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Title: John F. Kennedy The


1
John F. KennedyThe King of Camelotpart 1part
2part 3
2
The Political Scene of the 1960s
  • Two vivacious candidates looked to become the
    next President of the United States during the
    election of 1960.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy, grandson of Bostons
    former mayor, Honey Fitz and son of the previous
    Ambassador to England, Joseph Kennedy, looked to
    move his seat from the United States Senate to
    1600 Pennsylvania Ave.

3
Background
  • Of Irish descent, he was born in Brookline,
    Massachusetts, on May 29, 1917. Graduating from
    Harvard in 1940, he entered the Navy.
  • In 1943, when his PT boat 109 was rammed and sunk
    by a Japanese destroyer, Kennedy, despite grave
    injuries, led the survivors through perilous
    waters to safety.
  • Back from the war, he became a Democratic
    Congressman from the Boston area, advancing in
    1953 to the Senate.
  • He married Jacqueline Bouvier on September 12,
    1953.
  • In 1955, while recuperating from a back
    operation, he wrote Profiles in Courage, which
    won the Pulitzer Prize in history.

4
Nixon Background
  • Born in California in 1913, Nixon had a brilliant
    record at Whittier College and Duke University
    Law School before beginning the practice of law.
  • In 1940, he married Patricia Ryan they had two
    daughters, Patricia (Tricia) and Julie.
  • During World War II, Nixon served as a Navy
    lieutenant commander in the Pacific.
  • On leaving the service, he was elected to
    Congress from his California district.
  • In 1950, he won a Senate seat. Two years later,
    General Eisenhower selected Nixon, age 39, to be
    his running mate.
  • As Vice President, Nixon took on major duties in
    the Eisenhower Administration. Nominated for
    President by acclamation in 1960

5
The Road to the White House
  • In 1956 Kennedy almost gained the Democratic
    nomination for Vice President, and four years
    later was a first-ballot nominee for President.
  • Millions watched his television debates with the
    Republican candidate, Richard M. Nixon.
  • The Kennedy/Nixon debates were the first ones to
    occur on television.
  • People focused very much on what they candidates
    looked like and how they reacted.
  • People felt like the two candidates were right
    there with them.
  • As was stated, You can hear each man directly,
    Nothing is between you and what he says and
    You can see which man gets rattled easily
  • Debates

6
The Election
  • Both candidates used television as a means for
    campaigning.
  • The Democrats spent more than 6 million in
    television and radio spots while the Republicans
    spent just over 7.5 million
  • Kennedy Campaign
  • Nixon Campaign Ad
  • There were clearly two completely different
    tactics at used by two completely different
    people
  • However, both focused on issues of the Cold War,
    calling themselves Cold Warriors
  • However, they both preached different things in
    regard to the Cold War.

7
Their Thoughts
  • JFK was deeply concerning about the Soviet Union
  • He was also worried about the country of Cuba
    that was aligning itself with the Soviet Union
  • He also talked about a missile gap stating that
    the USA was behind the Soviets in regard to
    weaponry
  • Many had their doubts about the fact that he was
    Catholic. Protestants were afraid that
    Catholicism would run his Presidency instead of
    his governmental policies.
  • Nixon thought that the USA was on the right track
    thanks to IKE.
  • He warned that Democrats would bring inflation
    and that JFK had little knowledge about foreign
    affairs.

8
The Results
  • The election of 1960 was one of the closest
    elections in the history of the United States.
  • John F. Kennedy went to bed at his Cape Cod, MA
    home called Hyannis Port when there still was no
    winner declared.
  • When he awoke the next morning he found himself
    to be the next President of the United States.
  • He won the popular vote by 119,000 votes and the
    electoral college 303 to 219. In some states,
    only a few votes would have completely changed
    history.

