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RTI: Big Ideas (Secondary Level)


RTI: Big Ideas (Secondary Level) Michele Farah, Ph.D. Literacy Consultant Oakland Schools Michele.Farah_at_oakland.k12.mi.us Diane Katakowski Speech & Language Consultant – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RTI: Big Ideas (Secondary Level)

RTI Big Ideas(Secondary Level)
Michele Farah, Ph.D. Literacy Consultant Oakland
Schools Michele.Farah_at_oakland.k12.mi.us
  • Diane Katakowski
  • Speech Language Consultant
  • Oakland Schools
  • Diane.Katakowski_at_oakland.k12.mi.us

Susan M. Koceski, Ph.D. School
Psychologist Oakland Schools Susan.Koceski_at_oaklan
  • In a small town, a group of fishermen gathered
    down at the river. Not long after they got there,
    a child came floating down the rapids calling for
    help. One of the group on the shore quickly dived
    in and pulled the child out.

Minutes later another child came, then another,
and then many more children were coming down the
river. Soon everyone was diving in and dragging
children to the shore, then jumping back in to
save as many as they could.
In the midst of all this frenzy, one of the
fisherman was seen walking away. Her peers were
irate. How could she leave when there were so
many children to save? After long hours, to
everyones relief, the flow of children stopped,
and the group could finally catch their breath.
At that moment, their friend came back. They
turned on her and angrily shouted HOW COULD YOU
  • She replied, It occurred to me that someone ought
    to go upstream and find out why so many kids were
    falling into the river. What I found is that the
    old wooden bridge had several planks missing, and
    when some children tried to jump over the gap,
    they couldnt make it and fell through into the
    river. So I got someone to fix the bridge.

NASDSE Definition of RtI
The practice of providing high quality
instruction and intervention matched to student
needs using data over time to make important
educational decisions for ALL learners.
Current State in General
  • Unaligned, nonsensical delivery systems
    (title-one, general education, special education)
  • Low achievement- especially in lower poverty
  • Over-representation of minorities in special
  • Poor growth when students with special education
    are compared with their non-disabled peers (AYP)
  • Disproportionate numbers of high incident
    disabilities (LD, SLI) and inconsistencies from
    states to states, county to county, district to
  • Overly dependent system on student processing
  • Current State Group Activity

Three major ways that schools move towards an RTI
  • Data trends indicate a compelling need-
  • Data indicates a need for improvement in reading
    or math that has unacceptable percentages of
    students failing
  • Administrative Mandate-
  • Administration mandate to change service delivery
  • Legal mandates
  • Desire to Use RTI option for Special Education
    Eligibility for students with learning
    disabilities (IDEA 2004)
  • Out of Compliance with special education and
    cited for corrective action
  • Corrective action from AYP status

Principles of Response to Instruction
  • Shared responsibility for student achievement in
    which general and special educators collaborate
    and support one another across all tiers.
  • RTI is a framework, not a program. The
    ingredients can be combined in many ways so that
    implementation may look different in different
    buildings, even within the same district.
  • Early Intervention as soon as a students
    performance indicates that they are off
  • Problem-Solving focused on curriculum,
    instructional, environment, and learner variables
    that can be controlled in contrast to student
  • Using school-wide and grade-level data to
    evaluate instructional effectiveness at multiple
    levels (school, grade, classroom, small-group,

RTI Model TIER I - 80 TIER II - 15 TIER
III - 5
Universal Screening at regular intervals for all
students using curriculum-based measurement
TIER 3 (5 of Students) Intensive Intervention

TIER 2 (15 of Students) Strategic
Scientifically research-based instruction that is
matched to student need to promote attainment of
grade-level benchmarks
Problem Solving occurs at all Tiers of
Instruction and involves collaborative ,
data-based decision making
TIER 1 (80 of Students) Core Instruction
Services for students with IEPs
Oakland Schools www.oakland.k12.mi.us
Moving towards a RTI Model Early,
strategic, and explicit instruction designed to
meet the needs of all students.
The Model TIER I - 80 TIER II - 15 TIER
III - 5
More likely
  • Multi-Tiered Continuum of Support (Models have
    3-5 tiers)
  • Universal Screening/Progress Monitoring for Slow
  • Problem-Solving Process Implemented at grade
    level, small groups, individual students
  • Scientifically-Based Core Curriculum Evaluation
    of the effectiveness of core curricula
  • Research-based Interventions Instructional
    strategies and supplemental interventions based
    on empirical research studies on effectiveness
  • Professional Development Ongoing and embedded to
    the school improvement plan and goals

