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Progressive Presidents

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Title: Progressive Presidents


1
Progressive Presidents
  • Angela Brown
  • Chapter 19 Section 3

2
  • 1912 progressive reformers created own
    political party
  • Ideas caught the attention of American voters and
    politicians.

3
Tafts Presidency
  • 1904 TR announced he would not seek another
    term. (day after election)
  • 1908 Roosevelt handpicked , Secretary of War,
    William Howard Taft to be Republican nominee.
  • William Jennings Bryan tried for a third and
    final time for the democrats.

4
  • Taft pledged to carry on TRs progressivism.
  • Pursued 90 anti-trust cases but gave in to
    republican old guard resisted many progressive
    programs.
  • Tariff reduction compromised caused a faction
    of progressives to develop within republican
    party who disliked Taft.

5
The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
  • Taft ignored conservationists people concerned
    with care and protection of natural resources
  • Richard Ballinger, Tafts Sec. Of Interior,
    allowed private group of business men to obtain
    millions of acres of Alaskan Public lands
    containing rich coal deposits.
  • Gifford Pinchot, TR appointee to head forest
    service felt Ballinger had shown preference to
    group and complained to Congressional Committee.

6
  • Taft fired Pinchot!
  • Upset progressive faction joined democrats
    voted to investigate Ballinger.
  • Ballinger resigned.
  • House Rules Committee- run by Old Guard had
    been able to block reform legislation.
  • 1910, amended rules committee would be appointed
    by House (not Speaker) and the Speaker could not
    serve on committee blocked powerful Speaker,
    Joseph Cannon

7
The Midterm Elections of 1910
  • TR began speaking in support of progressive
    candidates in 1910 midterm elections.
  • TR called for more federal regulation of
    business, welfare legislation, progressive
    reform, stronger workplace protections for women
    and children, income and inheritance taxes,
    direct primaries, initiative, referendum, and
    recall.
  • TR called this New Nationalism.

8
  • Republicans lost seats Progressives dominated
    Senate
  • 1912 TR announced opposition to Taft for
    republican nomination.

9
The Election of 1912
  • Taft controlled party machines and won
    nomination.
  • Progressives marched out and formed own party
    with Roosevelt as candidate.
  • TR stated, I feel fit as a Bull Moose!
    Progressive Party nicknamed the Bull Moose Party

http//www.wingitproductions.org/election/moose.gi
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10
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11
http//progressive.notanumberinc.com/trmoose.jpg
12
The Bull Moose Party
  • Platform tariff reduction, womens suffrage, more
    regulation of business, end to child labor, 8
    hour work day, federal workers compensation
    system, popular election of Senators.
  • Women joined and ran in states that had suffrage.
  • TR shot during speech in Milwaukee continued to
    speak for 1 ½ hours before receiving medical
    assistance It takes more than this to kill a
    bull moose.

13
A Four-Way Election
  • Taft, Republican
  • Roosevelt, Bull Moose Progressives
  • Eugene Debs, labor, Socialist
  • Woodrow Wilson, Governor of NJ, Democrat - reform
    platform- criticized big business and big
    government

14
http//history.utah.gov/news_and_events/currents/p
ast_issues/images/elections--taft.jpg
William H. Taft Republican Party
Theodore Roosevelt Bull Moose Party
15
http//www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/c
onlaw/debs.jpg
http//www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/jp/bball/jp_
bball_subj_m.jpg
Eugene Debs Socialist Party
Woodrow Wilson Democratic Party
16
  • New Freedom Policy promised to enforce
    anti-trust laws without threatening free economic
    competition
  • Wilson won with 42 of popular vote republican
    vote split
  • Democrats took control of both houses of
    Congress.

17
Wilsons Policies as President
  • Wilsons reputation as a reformer life now so
    complex government had to step in and create new
    conditions
  • 1914 Clayton Anti-Trust Act to strengthen
    Sherman spelled out specific activities big
    business could not do.
  • Could not use contracts to prevent buyers from
    purchasing goods form competitors.

18
  • Members of unions could not be held or construed
    to be illegal combinations in restraint of trade
    under anti-trust laws.
  • Strikes, peaceful picketing and boycotts were
    legal.
  • Courts could not issue injunctions unless
    irreparable injury to property occurred.

19
  • Government now committed to regulating business.
  • Wilson and Congress created Federal Trade
    Commission (FTC) in 1914 set up fair trade laws
    and enforce anti-trust laws issue cease and
    desist orders for unfair business practices.

20
The Federal Reserve System
  • 1913 established Federal Reserve System
    recognized federal banking system.
  • Created 8 to 12 Federal Reserve Banks throughout
    the country.
  • All national banks were required to become
    members.
  • Member banks stored some capital and cash
    reserves at district reserve.
  • All Reserves Supervised by Bd. Appointed by the
    President.

21
  • Reserves allowed member banks to borrow money for
    short-term demands helped during economic panic
  • New System of Currency Federal Reserve Notes
    allowed Federal Reserve to expand/contract amount
    of money in circulation according to business
    need
  • 1916 Federal Farm Loan Board made loans to
    farmers borrow for 5-40 years at rates lower
    than commercial banks

22
  • Allowed cabinet officers to extend Jim Crow
    practice of separating races in federal offices.
    (begun under Taft)
  • Opposed Amendment for Womens Sufferage party
    platform had not endorsed it
  • Brandeis appointed to Supreme Court.
  • 1916 Wilson nominated progressive lawyer Louis
    Brandeis to Supreme Court.

23
Louis Brandeis
  • Brandeis from Louisville, Kentucky The Peoples
    Lawyer
  • He had supported/advised Wilson during 1912
    campaign
  • opponents said too radical
  • first Jewish Supreme Court nominee
  • served until 1939
  • marked the peak of progressive reform

http//www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/law/supreme_court/r
oberts/ images/louis-brandeis_sub.jpg
24
Wilson Wins Second Term
  • 1916 Wilson ran again progressivism had lost
    some appeal
  • TR endorsed Republican, Charles Evan Hughes,
    former Governor of NY and Supreme Court Justice
    campaign dominated by war in Europe
  • Wilson won a narrow victory promising to keep us
    out of war.

25
The Limits of Progressivism
  • Progressives focused on problems of cities did
    not address plight to tenents/migrant
    farmers/nonunionized workers
  • Some supported immigration restrictions and
    literacy tests.
  • Supported government imperialistic policies
    abroad civilizing of underdeveloped nations.

26
  • African Americans felt ignored by progressives.
  • Only a tiny group of progressives that helped
    found the NAACP were concerned about race
    relations.
  • 1912 progressive party convention TR refused to
    seat African American delegates from south to
    avoid alienating Southern Supporters.
  • Some southern white progressives supported
    womens vote to double white vote.

27
End of Progressivism
  • 1914 war broke out in Europe calls to prepare
    for war drowned out calls for reform
  • 1916 reform spirit gone drive for women
    suffrage remained
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