9
The Kennedy Mystique
  • People were absolutely taken with JFK.
  • They loved his youth and optimism.
  • On Inauguration Day, January 20th, 1961 Kennedy
    once again pulled at the heart strings of
    Americans when he said
  • Kennedy Inauguration
  • The day was cold and the Inauguration almost
    canceled.
  • The problem with the weather
  • Scenes from the day
  • People were freezing but still they came all
    bundled up just to see him speak.
  • The Kennedy Mystique still is carried into today

10
Jackie Kennedy
  • Biography
  • The inauguration of John F. Kennedy in 1961
    brought to the White House and to the heart of
    the nation a beautiful young wife and the first
    young children of a President in half a century.
  • She was born Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, daughter of
    John Vernon Bouvier III and his wife, Janet Lee.
  • Her early years were divided between New York
    City and East Hampton, Long Island, where she
    learned to ride almost as soon as she could walk.
  • Jacqueline was dubbed "the Debutante of the Year"
    for the 1947-1948 season, but her social success
    did not keep her from continuing her education.

11
More On Jackie
  • As a Vassar student she traveled extensively, and
    she spent her junior year in France before
    graduating from George Washington University.
  • These experiences left her with a great empathy
    for people of foreign countries, especially the
    French.
  • In Washington she took a job as "inquiring
    photographer" for a local newspaper
  • Her path soon crossed that of Senator Kennedy,
    who had the reputation of being the most eligible
    bachelor in the capital.
  • Their romance progressed slowly and privately,
    but their wedding at Newport in 1953 attracted
    nationwide publicity.
  • Kennedy Marriage
  • With marriage "Jackie" had to adapt herself to
    the new role of wife to one of the country's most
    energetic political figures. Her own public
    appearances were highly successful, but limited
    in number.

12
More on Jackie
  • After the sadness of a miscarriage and the
    stillbirth of a daughter, Caroline Bouvier was
    born in 1957 John Jr. was born between the
    election of 1960 and Inauguration Day. Patrick
    Bouvier, born prematurely on August 7, 1963, died
    two days later.
  • Jackie's Feelings about Patrick's Death
  • To the role of First Lady, Jacqueline Kennedy
    brought beauty, intelligence, and cultivated
    taste.
  • Her interest in the arts, publicized by press and
    television, inspired an attention to culture
    never before evident at a national level.
  • She devoted much time and study to making the
    White House a museum of American history and
    decorative arts as well as a family residence of
    elegance and charm.
  • A Tour of the White House
  • She defined her major role as "to take care of
    the President" and added that "if you bungle
    raising your children, I don't think whatever
    else you do well matters very much."

13
More on Jackie
  • Mrs. Kennedy's gallant courage during the tragedy
    of her husband's assassination won her the
    admiration of the world. Thereafter it seemed the
    public would never allow her the privacy she
    desired for herself and her children.
  • She moved to New York City and in 1968 she
    married the wealthy Greek businessman, Aristotle
    Onassis, 23 years her senior, who died in March
    1975.
  • When her former brother-in-law Robert F. Kennedy
    was assassinated three months earlier, Jacqueline
    decided that Kennedys were being "targeted" and
    she and her children had to leave the States. So,
    marriage to Onassis made sense he had the power
    to give the protection she wanted she had the
    social cache he craved

14
Kennedys Policies
  • When Kennedy went to the White House he wanted to
    implement a new legislative program called The
    New Frontier
  • He wanted to increase aid to education, provide
    health insurance to the elderly, create a
    department of Urban Affairs and help migrant
    workers
  • Kennedy found out that it was difficult to pass
    legislation especially when Kennedy was not
    beloved by most democrats or republicans in the
    Congress
  • Congress defeated many of Kennedys policies
    health insurance for elderly, a Department of
    Urban Affairs, and federal aid to education.
  • Kennedy worked to lower the unemployment rate and
    to keep the economy on the upswing
  • He pushed businesses to to increase productivity
    and he asked Union leaders to keep the wage
    increases down.
  • When he met opposition from the steel workers he
    threatened by have the government by steel from
    some of the other countries.
  • His tactics worked by weakened his relationships
    with the countries business owners.

