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Psychological Disorders

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Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Chapter 15
  • Psychological Disorders

2
Defining Abnormality
  • Deviation from cultural norms
  • Ideas of normality abnormality differ from one
    society to another over time within same
    society
  • Deviation from statistical norms
  • Abnormal behaviors, thoughts feelings
    statistically infrequent or deviant from the norm
  • Maladaptive behavior
  • Experiences raise concern if they are maladaptive
    have adverse effects on the individual or
    society

3
Defining Abnormality
  • Personal distress
  • Another criterion considers individuals
    subjective feelings of distress
  • What is normality?
  • Even more difficult to define but includes
  • Appropriate perception of reality
  • Ability to exercise voluntary control over
    behavior
  • Self-esteem acceptance
  • Ability to form affectionate relationships
  • Productivity

4
Defining Abnormality
  • Classifying mental health problems
  • Good classification system aids diagnosis
    treatment
  • ICD-10 DSM-IV systems to classify mental
    disorders
  • Neuroses characterised by anxiety, unhappiness
    maladaptive behavior but rarely serious enough
    to result in hospitalisation
  • Psychoses more serious mental disorders

5
Defining Abnormality
  • Perspectives on mental health problems
  • Biological perspective due to brain disorders
  • Psychological perspective issues in mind
    functioning
  • Psychoanalytic perspective unconscious
    conflicts key
  • Behavioral perspective fears become conditioned
  • Cognitive perspective maladaptive cognitive
    processes
  • Cultural/sociological perspective social
    context
  • Vulnerability-stress model
  • Interaction between predisposition stressful
    environmental conditions (need both to develop
    mental health problem)

6
Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety
  • Only considered unhealthy when occurs in
    situations that most people can handle with
    little difficulty
  • Four types of symptoms
  • Physiological, cognitive, behavioral emotional
    symptoms
  • Generalised anxiety disorder
  • Person experiences constant sense of tension
    dread
  • Panic disorders
  • Panic attack episode of acute overwhelming
    terror

7
Anxiety Disorders
  • ...Panic disorders
  • If panic attacks become frequent individual
    worries about having one panic disorder
    diagnosis
  • About 20 people with panic disorder develop
    agoraphobia
  • Understanding panic disorder agoraphobia
  • Panic disorders likely to have biological
    component
  • May have over-reactive fight-or-flight response
  • Cognitive factors play strong role in panic
    attacks agoraphobic behavior may be conditioned
    through learning experiences

8
Anxiety Disorders
9
Anxiety Disorders
  • Phobias
  • Intense fear of stimulus/situation most do not
    find particularly dangerous it interferes with
    persons life
  • Simple phobia fear of specific
    object/animal/situation
  • Social phobia extreme insecurity in social
    situations
  • Understanding phobias
  • Freud argued phobias result of people
    displacing anxiety over unconscious motives onto
    symbolic objects
  • Behaviorists phobias develop from classical
    operant conditioning

10
Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Lives dominated by repetitive acts (compulsions)
    or thoughts (obsessions) central feature is
    subjective loss of control (sufferers dont trust
    senses/judgements)
  • Understanding obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Cognitive behavioral theorists those with
    obsessive-compulsive disorder have more trouble
    turning off intrusive thoughts due to more
    rigid thinking
  • May also have biological causes possible
    deficiencies in serotonin regulates primitive
    impulses

11
Mood Disorders
  • Mood disorders
  • Divided into depressive disorders (one or more
    periods of depression) bipolar disorders
    (person alternates between periods of depression
    mania)
  • Depression
  • Depression becomes a disorder when the symptoms
    become so severe they interfere with normal
    functioning continue for weeks at a time
  • Women twice as likely to suffer depression as men

12
Mood Disorders
13
Mood Disorders
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Also known as manic depression individual
    alternates between depression extreme elation
  • Manic symptoms often change from joyful
    exuberance to hostile agitation equally found
    in men women
  • Understanding mood disorders
  • The biological perspective
  • Tendency to develop mood disorders, especially
    bipolar disorders, appears to be inherited
  • Structural functional brain abnormalities could
    be precursors causes of mood disorders or
    result of biochemical processes in mood disorders
    which are toxic for brain

