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Chapter 2 Classical Civilization: China


Chapter 2 Classical Civilization: China Ms. Sheets University High School Revised by Ms. Bennett * Eternal trinity: therefore duty of man to study and comprehend the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 Classical Civilization: China

Chapter 2 Classical Civilization China
  • Ms. Sheets
  • University High School
  • Revised by Ms. Bennett

Chinese Dynasty Song
  • Using the tune Frere Jacques
  • Shang, Zhou (Joe), Qin (chin), Han
  • Shang, Zhou (Joe), Qin (chin), Han
  • Sui (swee), Tang, Song
  • Sui (swee), Tang, Song
  • Yuan, Ming, Qing (ching), Republic
  • Yuan, Ming, Qing (ching), Republic
  • Mao Zedong, Mao Zedong
  • http//

Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) First documented
rule in China after Xia dynasty
Classical China Middle Kingdom
  • China emerged with an unusually well-integrated
    system in which government, philosophy, economic
    incentives, the family, and the individual were
    intended to blend into a harmonious whole
  • Isolated
  • Couldnt learn from other cultures
  • Rare invasions
  • Distinctive identity

Patterns in Classical China
  • 3 dynasties Zhou, Qin, Han
  • Dynasty Cycle
  • When a dynasty begins, it usually emerges from a
    family of a successful general, or from a peasant
  • Over time, dynasties grew weak
  • tax revenues declined
  • social divisions increased
  • Internal rebellions
  • periodic invasions
  • When one dynasty declines, another emerges

Zhou Dynasty 1029-258 BCE
  • Displaced the Shang dynasty
  • Created the Mandate of Heaven
  • Used to justify rule based on the idea that
    Heaven transferred power of the dynasties and
    legitimized the current dynasty
  • Heaven would also be displeased with a poor
    leader and would cause that dynastys overthrow

Zhou Dynasty, cont.
  • Used feudalism to create alliances
  • Rulers gave land to family members, other noble
    families, and regional princes
  • In exchange, tax revenues and military troops
    were provided
  • Feudalism is unstable depends on loyalties and
  • Extended territory of China into the Yangtze
    River valley
  • Promoted one standard language (Mandarin Chinese)

Zhou Dynasty, cont.
  • Eventually, regional rulers formed independent
  • Great thinkers tried to restore order and social
    harmony through education
  • Zhou never established a powerful government and
    declined because of weak political infrastructure
    and nomadic invasions
  • Zhou dynasty ended after the Era of the Warring
    States (402-201 BCE)

Zhou Dynasty
  • Social
  • Rise of a strong, landowning class inherit
    social status
  • Patriarchal
  • Political
  • Loose alliance of regional princes, depended on
    loyalty relatively weak rulers
  • Exchange land for promise of taxes and military -
  • Landowners become more powerful than rulers
  • Interactions
  • Expanded the Middle Kingdom
  • Cultural
  • Banned human sacrifice formalized religious
    practices Ancestor worship focus on harmony
  • Promoted use of one language for everyone
  • End of dynasty leads to development of new
    philosophies (Confucianism)
  • Tea ceremonies chopsticks
  • Economic
  • Agriculture dominated (N-wheat S-rice)

Period of Warring States
  • 402 BCE - 201 BCE
  • Competing interests of landowning class and
    ruling class cause political turmoil
  • Landowners raise own military - origins of
    regional warlords
  • No political unity - China is exceptionally weak
  • Cultural innovations survive
  • Results in new philosophies

Religion and Culture in China
  • Religion
  • Rulers in the Zhou dynasty maintained a belief in
    gods and stressed the importance of a harmonious
    earthly life
  • Ancestor worship
  • Philosophies/Ideologies
  • Confucianism
  • Legalism
  • Daoism/Taoism

  • Confucius (Kung Fu Tzu)
  • Period of Warring States
  • Scholar - history, music, ethics
  • Main Writing The Analects
  • Promoted by followers - Mencius

  • Chinese ethical and philosophical system based on
    relationships and personal virtue
  • Developed from the teachings of Confucius
    (551-478 BCE) on the eve of the Era of the
    Warring States
  • Based on Analects of Confucius
  • Confucianism spread throughout Classical China
    predominant philosophy

Confucian Beliefs
  • Education
  • Self regulation
  • The proper exercise of political power by the
  • Propriety and etiquette
  • Familial love and respect for parents
  • Righteousness
  • Honesty and trustworthiness
  • Loyalty to the state
  • Humaneness towards others
  • Highest Confucian virtue