15
More Policies
  • JFK also adopted supply-side tactics and pushed
    for a cut in tax rates
  • Some people were afraid that a tax cut would only
    help the wealthy
  • Kennedy thought that a tax cut would give
    businesses more money to expand.
  • Congress refused the tax cut
  • Some members were afraid of inflation
  • They did support an Area Redevelopment Act and a
    Housing Act
  • Both these things would help the poor living in
    slums

16
Womens Rights and the Warren Commission
  • Kennedy helped women to make strides in the
    1960s
  • Kennedy had some women in prominent positions
    such as Esther Peterson who was the assistant
    secretary of labor and director of the Womens
    Bureau of the Department of Labor
  • In 1961 he created the Presidential Commission on
    the Status of Women
  • This promised federal action against gender
    discrimination and affirmed the right of women to
    be equally paid in employment
  • In 1963 he signed the Equal Pay Act for women
  • Earl Warren was the Chief Justice of the United
    States.
  • One of the most important things that the Warren
    Court did was called reappointment or the way
    in which states draw up political districts based
    on changes in population
  • The problem was that sometimes, in some districts
    the vote of an urban resident was less
    influential that a rural resident
  • See page 844 in the textbook

17
Extending Due Process and Beyond
  • The US Supreme Court decided to use the 14th
    Amendment in regard to the Bill of Rights
  • The 14th Amendment says that no state shall
    deprive any person of life, liberty or property
    without due process of law
  • Due Process means that the law may not treat
    individuals unfairly, arbitrarily or
    unreasonably, and that courts must follow proper
    procedures and rules when trying cases
  • In the 1960s the Supreme Court said that this
    applied to all states when upholding the Bill of
    Rights
  • Some changes made
  • State courts could not consider evidence obtained
    in violation of the federal Constitution
  • Defendants have a right to a lawyer even if they
    cant pay themselves
  • Miranda Warnings right to remain silent before
    being questioned by the police, anything said can
    be used against them, they have a right to a
    lawyer and one could be provided if necessary

18
Church and State
  • The Warren Court also made rules about this
    saying
  • States could not compose official prayers and
    require those prayers to be recited in state
    public schools
  • There could be no state-mandated Bible readings
    in public schools
  • Finally, prohibiting the sale and use of birth
    control devices violated citizens constitutional
    rights

19
Kennedy Global Challenges
  • The major issue when Kennedy came to office was
    the relationship between The USA and The Soviet
    Union
  • As a result, Kennedy spent a lot of his time
    trying to guide the nation through the Cold War
  • His main focus was to stop the spread of
    communism using different programs
  • He looked for what was called the flexible
    response for nations that needed help against
    communism
  • Kennedy pushed for a build up of conventional
    troops and weapons.
  • He also supported guerilla warfare in limited
    conflicts.
  • The soldiers of this became known as green
    berets complete with green berets head gear.

20
Latin America
  • JFK was worried about Latin America because the
    conditions were so bad
  • Many were in extreme poverty with the wealthy
    running the government
  • The USA wanted to stop communism from coming into
    Latin America by keeping the existing government
    in power so military personnel were sent there
  • The Latin Americans did not like the intrusion of
    the troops
  • JFK created Alliance for Progress to help create
    a free and prosperous Latin America
  • Over a 10 year period the USA promised 20
    billion to help Latin American countries
    establish schools, housing, health care, and
    fairer land distribution
  • The money was not always used in a positive way
    but instead to keep some of the same governments
    in control

21
The Peace Corps
  • The Peace Corps was designed to help fight
    poverty
  • It sent young Americans to perform humanitarian
    services in poorer countries
  • The participants were trained and then they were
    to spend 2 years in the countries that needed
    assistance
  • They laid out sewage systems in Bolivia and
    trained medical technicians in Chad.
  • Some taught English or built roads
  • By late 1963 1,000s of Americans were in 30
    countries
  • The Peace Corps is still alive and well today as
    one of JFKs best legacies
  • The Peace Corps today