14
Mood Disorders
  • ...Understanding mood disorders
  • The cognitive perspective
  • Depressed people interpret life in pessimistic,
    hopeless ways
  • Beck developed the cognitive triad negative
    thoughts about the self, about present
    experiences about the future
  • Depression also affected by maladaptive
    attributional styles
  • Interpersonal perspectives
  • Depressed people often too dependent on opinions
    support of others, e.g. through excessive
    reassurance seeking
  • Psychosocial factors in bipolar disorders
  • Stressful life events can trigger new bipolar
    episodes

15
Schizophrenia
  • Characteristics of schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia characterised by
  • Disturbances of thought and attention
  • Process of thinking content of thought
    disordered with loosening of associations, lack
    of insight delusions
  • Disturbances of perception
  • Most dramatic hallucinations, both auditory
    visual with visual less common (other sensory
    hallucinations rare)
  • Disturbances of emotional expression
  • Often unusual emotional responses exhibited

16
Schizophrenia
  • Motor symptoms withdrawal from reality
  • Sufferers sometimes exhibit bizarre motor
    activity
  • Decreased ability to function sufferers
    impaired in their ability to carry out daily
    routines of living
  • Culture the progression of schizophrenia
  • Generally, schizophrenia more chronic
    debilitating than other psychological disorders
  • How cultures treat their individuals with
    schizophrenia probably plays strong role

17
Schizophrenia
18
Schizophrenia
  • Understanding schizophrenia
  • The biological perspective
  • Schizophrenia likely to have strong biological
    roots
  • Two types of structural deficits in the brain
    prefrontal cortex smaller less active, and
    enlarged ventricles
  • Also, problems in regulation of dopamine
  • The social psychological perspective
  • Psychosocial factors play important role in
    eventual severity of disorder triggering of new
    episodes

19
Personality Disorders
  • Personality disorders
  • Long-standing patterns of maladaptive behavior
  • Personality traits become so inflexible
    maladaptive that significantly impair
    individuals ability to function
  • Antisocial personality disorder
  • Sufferers have little sense of responsibility,
    morality, or concern for others they lack a
    conscience
  • They behave impulsively, seek immediate
    gratification cannot tolerate frustration,
    often committing crimes

20
Personality Disorders
  • Understanding antisocial personality disorder
  • Biological factors
  • Genetic factors play a role in development of
    antisocial personality twin studies confirm
    genetic component
  • Deficits in executive functions could lead to
    poor impulse control difficulty in anticipating
    consequences
  • Social factors
  • Neglectful hostile parents may contribute to
    disorder
  • Personality factors
  • Children with antisocial personalities process
    information about social interactions in ways
    that promote aggressive reactions

21
Personality Disorders
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Sufferers characterised by instability in moods,
    relationships and self-perceptions
  • Tendency towards impulsive self-damaging
    behavior, e.g. self-mutilation suicidal
    behavior
  • Understanding borderline personality disorder
  • Psychoanalytic theorists sufferers have very
    poorly developed views of self others, stemming
    from poor early relationships with caregivers
  • Others argue sufferers fundamental deficit in
    ability to regulate emotions

22
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
  • Pervasive developmental disorders
  • Set of disorders characterised by severe
    lasting impairment in several areas of
    development, e.g. Social interactions,
    communication with others, everyday behaviors,
    interests activities
  • Diagnosis of autism
  • Involves three types of deficits
  • Social interaction lack of connection with
    others
  • Communication difficulties in communication
    speech
  • Activities interests preoccupation/routines/ri
    tuals
  • Autistic boys outnumber autistic girls three to
    one

23
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
  • Aspergers syndrome other pervasive
    developmental disorders (PDDs)
  • Retts disorder childhood disintegrative
    disorder
  • Children appear to develop normally for while
    then show apparent permanent loss of basic skills
    in social interaction, language, and/or movement
  • Aspergers syndrome
  • Characterized by deficits in social interactions
    in activities and interests that similar to
    autism but different from autism in that no
    significant delays or deviance in language
  • PDDs viewed as falling along continuum with
    autism most severe others lower on continuum

24
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
  • Understanding pervasive developmental disorders
  • Biological factors several have been implicated
    in development of PDDs
  • Family twin studies suggest genetics play a
    role
  • Neurological factors also likely disruption in
    normal development organization of the brain
  • Studies suggest that PDD sufferers lack theory of
    mind which may make it impossible for these
    children to understand operate in the social
    world
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