 3-4
Human Space Missions (cont.)
What is the purpose of the next mission to the
Moon?
63
Lesson 3-4
Human Space Missions (cont.)
  • To prepare for a visit to Mars, NASA plans to
    send additional probes.
  • These probes will explore sites on Mars that
    might have resources that can support life.

64
Lesson 3-5
The Search for Life
  • No one knows if life exists beyond Earth, but
    people have thought about the possibility for a
    long time.
  • Life that originates outside Earth is
    extraterrestrial life.

65
Lesson 3-5
The Search for Life (cont.)
  • Astrobiology is the study of life in the
    universe, including life on Earth and the
    possibility of extraterrestrial life.

astrobiology from Greek astron, means star
Greek bios, means life and Greek logia, means
study
66
Lesson 3-5
The Search for Life (cont.)
  • Scientists assume that if life exists elsewhere
    in space it would have the same requirements as
    life on Earth liquid water, organic molecules,
    and some source of energy.

What is required for life on Earth?
67
Lesson 3-5
  • The dark patches in the inset photo of Jupiters
    moon Europa might represent areas where water
    from an underground ocean has seeped to the
    surface.

NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/University of
Colorado
Galileo Project/JPL/NASA
68
Lesson 3-6
Understanding Earth by Exploring Space
  • Information gathered in space helps scientists
    understand how the Sun and other bodies in the
    solar system influence Earth, how Earth formed,
    and how Earth supports life.

69
Lesson 3-6
Understanding Earth by Exploring Space (cont.)
  • To search for Earthlike planets, NASA launched
    the Kepler telescope, which focuses on a single
    area of sky containing about 100,000 stars.

NASA/Ames Wendy Stenzel
70
Lesson 3-6
  • Satellites that orbit Earth provide large-scale
    images of Earths surface that help scientists
    understand Earths climate and weather.

NASA
71
Lesson 3-6
Understanding Earth by Exploring Space (cont.)
How can exploring space help scientists learn
about Earth?
72
Lesson 3 - VS
  • The New Horizons spacecraft will reach Pluto in
    2015.
  • Scientists think there might be liquid water on
    or below the surfaces of Mars and some moons.

NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/University of
Colorado
73
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Earth-orbiting satellites help scientists
    understand weather and climate patterns on Earth.

NASA
74
Lesson 3 LR1
Which of these planets is referred to by
scientists as an inner planet?
A. Jupiter B. Pluto C. Saturn D. Venus
75
Lesson 3 LR2
What term refers to life that originates outside
Earth?
A. astrobiological B. extraterrestrial C. lunar D.
solar
76
Lesson 3 LR3
Which of these are the next planned destinations
for human space travel?
A. Mars and the Sun B. the Moon and
Mars C. Venus and Jupiter D. each of the outer
planets
77
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Humans have landed on Mars. 6. Scientists have
detected water on other bodies in the solar
system.
78
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
79
The BIG Idea
  • Humans observe the universe with Earth-based and
    space-based telescopes. They explore the solar
    system with crewed and uncrewed space probes.

80
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Observing the Universe
  • Scientists use different parts of the
    electromagnetic spectrum to study stars and
    other objects in space.
  • Telescopes in space can collect radiant energy
    that cannot penetrate Earths atmosphere.
  • By studying objects in space, astronomers learn
    what the universe and the solar system were like
    many millions of years ago.

81
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Early History of Space Exploration
  • Rockets are used to overcome the force of
    Earths gravity when sending satellites, space
    probes, and other spacecraft into space.
  • Uncrewed missions can make trips that are too
    long or too dangerous for humans.
  • Materials and technologies from the space program
    have been applied to everyday life.

NASA/Ames Wendy Stenzel
82
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Recent and Future Space Missions
  • A goal of the space program is to expand human
    space travel within the solar system and develop
    lunar and Martian outposts.
  • All known life-forms need liquid water, energy,
    and organic molecules.
  • Information gathered in space helps scientists
    understand how the Sun influences Earth, how
    Earth formed, whether life exists outside of
    Earth, and how weather and climate affect Earth.

NASA
83
Chapter Review MC1
Which of these refers to a telescope that uses a
convex lens to concentrate light from a distant
object?
A. radio telescope B. reflecting telescope
C. refracting telescope D. space telescope
84
Chapter Review MC2
Which of the following is any small object that
orbits a larger object?
A. planet B. satellite C. space probe D. space
shuttle
85
Chapter Review MC3
Which is NOT a reason to use probes to explore
space?
A. Some trips are too dangerous for
humans. B. Some trips are too long for
humans. C. Space probes are sometimes
cheaper. D. There are not enough trained
astronauts.
86
Chapter Review MC4
Which orbits Earth and provides large-scale
images of Earths surface that help scientists
understand Earths climate and weather?
A. the Kepler telescope B. the Lunar
Reconnaissance Orbiter C. satellites D. Ulysses
87
Chapter Review MC5
Which of the following is an outer planet?
A. Mars B. Mercury C. Neptune D. Venus
88
Chapter Review STP1
Which type of telescope collects radio waves and
some microwaves using an antenna that looks like
a TV satellite dish?
A. radio telescope B. reflecting telescope
C. refracting telescope D. X-ray telescope
89
Chapter Review STP2
The Hubble Space Telescope is an example of which
of these?
A. radio telescope B. ranging telescope C. reflec
ting telescope D. refracting telescope
90
Chapter Review STP3
Which term refers to a reusable spacecraft that
transports people and materials to and from
space?
A. rocket B. satellite C. space probe D. space
shuttle
91
Chapter Review STP4
Which of the following collects data that will
help scientists select the best location for a
future lunar outpost?
A. Ulysses B. the Lunar Reconnaissance
Orbiter C. the Kepler telescope D. the
International Space Station
92
Chapter Review STP5
Which of the following was launched by NASA to
search for Earthlike planets?
A. the Apollo program B. the Kepler telescope
C. the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter D. Ulysses
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