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Learning

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Learning What is learning? the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior Learning activity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning


1
Learning
2
What is learning?
  • the process by which experience or practice
    results in a relatively permanent change in
    behavior or potential behavior
  • Learning activity

3
Classical Conditioning
  • A form of learning in which a response elicited
    by one stimulus becomes elicited by a previously
    neutral stimulus

4
Classical Conditioning
  • Terms
  • Unconditioned stimulus (US)
  • Unconditioned response (UR)
  • Neutral stimulus
  • Conditioned stimulus (CS)
  • Conditioned response (CR)

5
Classical Conditioning
  • Temporal contiguity
  • Stimulus generalization
  • Stimulus discrimination
  • Extinction
  • Reconditioning
  • Spontaneous recovery
  • Higher-order conditioning

6
  • Come up with at least five examples of learned
    (classical conditioning) reaction patterns from
    your lives
  • Example cat comes running when s/he hears the
    can opener
  • Biological constraints on learning

7
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Events ? outcomes
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Ones behavior ? outcomes

8
Operant Conditioning
  • Reinforcer
  • ? likelihood
  • Punishment
  • ? likelihood

9
A Closer Look at Reinforcement
  • Positive reinforcer
  • A pleasant event that follows an operant
    response, increasing the likelihood that the
    response will recur
  • Negative reinforcer
  • Strengthens a given response by removing an
    aversive stimuli

10
Punishment
  • Positive (Punisher)/Negative (Response Cost)
  • Not the same as negative reinforcement
  • To be effective, punishment needs to be
  • Swift, sufficient, and certain

11
Drawbacks of Punishment
  • Punishment cannot unteach unwanted behaviors.
  • Punishment can backfire.
  • Punishment can teach aggression.

12
Shaping
  • Reinforcement of successive approximations to end
    goal

13
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
  • Partial Reinforcement Schedule

14
Partial Reinforcement Schedules
15
Extinction
  • Learned responses can weaken and disappear
  • In classical conditioning
  • Occurs when CS-US pairing lapses
  • In operant conditioning
  • Occurs when reinforcment is withheld

16
Spontaneous Recovery
  • Previously extinguished response reappears
    without retraining
  • In classical conditioning
  • CS predicts US again
  • In operant conditioning
  • Behavior produces old consequence again

17
Stimulus Generalization
  • Tendency to respond to cues similar to ones we
    have become conditioned to
  • Classical
  • Stimuli similar to CS will elicit CR
  • Operant
  • Supplying different response to stimulus

18
Stimulus Discrimination
  • Learners can be trained not to generalize, but
    rather to make a conditioned response only to a
    single stimulus.
  • Classical
  • CR is specific to a certain CS-US pairing
  • Operant
  • Reinforcing only specific responses

19
New Learning Based on Original Learning
  • Higher order conditioning
  • Conditioning based on previous learning
  • Primary reinforcer
  • A reinforcer that is rewarding in itself
  • Secondary reinforcer
  • A reinforcer that acquires its reinforcing power
    through association with a primary reinforcer

20
Sensitivity to Rewards/Punishment
  • Sensitivity to Punishment
  • Score one point for each yes response for all
    odd-numbered items
  • Sensitivity to Reward
  • Score one point for each yes response for all
    even-numbered items
  • Scores range from 0-24
  • Higher scores ? greater sensitivity

21
Grays Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory
  • Behavioral activation system (BAS)
  • Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)

22
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23
Observational Learning
  • We can learn by observing a model, without
    firsthand experience by the observer
  • Observational learning
  • Social Learning
    Theorists
  • Vicarious
    Reinforcement

24
Factors Involved in Observational Learning
  • Attention
  • Retention
  • Production Processes
  • Motivation

25
Latent Learning
  • Learning happens even when not demonstrated
  • Stored internally
  • Tolmans rats

26
Cognitive Maps
27
Neuroscience and Learning
  • Classical and Operant Conditioning ? limbic
    system
  • Classical ? hippocampus
  • Operant ? amygdala
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