Why RTI is not spelled D-I-B-E-L-S
Screening/progress monitoring is only one of many
essential ingredients
What RTI is not.
  • a way to blame or evaluate teachers for poor
    results with students.
  • a two tier system (General education v. special
    education) retrofitted as a three-tier system
    (General education, title one, special
  • a pre-referral system bide your time, fill out
    a form, talk about data. then get the referral
    into special education.
  • a box to check on the MET form The student has
    been given opportunities to learn.
  • using the same old tools that are not aligned
    with instruction.
  • just taking more data and putting it in the
    students file
  • a way to lower psychologists FTE by eliminating

Turn and Talk
  • How is this description of RTI similar to your
    current understanding?
  • In what ways is it different?

Problem Solving Process
What is the relationship betweenRTI and SAT?
Myths to be dispelled for RTI Secondary to have a
  • It is fruitless to spend time money on
    struggling adolescents because they have passed
    the point at which instruction or intervention
    can make a difference.
  • Instruction that works with young children will
    be equally effective for older students.
  • Literacy is not the job of secondary educators.
  • Little can be done for students who are not
    motivated to engage in learning.

(No Transcript)
Key questions when exploring RTI at Secondary
Question Answer "Look Fors"
Do we believe that all students can learn? Teachers have high expectations for ALL students. Teachers describe differentiated instruction to meet the needs of learners in their classes. "Laziness" is not frequently offered as an explanation of poor performance.
Is our school committed to scientifically based instruction? Programs/techniques used are based on research with adolescents. Instruction is differentiated for students. A system for checking fidelity of instruction exists. Assessment data are gathered and reviewed on a regular basis. Classroom instruction changes as a result of data analysis. Programs/classes are structured to meet the needs noted in assessment. Students participate in different programs/classes based on assessment results.
Student Success Initiatives, Inc, 2008
Key questions when exploring RTI at Secondary
Question Answer "Look Fors"
Do we have a school wide approach to literacy? Literacy assessment data are gathered on at least an annual basis. For students experiencing reading difficulty, problems in comprehension, fluency and word recognition are identified. The school improvement plan specifically addresses literacy. Each teacher can explain her role with literacy. Teachers are supported with high quality professional development that advances literacy in the content areas. We offer a variety of services in varying degrees of intensity to address literacy needs. When we address student literacy needs we differentiate, word recognition, fluency, and comprehension problems.
Who is involved in RTI at our school? RTI leaders are from across general and special education. Speech-language pathologists, school psychologists, reading specialists and literacy coaches are centrally involved. All educators can explain the school's approach to RTI, as well as the rationale. Parents understand their children's involvement in RTI at the school. School level administrators are actively engaged in leading the effort and providing necessary resources.
Student Success Initiatives, Inc, 2008
Phase One Build Consensus
  • Estimated timeframe 3-9 months
  • Establishing school-wide consensus of a need to
    improve student engagement and achievement for
    all students by implementing RTI
  • Actions
  • Establish a compelling need for school-wide
    framework for areas of need.
  • Establish building leadership team and rationale
    for building adoption of RTI framework.
  • Create alignment between the building culture and
    the culture required to successfully implement
  • Reengineer resources (people, time, money) to
    provide sufficient support for the long term
    implementation of this framework.
  • Establish district leadership commitment towards
    the objectives of a 3-Tier (RTI) literacy
    framework. Make an action plan.