22
Crises of the Cold War Bay of Pigs
  • The first crisis was in Cuba which is only 90
    miles outside of the American shores
  • Fidel Castro established ties with the Soviet
    Union, instituted land reforms, and seized
    foreign-owned businesses, many of them were
    American.
  • The Cuban alliance with the Soviets and Soviet
    Premier Nikita Khrushchev was disturbing.
  • Khrushchev wanted to strengthen Cuban militarily
  • When IKE was President he was also afraid of the
    Soviet/Cuban relationship so he gave the CIA
    permission to start training and arming Cuban
    exiles known as La Brigada. Their job would be to
    invade the island. This would hopefully begin an
    uprising against Castro

23
More
  • When JKF became President his administration
    okayed the mission.
  • The Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • On April 17th, 1961, only three months into JFKs
    Presidency, 1,400 armed Cuban exiles landed at
    the Bay of Pigs on the South of Cuba.
  • The invasion was a disaster
  • La Brigadas boats ran into coral reef
  • The USA canceled air support
  • The point was to keep the USA involvement a
    secret
  • The uprising against Castro never happened
  • Within 2 days Castro had captured or killed
    almost all the members of La Brigada
  • This was a dark moment for the JFK administratio,
    the USA looked weak and disorganized

24
The Creation of the Berlin Wall
  • In June of 1961 Kennedy went to Vienna, Austria
    to meet with Khrushchev he would be tested again
  • Khrushchev wanted to stop the amount of people
    leaving Communist East Germany for West Germany
  • He thus demanded that the Western powers
    recognize East Germany and that the USA, Great
    Britain and France get out of Berlin which was a
    city located in East Germany
  • Obviously JFK refused, so Khrushchev responded by
    building a wall through Berlin placing guards on
    the wall so that those trying to escape East
    Berlin could be shot.
  • It lasted for 30 years there afterward, a visible
    symbol of the Cold War
  • The story of the Berlin Wall

25
The Cuban Missile Crisis
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis is one of the most
    intense in the history of the USA
  • This occurred in 1962
  • Over the summer, American intelligence agencies
    learned that Soviet technicians and equipment had
    landed in Cuba
  • To top it off, military expansion was beginning.
  • October 22nd, 1962 President Kennedy announced on
    TV that American spy planes had taken photos
    showing that there were long range missile placed
    in Cuba
  • JFK responds
  • These obviously posed a dangerous threat
  • This was mostly because they were capable of
    reaching the USA
  • JFK ordered a naval blockade to stop the Soviets
    from delivering more missiles
  • He also demanded that they dismantle the weapons
    and that any weapons used against the USA would
    be responded to against the Soviet Union

26
More on the Crisis
  • The Soviet Union ignored the USA
  • Nuclear Holocaust seemed evident
  • The crisis
  • part 2
  • There were many letters that were issued between
    Khrushchev and JFK
  • The Soviets offered a deal
  • If the USA would promised not to invade Cuba and
    to remove its missiles from Turkey near the
    Soviet border the Soviets would remove their
    missiles as well
  • On October 28th, 1962 an agreement was made and
    the missile were removed
  • The truth being that neither side wanted a
    nuclear war

27
  • Only lunaticswho themselves want to perish and
    before they die destroy the world, could do this
  • Khrushchev

28
The Impact
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the world the
    closest it had ever been to nuclear war
  • It also pushed the two countries to learn to work
    together
  • In August of 1963 the USA and the Soviet Union
    finally came together to ban the testing of
    nuclear weapons
  • The backing down of the Soviets lead to the fall
    of Khrushchev and a new leader who was adamant
    about building up military and weapons by the
    Soviets
  • This also showed the Soviets that they didnt
    want to negotiate with the West
  • The USA also engaged in a weaponry build up which
    lasted until the 1980s

29
The Assassination
  • By the fall of 1963, President Kennedy and his
    political advisers were preparing for the next
    presidential campaign.
  •  
  • Although he had not formally announced his
    candidacy, it was clear that JFK was going to run
    and he seemed confidentthough not
    over-confident about his chances for re-election.
  • At the end of September, the President traveled
    west speaking in nine different states in less
    than a week. While the trip was meant to put a
    spotlight on natural resources and conservation
    efforts, JFK also used it to sound out themes --
    such as education, national security, and world
    peace -- for his run in 1964. In particular, he
    cited the achievement of a limited nuclear test
    ban, which the Senate had just approved and which
    was a potential issue in the upcoming election.
    The publics enthusiastic response was
    encouraging.

