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IBDP: HoA Review

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Title: IBDP: HoA Review Author: Masami Last modified by: Masami Stratton Created Date: 4/23/2011 12:57:49 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IBDP: HoA Review


1
IBDP HoA Review
  • Any 3 Qs in 2 ½ Hours
  • Remember, its 35 of your IB Hist HL composite
    score!

2
Strategy Attacking the Paper 3
  • Use the 5 minute review period to pick the 3
    questions you will answer
  • You can pick any 3 questions to answer
  • You should concentrate on the Cold War!
  • 50 minutes per essay
  • Use the first 5 minutes to outline your answer
  • Use only 45 minutes per essay to write!

3
Strategy FOCUS on this content
  • The Great Depression and the Americas (1929-1939)
  • We will be reviewing the Great Depression
  • Political developments in the Americas after the
    Second World War (1945-79)
  • The Cold War and the Americas (1945-81)
  • These we reviewed vis-a-vie the Presidential
    Administrations

4
Strategy Choosing your questions
  • You should concentrate on the post-World War II /
    Cold War questions
  • Presidential administrations from FDR to Reagan
  • Be sure to distinguish between domestic and
    foreign policies of those administrations
  • For 20th Century Topics (Paper 2), we focused on
    foreign policies
  • For HoA (Paper 3), your answers should focus on
    domestic policies

5
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • You should know what happened in the US and one
    country in Latin America
  • Questions may ask you to compare / contrast
    either the social, political, or economic impact
    of the Great Depression in two different
    countries in the region
  • Or, questions may ask you to focus on a
    condition, such as Examine the view that the
    Great Depression was caused primarily by
    political rather than by economic factors

6
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • What became known as the Great Depression was a
    severe and persistent worldwide economic downturn
    that began in 1929 and ended in 1941
  • Economic interconnectedness on nations in a world
    of increasing trade and investment across oceans
    resulted in economic distress that included
    causes beyond the borders of any individual
    country

7
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Separate your analysis of the Great Depression
    distinctly by either the Hoover (1929-1933) or
    the FD Roosevelt (1933-1945) administrations
  • Hoover happened to be president at the time of
    the Wall Street crash of 1929
  • He believed in minimum government involvement,
    letting business do business

8
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • BUT first things first lets set the scene
  • It is difficult to separate the economic and
    political causes of the Great Depression
  • Divide the GD into 4 phases, and examine the
    causes by phase
  • Phase 1 leading up to including the crash
  • Phase 2 late 1929 to 1933 as the US moved from
    panic to deep depression
  • Phase 3 1933 to 1937 as a period of recovery
  • Phase 4 1937 to 1941 as the US enters WWII

9
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 1 What caused the crash ?!?
  • 1920s were a time of economic boom
  • Coolidge was pres from 1921-1929 he was very
    pro-business this was the era of the Titans of
    Wall Street
  • Wall Street was riding high the big bankers
    were buying on margin making huge profits
  • But the small investors were usually left holding
    stocks after the big sell-offs

10
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 1 What caused the crash ?!?
  • Because there was little regulation over banking
    practices (Coolidge was very laissez-faire),
    banks began to make unsafe extensions of credit
    to fuel consumption (autos, appliances, houses)
    and main street became seriously indebted
  • Overproduction fueled deflation, people began to
    make less , demand decreased, sales declined
    but the banks were still riding high because of
    consumer purchasing on credit and buying stocks
    on margin
  • BUT, as main street couldnt make their pmts,
    neither could the banks on their stock purchases

11
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 1 What caused the crash ?!?
  • SO, stocks began to fall and the market took wild
    swings experienced one crash appeared to
    stabilize then CRASHED!!!
  • Growth of income disparity by 1929, almost ½ of
    families in the US lived at subsistence or below!
  • Overproduction of housing auto industries,
    combined with growing disparity in purchasing
    power, led to lower wages layoffs
  • Growing economic instability abroad especially
    in EUR led to decline in overseas markets

12
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 1 What caused the crash ?!?
  • What did Hoover do ???
  • He initially did not try to stimulate the
    economy, rather did the opposite
  • He supported the Feds decision to decrease the
    money supply
  • He reduced govt spending
  • He signed the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act (June 1930)
    establishing a high tariff
  • That, in turn, caused other nations to retaliate

13
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 2 From panic to deep depression, 1931-33
  • There was very little relief for citizens
  • Hoover believed businesses the community would
    step up to help, but didnt realize these
    organizations simply lacked funds to help !!
  • Stigmatized the poor, attributing their poorness
    to personal failure
  • Despite the shame that accompanied asking for
    help, increasing numbers asked the government for
    assistance to little avail

14
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 2 From panic to deep depression, 1931-33
  • Shanty towns, known as Hoovervilles, sprung up as
    more families lost their homes
  • Coupled with the deepening depression was a
    decade-long drought that began in 1930 (the Dust
    Bowl)
  • The 1930s set all minority groups back African
    Americans, Hispanics, women whatever economic
    gains they had previously made were lost

15
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 2 From panic to deep depression, 1931-33
  • By 1932, 75 of black people were unemployed
    compared to the general figure of 25
    unemployment
  • Also discriminated against in access to relief
    programs, leaving many black families
    malnourished and homeless
  • As a result of worsening economic social
    conditions, about ½ million blacks moved to
    northern cities to find work during the GD