Main Ideas
  • Restore social order, harmony and good government
    to China
  • Ethical systems based on relationships and
    personal virtue
  • Emphasized family
  • Filial piety - respect for parents and elders is
    necessary for order
  • Early Zhou Dynasty was seen as perfect society
  • Inferiors devoted to service
  • Superiors looked after dependents

  • Five Basic Relationships in Society
  • Ruler/Subject
  • Father/Son
  • Husband/Wife
  • Older Brother/Younger Brother
  • Friend/Friend
  • Chinese gentleman - education and moral
    standards birth status not important
  • Bureaucracy - those who help run government
  • Courteous, precise, generous, just/fair

  • Founded by Lao Tze (604-531 BCE)
  • Main Writing Tao-te-Ching (The Way of Virtue)
  • Human actions are not important
  • Most important part of society is natural order
    of things
  • The Tao (The Way) - guides all things

  • Founded by Lao Tzu (5th c. BCE)
  • A more spiritual philosophy than Confucianism
  • Promoted humility, frugal living, simplicity
  • Harmony with nature, astrology
  • Secret rituals, ceremonies, mystery, magic
  • People should follow personal paths to
  • Little emphasis on formal education and learning
  • Many emperors favored Daoism

  • Search for knowledge and understanding of nature
  • To understand nothing, it is best to do nothing,
    to observe nature
  • Nature is not jealous or power hungry
  • Does not argue about right or wrong, good or bad

  • Practical, political reaction to Confucianism
  • Han Feizi - 3rd century BCE
  • Powerful and efficient government is key to
    restoring order
  • Laws will end civil war and restore harmony
  • Rewards to good subjects and punish disobedient
  • Rulers must control ideas and actions of people
  • Favored by Shi Huangdi during Qin dyansty

  • Qin and early Han periods
  • Strict system of obedience to government and law
  • Favors authoritarian state ruled by force (army
    to control people)
  • Human nature is evil and requires constant
  • Peoples responsibility to work for the
  • Not successful in China overall, but influenced
    some policies and ideologies

Shi Huangdi admired Legalist thinkers
Qin Dynasty (221-201 BCE)
  • Qin Shi Huangdi only emperor of the Qin dynasty
  • Took control of feudal estates knew the problem
    with Zhou dynasty laid with feudal nobles who
    ruled lands
  • Created non-aristocratic officials to oversee
  • Had powerful army who crushed uprisings brutal
  • Goals were to unify and expand China and restore

Qin Emperor Qin Shih Huangdi standardizes all
  • The Great Wall
  • Weights measures
  • Laws
  • Money
  • Thought

Qin Dynasty, cont.
  • Great Wall of China was begun
  • Over 3,000 miles long
  • Built to protect from outside invasion
  • Largest construction project in human history
  • Built by forced labor, many died
  • National census
  • Calculate tax revenues and labor services more
  • Standardized coinage, weights and measures

Qin Dynasty, cont.
  • Uniform Chinese written script
  • Government supports agriculture with new
    irrigation projects
  • Shi Huangdi was very unpopular among Chinese
  • Burned books
  • Taxed heavily
  • Large military expansion and conscription
  • After Shi Huangdi died, Qin dynasty ended

  • Social
  • Primogeniture eliminated (practice of having
    eldest son inherit all property and land)
  • Nobles must leave land and live in Emperors
  • Political
  • Emperor had complete control over all aspects of
  • Use of brutality and force to accomplish goals
  • Bureaucracy (not of the nobility) expanded to
    help control all regions
  • National census
  • Single law code
  • Interactions
  • Army expanded to crush rivals and regional
  • Expanded territory of China, including Hong Kong
  • Influenced parts of Vietnam through conquest
  • Expanded infrastructure to increase interactions

  • Cultural
  • Confucianism looked down upon and followers
  • Legalism promoted
  • Architectural Initiates construction of Great
    Wall Terracotta Soldiers/Tomb of Shi Huangdi
  • Uniform written language
  • Banned books
  • Economic
  • Introduced standard weights and measures
  • Eliminated the very rare practice of slavery
  • Forced labor necessary for construction projects
  • Extremely high taxes
  • Sponsored agricultural projects (irrigation) and
    manufacturing of silk

Why did the Qin Dynasty Fall?
  • Shi Huangdi
  • Extremely paranoid killed off suspected enemies
    (nobles, intellectuals, warlords)
  • Desire to control EVERYTHING
  • High taxes, forced labor
  • Shi Huangdi dies in 210 BCE followed by 8 years
    of peasant revolts to determine successor -
    winner establishes Han Dynasty