Phase One Build Consensus (Secondary)
  • Some middle schools have found success by
    building consensus through simultaneous
    infrastructure and implementation
  • Actions
  • Commitment to achieving the school mission,
    vision and student outcome goals (which arise
    from the compelling need)
  • Work collaboratively to continually improve
    systems, practices and outcomes
  • Utilize a data-based planning and problem-solving
    process to guide improvement efforts
  • Allocate resources to provide students with
    multi-tiered instruction matched to their needs

Phase One continuedKnow your Compelling needs
  • Current State Group Activity with Data
  • Revisit handout

Turn and Talk
Phase Two Build infrastructure and Initial
  • Estimated Timeframe 6-18 months
  • Developing the structures, elements and resources
    required to support the critical elements of RTI
    using a tiered model of support
  • Actions
  • Train and implement universal screening
  • Institute a problem solving process at the grade
    level, small groups, individual students
  • Evaluate effectiveness of core curriculum and
    make adjustments based on ongoing data
  • Review current interventions and incorporate
    Instructional strategies and supplemental
    interventions based on empirical research studies
    on effectiveness
  • Make a professional development plan for the
    building and for individuals to fill essential

Phase Two Build infrastructure and Initial
Implementation (Secondary)
  • Multi-tier interventions at secondary level
    address student skill deficits AND simultaneously
    support student success within courses.
  • When designing multi-tier interventions, it is
    important to begin with the idea that the purpose
    of all instruction (Tier 1, 2, and 3) is to
    ensure students achieve core (Tier 1)
    instructional goals and expectations.

Phase Two Build infrastructure and Initial
Implementation (Secondary)
  • The 3 goals of multi-tier intervention programs
    at Middle School level are
  • Promote and maintain high levels of student
    engagement within all tiers of instruction.
  • Accelerate learning to close knowledge skill
    gaps, and
  • Prevent new gaps from happening (i.e., provide
    just in time instruction aligned with core
    instruction to ensure access and achievement with
    current grade level/course content)

Phase Two Build infrastructure and Initial
Implementation (Secondary)
  • Actions
  • Effectively-functioning, regularly-meeting
    school-based leadership team
  • Effective teaming organization that allows school
    teams to work together as a system to accomplish
    school goals
  • Assessment for a variety of purposes and data
    systems that provide needed data for systematic
    problem-solving and differentiated instruction to
    meet specific student needs
  • Master schedules that allow for multi-tiered
    instruction during the school day (e.g.
    Intervention/ Enrichment block)
  • Professional development and coaching to support
    teams in data-based problem solving

Turn and Talk
Tier II instruction Tier III instruction
Focus Narrow range then core instruction Narrow range then core instruction
Daily instruction Minimum of 30 minutes ( Tier I) Minimum of 30 minutes twice a day ( Tier I)
Duration 10 - 12 weeks (1 or 2 rounds) Often considerably greater than 10-12 weeks
Group size 1 3 to 5 13, 12, 11
Ongoing progress monitoring every 2 weeks every 1-2 weeks
Phase Three Sustained Implementation
  • Estimated timeline 1-4 years
  • Adjusting programs, supports, and resources to
    institutionalize RTI practices
  • Add additional grade levels over time
  • Action planning- review, modify, and recommit
    annually based on data and SIP
  • New staff orientation and training
  • Report progress to stakeholders
  • Attend to school culture and sustained consensus.

Most Common Mistakes When Beginning an RTI-MTSS
  1. Lack of understanding of a compelling need for
    the initiative. Implementing without being
    clearly focused on solving a defined problem.
  2. Ignoring staff attitudes, beliefs, and values of
    those who will actually implement the change.
    Successful reform processes must include
    attention to belief systems and shifts in school
  3. Principal or leadership permission does not equal
  4. Too much too soon too many grade levels, too
    many priority areas.
  5. Competing initiatives without prioritization and
  6. Prematurely focused on interventions (Tier II
    III) while ignoring core classroom instruction
    (Tier I).
  7. Spending too much time on finding the perfect
    intervention program, leaving out the data, and
    not matching instruction to the needs of children
    in the building.
  8. Moving too quickly through building
    infrastructure to implementation.

Next Steps for your team
  • Communicate your compelling need to organize
    within an RTI framework
  • Staff and Stakeholders
  • Plan for data analysis at all levels
  • school-wide,
  • grade-level,
  • small groups,
  • individual students
  • Develop and communicate an action plan that is
    grounded in your school improvement process
  • Other

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