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German Unification

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Chapter 24 Section 2 Frederick Wilhelm IV Zollverein Otto von Bismarck Wilhelm I Realpolitik Austria-Prussian War Franco-Prussian War 1848 Italy and Germany not a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: German Unification


1
German Unification
  • Chapter 24
  • Section 2

2
Key Terms
  • Frederick Wilhelm IV
  • Zollverein
  • Otto von Bismarck
  • Wilhelm I
  • Realpolitik
  • Austria-Prussian War
  • Franco-Prussian War

3
Steps Towards Unification
  • 1848 Italy and Germany not a unified nation
  • Napoleon nurtured Nationalism when he united the
    German states into a confederation
  • 39 separate states with a common language and
    culture were poised to unite

4
Revolution in Prussia
  • Revolution swept through Europe in 1848
  • German liberals revolted in Prussia
  • Support a republic or constitutional monarchy
  • German unity should promote individual rights and
    liberal reforms

5
Revolution in Prussia
  • Frederick Wilhelm IV promised constitutional
    reforms
  • 1848 king went back on his promise
  • Banned publications and organizations that
    supported democracy
  • Constitution was never written

6
Economic and Cultural Unity
  • Economic alliance between German states
  • Zollverein or customs union allowed for removal
    of tariffs and taxes on good traded between
    Germans
  • Businesspeople supported unification

7
Economic and Cultural Unity
  • Encouraged growth of railroads connecting German
    states
  • 1844 Zollverein included almost all German states
  • Economy and culture were growing

8
Bismarcks Plan for Germany
  • Otto von Bismarck-conservative politician and a
    leading force in unification
  • 1847 becomes prominent in politics
  • 1862 Wilhelm I chose Bismarck as Prussias Prime
    Minister

9
Bismarcks Philosophy
  • Was not a liberal
  • Supported the King of Prussia
  • Prussias destiny to lead German unification
  • Bismarck philosophy was practical rather than
    idealistic
  • Realpolitik- policies based on Prussian interests

10
Blood and Iron
  • Argued German unity would not be won by speeches
    and majority vote but by blood and iron
  • Liberal parliament would not approve funds for
    the military
  • He dismissed the assembly and collected the taxes
    anyway

11
Bismarcks First War
  • Built up the Prussian Army
  • 1864 formed and alliance with Austria against
    Denmark
  • Schelswig and Holstein should be controlled by
    German Federation
  • After a fight Denmark gave the territory to
    Austria and Prussia

12
Bismarcks First War
  • Prussia would control Schleswig
  • Austria would control Holstein
  • This meant that Austria held a small bit of
    territory inside Prussias borders
  • War with Austria inevitable

13
Unification and Empire
  • Prussian power could not increase with Austria in
    the way
  • Austria was a leader in German unification
  • Two short wars and Bismarck moved Austria out

14
The Austro-Prussian War
  • Met with Italy for support
  • Promised land (Ventia)
  • Persuaded Napoleon III to keep France neutral
  • To provoke Austria sent troops into Holstein
  • Austria declared war on Prussia

15
The Austro-Prussian War
  • Prussias King Wilhelm blamed Austria for
    starting the war
  • Highly skilled and well equipped Prussian army
    defeats Austrians in seven weeks
  • Austro-Prussian War dissolved the German
    Confederation
  • Forced Austria to surrender Holstein

16
The Franco-Prussian War
  • Only three states out of Prussian control
  • Another war needed to include southern states
  • 1870 conflict brewing with France
  • Alsace and Lorraine sparked feeling of
    nationalism in southern German states

17
The Franco-Prussian War
  • These states supported Prussia and the north
    German states in a war against France
  • 1871 Bismarck secured a Prussian victory
  • Prussia won the war
  • The peace treaty declared the unification of
    Germany

18
Creating the German Empire
  • Victory established a unified German Empire
  • Allied German states met a Versailles
  • Proclaimed Wilhelm I the first kaiser or emperor
  • Bismarck the first chancellor
  • Germany rose in power

19
The Empires Growth and Change
  • 1871 Germany prospered
  • Second Reich
  • Holy Roman Empire was the First Reich

20
A New Government
  • Germanys 25 separate states wanted to retain
    power
  • New government took on a federalist form
  • Similar to the United States share between state
    and federal
  • All men over the age of 25 could vote

21
The Government and the Church
  • Bismarck thought the Roman Catholic Church posed
    a threat to his government
  • Believed government and not the church should
    control aspects of culture
  • Bismarck passed laws limiting the churches
    influence

22
The Government and the Church
  • Kulturkampf- means struggle for culture
  • Economic growth
  • France had paid reparations to Germany
  • Used money to build railroads
  • Empire caught up indistrially

23
The Path to Social Reforms
  • Coals mines and steel factories flourished
  • German socialists protested against harsh factory
    conditions
  • Called for state control of all industries
  • Bismarck blamed socialists for two assassination
    attempts on the emperor

24
Path to Social Reforms
  • Bismarck tried to destroy socialism
  • Bismarck pushed through legislation that provided
    health, accidents, old age and disability

25
Bismarck and the Wilhelm II
  • Bismarck did not want to expand German borders
  • He did not believe France was a threat
  • Entered into numerous alliances
  • Austria, Hungary
  • Italy and Russia
  • Protect each other from attack

26
Bismarck and the Wilhelm II
  • 1888 Wilhelm Is grandson became kaiser
  • Wilhelm II fired Bismarck as prime minister
  • Early 1900s Wilhelm II continued to make
    alliances
  • Built one of the most powerful military force
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