Terracotta Army
  • Created around 210 BCE
  • Purpose defend Shi Huangdis tomb, help him rule
    in the afterlife
  • Over 8,000 individual soldiers, 130 chariots, 520
    horses buried in four pits around the tomb
  • Terracotta clay-based unglazed ceramic
  • http//

(No Transcript)
Qin (Chin) mistakes
  • Burned books
  • Destroyed major fortifications of the states
  • Assassinated powerful leaders scholars
  • Collected arms of the empire melted arrowheads
    spears to make 12 statues
  • Failed to rule with humanitylost the Mandate of

Han Dynasty
Peasant uprisings ended rule of Qin Dynasty
  • Civil war
  • Two strong leaders
  • Xiang Yu (aristocratic general)
  • Liu Bang (peasant-class general under Xiang Yu)
  • 202 BCE
  • Liu Bang beat Xiang Yu for good

Rise of the Han Dynasty
  • Liu Bang, a peasant fighting in a rebel army,
    became emperor due to the Chinese belief in the
    mandate of heaven.
  • He was the first emperor of the Han dynasty.
  • Well liked by both warriors and peasants, Liu
    Bang released the country from strict Legalistic
    practices and focused on peoples immediate
  • Liu Bang lowered taxes, gave large plots of land
    to supporters, and set up a government that
    expanded on the ideas of the Qin.

Han Dynasty (201 BCE-220 CE)
  • Developed examination system to prepare civil
    servants to work in government So that talented
    men would run the government it would take
    years to take the exams
  • Emperor Wu Ti worked to enforce peace, and
    required government to have formal training to
    emphasize Confucianism
  • Extensive expansion of Chinese territory
  • Trade routes led to contact with India, Parthian
    Empire, Roman Empire
  • Invasions by the Huns and a weak central
    government ended the dynasty
  • Between 220-589 CE, China was in a state of chaos

Han 202 BCE 221 CE
  • The Han dynasty created a new form of government
    that valued family, art, and learning.
  • Legalism was replaced by Confucianism
  • Han dynasty government was based on the ideas of
  • Centralized government
  • Capital cities
  • Introduced the civil service exam
  • Lowered taxes
  • Less harsh punishments
  • Silk Roads developed
  • Opens trade

Han Organizing Principles
  • Heaven, earth, man form eternal trinity
  • Economic welfare is basis of popular morality
  • Government must provide peace prosperity,
  • Moral education through rites, music literature

Wudis New Government
  • lived 141-87 BCE
  • Consolidated central power (land, food supply)
  • In 140 BCE, Emperor Wudi took the throne and
    shifted the countrys focus back to a strong
    central government.
  • Confucianism became the official government
  • Wudi built a university that taught Confucian
    ideals, and awarded his officials with higher
    rank if they were familiar with Confucian

4 Social Classes under the Confucianism
  • Upper Class The Emperor, his court, and his
  • Second Class The peasants, who made life work on
    a daily basis
  • Third Class The artisans, who produced items for
    daily life and some luxury goods
  • Fourth Class The merchants, who bought and sold
    what others made

Agriculture under the Han
  • Population of 60,000,000 to be fed
  • Farming thought to be a pivotal and honored
  • But in reality small farmers were burdened by
    government taxes and became heavily indebted to
    the rich

Ancient Chinese wheelbarrow
Rich and Poor
  • Only about 10 of the population lived in the
  • Cities were neatly laid out with main streets and
  • Each city was surrounded by a strong wall, made
    of earth and stone.
  • As cities are today, the ancient Han cities were
    centers of government, education, and trade
    Wealthy families lived in large estates.
  • Hired laborers, private security, and
  • Wealthy families lived in large estates.
  • Hired laborers, private security, and
  • Peasants made up 90 of population.
  • Long hours, low pay, heavy taxes.
  • The poor lived in houses packed together. They
    had very little food, and little to no
    sanitation. Many of the young males joined street
    gangs. Gangs wore distinctive clothes and armor,
    that identified their gang. Teen gangs roamed the
    cities, terrorizing people.

