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Ancient Africa

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Ancient Africa 1500 B.C. 1500 A.D. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Africa


1
Ancient Africa
  • 1500 B.C. 1500 A.D.

2
African Geography
  • Desert
  • Sahara dominates northern Africa
  • Kalahari largest desert in southern Africa
  • Savanna
  • Best areas for herd animals and growing of grains
  • Rainforest
  • Diverse life forms and natural resources, very
    difficult to travel through or live in
  • Tsetse flies
  • Mediterranean
  • Small region in northern Africa that supports
    abundant life

3
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4
Tsetse Fly African Sleeping Sickness
5
Early Sub-Saharan African Life
  • East Africa was the beginning of human life
  • Lucy
  • Nomadic herders
  • Masi and other groups still practice
  • Agriculture develops (6,000 B.C.)
  • Permanent settlements develop
  • Animism ?
  • Griots ?
  • West African Iron Age
  • Nok Culture (Niger River Valley)
  • Trade city of Djenne-Djeno
  • Use of Iron tools

6
Push-Pull Factors
  • Chart page 221
  • 3 main migration factors
  • Environmental
  • Economic
  • Political

7
Migration of the Bantu Peoples
  • Trace the Bantu Migrations on your map of Africa
    (page 222)
  • Where did they go?
  • How did they adapt to each region?
  • Slash burn
  • Raising cattle
  • Adopting new crops
  • Why did they migrate?
  • Agriculture led to more land use and great
    population

8
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9
Effects of Bantu Migration
  • Forced interaction between different groups
    (BaMbuti and San)
  • Some mixed, some left, some fought
  • Brought new technologies to regions
  • Brought Bantu ideas about politics and social
    organization
  • Centralized language branch throughout the
    continent
  • Niger-congo languages
  • 900 different dialects and individual languages
  • Bantu is the first language of nearly 1/3 of all
    Africans today

10
Kingdom of Aksum
  • South of Kush
  • Legend traces roots of Kush back to son of King
    solomon and Queen of Sheba
  • Modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea
  • International trade center (Adulis)
  • Caravans to Egypt through Meroe
  • Access to Mediterranean Sea Indian Ocean
    through Red Sea
  • Exported salt, ivory, emeralds, gold
  • Imported cloth, glass, wine, iron, copper

11
Kingdom of Aksum (cont.)
  • Ezana (325 360 A.D.)
  • Peak of the empire
  • Expanded territory into Arabian Peninsula (modern
    day Yemen)
  • Conquered Kush
  • Cosmopolitan Heritage
  • Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian
  • Converted to Christianity
  • Made official religion for Aksum
  • Decline Isolation
  • Islamic invaders began to cut into the empire and
    take-over trade routes
  • Moved to the mountains of northern Ethiopia
  • Remained isolated for a few hundred years (632
    750 AD)

12
The Pillars of Aksum
  • Used no mortar
  • Carved great stones together
  • Created false doors, windows, as well as tall
    peaks
  • The Pillars are often dedicated to the Christian
    God

13
West African Societies
14
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15
Ghana (700 1076 A.D.)
  • Use of camels led to development of the
    trans-Sahara trade routes
  • Gold-Salt Trade
  • Arab and Berber traders
  • Gold from western Africa, salt from Sahara
  • Empire of Ghana developed from taxing trade
    routes
  • Ghanas kings convert to Islam
  • Led to literacy (learning to read the Quran)
  • Commoners mostly did not convert
  • 1076 Muslim Almoravids conquered

16
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17
Mali (1235 1400s)
  • Gold deposits east of Ghana allowed Mali empire
    to gain wealth and power by moving the trade
    routes
  • 2 important leaders
  • Sundiata 1st emperor (mansa)
  • Different than prior emperors
  • Peaceful
  • United Mali
  • Conquered Ghana
  • Led to period of peace and prosperity
  • Mansa Musa (1312 1332)
  • Muslim leader (Sundiatas grandnephew
  • Expanded empire to twice the size of Ghana
    (100,000 man army)
  • Hajj to Mecca in 1324-1325 exposed riches of Mali
    to Arab peninsula
  • New trade centers develop (Timbuktu and Gao)

18
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20
Songhai (1400s 1500s)
  • Gained control of trade routes due to gold
    deposits near Niger River (Gao)
  • 2 important leaders
  • Sunni Ali
  • Muslim leader
  • Had a private army consisting of horse soldiers
    and river canoes
  • Conquered Timbuktu (1468) Djenne (1473, took 7
    years)
  • Military hero
  • Askia Muhammad
  • Established bureaucracy and provinces
  • Overthrew Sunni Alis son
  • Spread more orthodox Islam
  • Efficient and fair ruler
  • Conquered by Moroccans in 1591 (guns)

21
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22
East Coast Trade Cities
  • Islamic Influence
  • New trade centers on Indian Ocean after fall of
    Aksum
  • Spread Muslim religion along trade routes
  • Slave/Gold trade
  • Swahili language group
  • Mix of Bantu Arabic
  • City-states
  • Kilwa, Sofala, Mogadishu
  • Great Zimbabwe (1200s 1450) Bantu for stone
    enclose
  • Shona peoples in south-eastern Africa
  • Controlled trade routes of gold to the coast
  • City taxed traders
  • Disappeared suddenly
  • Suspected because of arrival of Portuguese
  • Portuguese Conquest (1488)

23
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