16
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 2 From panic to deep depression, 1931-33
  • Hispanic Americans, Latinos, were also
    discriminated against regardless on their
    citizenship status
  • Often, due to large job-loss rates, Latinos would
    move to inner cities (barrios) as city
    populations swelled, local officials would try to
    force them out by raiding the barrios and
    rounding everyone up, including US citizens
  • Because of blatant discriminatory practices, its
    estimated close to ½ million Latinos moved to
    Mexico during the GD

17
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 2 From panic to deep depression, 1931-33
  • The effects on women were a bit different
  • During WWI, women had made gains working outside
    the home
  • Biggest change during the GD was in the working
    status of married women
  • Number of married women working increased 50
    during the 1930s
  • During the same period, number of single women
    working increased 10

18
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 2 From panic to deep depression, 1931-33
  • Stratified between poor married women and
    middle-class married women
  • Poor married women worked for subsistence
  • Middle-class married women worked to maintain an
    appropriate lifestyle driven by consumerism from
    the roaring 20s
  • Through the wages of working women that millions
    of households clung to middle-class lifestyles,
    or at least had roofs and regular meals

19
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 2 From panic to deep depression, 1931-33
  • For some women (particularly minority), they
    entered survivalist entrepreneurship in
    response to exclusion from the labor market a
    person is forced to form his/her own business to
    provide for him/herself and family
  • For black women, mostly boarding homes and beauty
    parlors

20
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 3 Recovery, 1933-37
  • FDR and the first New Deal
  • In his first few months, he acted to reform the
    economic system, stimulate industry, and develop
    a sense of confidence in the American people
  • FDRs public persona was as important as his
    govt programs!
  • His warmth use of media, esp the radio
  • Contrasted greatly w his aloof predecessor
  • He and the New Deal Democrats created a new
    understanding of the role of govt in peoples
    lives

21
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 3 Recovery, 1933-37
  • FDR and the first New Deal
  • Two days after taking office, FDR proclaimed a
    banking holiday and closed the banks for the next
    four days
  • Passed the Emergency Banking Act
  • Stabilized large banks, gave the FED addl
    powers, took off gold std, mandated federal
    inspection of banks before they reopened
  • The Economy Act tried to balance the federal
    budget by cutting salaries, reducing pensions

22
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 3 Recovery, 1933-37
  • FDR and the first New Deal
  • Fireside Chats FDR gave very informal radio
    addresses to explain to the American people how
    the new laws would work and what they could
    expect in the upcoming days
  • Gave 36 over the 13 yrs of his presidency

23
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 3 Recovery, 1933-37
  • FDR and the New Deal, part 2
  • Focused on recovery
  • During 1933, FDR delivered 4 fireside chats to
    discuss important concepts
  • The May 1933 address the New Deal Programs
  • Alphabet Agencies the many agencies formed by
    legislation and executive action
  • Agric Adj Agency (AAA), Glass-Steagall Banking
    Reform Act created the FDIC, Natl Industry
    Recovery Act created the Natl Recovery Adm (NRA)
    that oversaw businesses

24
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 3 Recovery, 1933-37
  • FDR and the New Deal, part 3
  • Focused on relief
  • Federal Emergency Relief Agency (FERA) to create
    new jobs through loans to states
  • Part of FERA was the Civil Works Adm (CWA) to
    accelerate job creation through building roads,
    repairing schools, installing sewers

25
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 3 Recovery, 1933-37
  • Also, the TVA, CCC, PWA, SEC, FCC, FHA, Civil
    Aeronautics Auth (became FAA)
  • FDR and the New Deal, part 3
  • Many of his programs also focused on reforming
    and oversight
  • All told, 1933 and 1934 brought 17 new agencies
    to govt
  • Supreme Court declared many of his new programs
    as unconstitutional
  • He tried to pack the court after his landslide
    vicotry in November 1936, and the court was much
    nicer to him

26
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Phase 4 Road to WWII, 1937-41
  • There was a mini-setback in a recession that
    began in May of 1937
  • Economy had recovered to levels not seen since
    1930 by then (bottomed out 1933)
  • GDP had been up 80, declined a bit over 6 from
    May 1936 to June 1938 (not consecutive)
  • FDR had tried to slow govt spending on programs,
    FED had tightened money supply (reforms)
  • Entry into WWII (increase federal spending on
    war machine) got us out of GD

27
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Were FDRs policies successful?
  • Historians criticize FDR for
  • not providing enough stimulus to the economy
  • removing govt spending before recovery was
    complete
  • FDR failed to enact major reforms, hence allowed
    for successive major recessions
  • FDRs response was pragmatic and not ideological
    (not true reform), perhaps his approach was even
    too conservative!

28
Great Depression (1929-39)
  • Were FDRs policies successful?
  • The numbers are mixed
  • Economy recovered over the decade and returned to
    pre-GD levels
  • However, unemployment did not return to 1929
    levels until war production
  • Reforms encountered significant opposition
  • Success was limited when considering they were
    intended to avoid second GD
  • Relief was strong as people were put to work
  • However, benefits to minorities were uneven at
    best
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