Commerce and Trade under the Han
  • Trade and commerce were not respected but were
    still very important
  • Government had monopolies
  • Salt mining
  • Iron forging
  • Coin minting
  • Alcohol brewing
  • Government engaged in industry
  • Silk weaving
  • Growth of trade along the Silk Roads

Family Life
  • Social Classes and Wealth
  • Social rank did not reflect prosperity.
  • Hard work and heavy labor did not reflect
  • A strong family was stressed so that people would
    obey the emperor.
  • Men
  • Men were the head of the household.
  • Rulers had to obey their elders too it was a
    crime to disobey.
  • Some men gained jobs based on the respect they
    showed to elders.
  • Women
  • Women were taught to obey their husbands.
  • Girls were not valued as highly as boys.
  • Women could influence their sons families

  • Buddhism was introduced
  • Literature
  • Fu style combination of prose and poetry
  • Shi style short lines of verse that could be sun
  • Confucian education system
  • University established 124 BCE
  • Art
  • The Han created realistic scenes from everyday
    life, advanced figure painting, and depictions of
    religious figures and Confucian scholars.
  • Porcelain
  • Paper was invented
  • The Han Chinese made paper by grinding plant
    fibers into a paste and then setting the paste
    out to dry in sheets. Later they rolled the dried
    pulp into scrolls.
  • Great increase in population and land holdings
    it doubled

Roles of Women under the Han
Chinese inventions
  • The Chinese invented many new products during the
    Han dynasty, such as the waterwheel, the rudder,
    drill bits, and steel.

  • Produced by tones based upon response of human
    heart to external things
  • Music govt directly related
  • Contentmentbroad slow
  • Joyebullient free
  • Music of well run state is peaceful joyous
  • Country in confusion full of resentment
    angerprotest music
  • Dying countrymournful pensive

Feng Shui
  • Chinese art of placement to establish balance
  • Geomancyfor grave placement
  • Propitious sites are on south facing slope with
    water at the base
  • Capitalizes on energy of the earth--qi
  • Belief that qi can be directed to benefit man

Unification of the Han Empire
  • The Han dynasty fell after wars, rebellions, and
    plots against the emperor. Civil war began, and
    nomads invaded the country before the government
  • Nomadic raiders Huns
  • Corruption, weak leaders
  • Collapse of bureaucracy
  • Buddhism spread from India to China.
  • Unrest in China helped Buddhism to spread
  • Buddhism helped people cope with the chaotic

Han 221 581 CE
  • Warlords control China no centralized
  • Non-Chinese nomads control much of China
  • Buddhism becomes popular
  • Confucianism fails

Political Institutions in China
  • Most tightly governed of any large society in the
  • Belief in desirability of central government
  • Power of the emperor
  • Shi Huangdi - single law code and uniform tax
  • Qin and Han stressed central authority and strong
  • Development of a educated, professional
  • Han create civil service tests
  • Expansion of state functions allowed government
    to reach the common people (ex regulation of
    agricultural production to control costs)
  • Little emphasis on military since China did not
    depend on expansion to maintain its stability

Economy in China
  • Large gaps between the upper class and the
    majority of people
  • Standardization of weights and measures by Qin
    facilitated trade
  • Focused on agriculture virtues of peasants
  • Yangtze River Valley
  • wheat in north, rice in south
  • population growth

Trade in China
  • Extensive and regular internal trade using copper
  • Trade focused on luxury items silk, jewelry,
    leather, furniture
  • Traded food between wheat and rice growing
  • Trade was not highly valued in Classical Chinese
    society (Confucian value of learning emphasized
    merchants viewed poorly)

Technological Advances in China
  • Ox-drawn plows (300 BCE)
  • Collar created that did not choke the animal
  • Iron mining
  • Pulleys bring material to surface
  • Improved tools and weapons
  • Water-powered mills
  • Aided manufacturing
  • Paper
  • Allows government to keep records

Society in China
  • Social classes passed down through families
  • Not permanent could move up
  • 3 social classes (hierarchical)
  • Landowning aristocracy and educated bureaucrats
  • Laboring masses peasants and urban artisans
  • Manual labor
  • Produced manufactured goods (crops, etc.)
  • Mean (average) people
  • People with unskilled jobs
  • Performing artists, merchants, household slaves
  • Punished more harshly than other groups

Families in China
  • Importance of unity and extended families
  • Power of husbands and fathers (patriarchy)
  • Power of parents
  • Children punished severely for disobedience
  • Ancestor worship
  • Role of women power through sons, and as
  • Property rights oldest male child inherited

Science in China
  • Sundial
  • Accurate calendar (444 BCE)
  • 365.25 days
  • Adept at astronomy
  • Observed movements of Saturn and Jupiter
  • Developed early seismograph
  • Measures earthquake strength
  • Acupuncture
  • Medical research
  • Principals of hygiene and anatomical knowledge

Technology in Ancient China
  • http//

Chinese Art
  • Highly decorative, often representing nature
  • Chinese calligraphy
  • Artwork found on bronze, pottery, carved jade,
    ivory, woven silk screens
  • No monumental buildings or large monuments
  • Many palaces and tombs