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Unit 2 Chapter 4, Section 4

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Unit 2 Chapter 4, Section 4 Gender Roles and Differences Mr. Young Psychology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 2 Chapter 4, Section 4


1
Unit 2 Chapter 4, Section 4
  • Gender Roles and Differences
  • Mr. Young
  • Psychology

2
Gender
  • One of the first questions parents ask is, Is
    the baby a boy or a girls?
  • Gender greatly influences how you dress, move,
    work, and play

3
Gender Roles
  • Gender identity- physical and biological makeup
  • Ages 2-3, children label themselves as either
    boys or girls
  • Age 5, most children have learned how to act like
    their gender

4
Gender Role Cont
  • Gender Role- set of behaviors that society
    considers appropriate for each sex
  • Defined mainly by society and culture
  • How each person is suppose to act
  • Gender roles can change from society to society
    and over time

5
Gender Roles
6
Cont.
  • Men viewed as dominant, competitive, and
    emotionally reserved

7
Cont
  • Women viewed as submissive, cooperative, and
    emotionally responsive

8
Cont
  • Gender Stereotypes- oversimplified or prejudiced
    opinions and attitudes concerning the way men or
    women should behave

9
Cont.
  • Androgynous- combining or blending traditionally
    male and female characteristics
  • Psychologist Sandra Bem
  • Argues that androgyny should be our ideal
    characteristic

10
Cont.
  • Androgyny is becoming and accepted idea in our
    culture
  • Adolescence have more choices in the way they
    define themselves
  • Young people can now express themselves according
    to their talents, temperaments, and values

11
Gender Differences in Personality
  • Males more confident than females, especially in
    academic areas or in tasks stereotyped as
    masculine, such as math and science
  • Female self-confidence rises when they perform
    tasks in which they receive clear and direct
    feedback

12
  • Males
  • Females

13
Male and Female Aggression
  • Aggression has the most significant
  • Females, more verbal aggressive
  • Males, more physical aggressive
  • Females feel guilty or have more anxiety about
    the dangers involved in aggressive behavior

14
Aggression Cont.
  • Males, use mock fighting and rough play
  • Females, indirect forms such as talking about,
    rejecting, ignoring, or avoiding aggression

15
Male and Female Communication
  • Women usually considered more talkative
  • Men actually talk more and interrupt women while
    talking
  • Women use hedges (kind of or you know),
    disclaimers (I may be wrong or I am not
    sure), and tag questions (Okay?)

16
Gender differences in Cognitive Abilities
  • No measurable differences in verbal skills exist
    between males and females
  • No significant differences in math
  • Men do better on spatial abilities
  • Women are better at tracking objects

17
  • Male
  • Female

18
Biological Theory
  • Emphasizes the roles of anatomy, hormones, and
    brain organizations
  • Boys prefer trucks and girls prefer dolls
  • Has evolved from the early men and women and how
    they acted

19
Psychoanalytical Theory
  • Sigmund Freud, children identify with the same
    sex parent
  • Boys identify with fathers, girls with mothers

20
Social Learning Theory
  • Children learn their gender roles by observing
    and imitating models, such as parents, friends,
    peers, teachers
  • Parents can reward or discourage behavior based
    on traditional gender roles

21
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
  • Acquire gender roles by interacting with their
    environment and thinking about those experiences
  • Children must first see themselves as that gender
  • Form gender scheme- a mental representation of
    behavior that helps a child organize and
    categorize behaviors

22
Changing Gender Roles
  • Most women now have jobs outside the home
  • Work provides income and a sense of
    accomplishment
  • Women do not advance as quickly in the workforce,
    maybe because of discrimination or because of
    childbearing
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