30
Again.!!!
  • A month later, the President addressed Democratic
    gatherings in Boston and Philadelphia. Then, on
    November 12, he held the first important
    political planning session for the upcoming
    election year. 
  • At the meeting, JFK stressed the importance of
    winning Florida and Texas and talked about his
    plans to visit both states in the next two weeks.
    Mrs. Kennedy would be accompanying him on the
    swing through Texas, which would be her first
    extended public appearance since the loss of
    their baby, Patrick, in August.
  • On November 21, the President and First Lady
    departed on Air Force One for the two-day,
    five-city tour of Texas. JFK was aware that a
    feud among party leaders in Texas could
    jeopardize his chances of carrying the state in
    1964, and one of his aims for the trip was to
    bring Democrats together. He also knew that a
    relatively small but vocal group of extremists
    was contributing to the political tensions in
    Texas and would likely make its presence
    feltparticularly in Dallas, where UN Ambassador
    Adlai Stevenson had been physically attacked a
    month earlier after making a speech there.

31
The Trip to Texas
  • Nonetheless, JFK seemed to relish the prospect of
    leaving Washington, getting out among the people
    and into the political fray.   
  • The first stop was San Antonio. Vice President
    Lyndon B. Johnson, Governor John B. Connally and
    Senator Ralph W. Yarborough led the welcoming
    party
  • Continuing on to Houston, he addressed a Latin
    American citizens organization and spoke at a
    testimonial dinner for Congressman Albert Thomas
    before ending the day in Fort Worth.
  • A light rain was falling on Friday morning,
    November 22, but a crowd of several thousand
    stood in the parking lot outside the Texas Hotel
    where the Kennedys had spent the night. 
  • A platform had been set up and the President,
    wearing no protection against the weather, came
    out to make some brief remarks. There are no
    faint hearts in Fort Worth, he began, and I
    appreciate your being here this morning. Mrs.
    Kennedy is organizing herself. It takes longer,
    but, of course, she looks better than we do when
    she does it.

32
The Last Stand
  • The presidential party left the hotel and went by
    motorcade to Carswell Air Force Base for the
    thirteen-minute flight to Dallas. Arriving at
    Love Field, President and Mrs. Kennedy
    disembarked and immediately walked toward a fence
    where a crowd of well-wishers had gathered, and
    they spent several minutes shaking hands.
  • The First Lady was presented with a bouquet of
    red roses, which she brought with her to the
    waiting limousine. Governor John Connally and his
    wife, Nellie, were already seated in the open
    convertible as the Kennedys entered and sat
    behind them. Since it was no longer raining, the
    plastic bubble top had been left off. Vice
    President and Mrs. Johnson occupied another car
    in the motorcade

33
The President has been shot!!
  • The procession left the airport and traveled
    along a ten-mile route that wound through
    downtown Dallas on the way to the Trade Mart
    where the President was scheduled to speak at a
    luncheon. Crowds of excited people lined the
    streets waving to the Kennedys as they waved
    back.
  • The car turned off Main Street at Dealey Plaza
    around 1230 p.m. As it was passing the Texas
    School Book Depository, gunfire suddenly
    reverberated in the plaza. Bullets struck the
    Presidents neck and head and he slumped over
    toward Mrs. Kennedy. The Governor was also hit in
    the chest.

34
Pronouncing Him Dead
  • The car sped off to Parkland Memorial Hospital
    just a few minutes away. But there was little
    that could be done for the President. A Catholic
    priest was summoned to administer the last rites
    and at 100 p.m. John F. Kennedy was pronounced
    dead. Governor Connolly, though seriously
    wounded, would recover. 
  • Cronkite Tells the Country
  • People React to JFK's Assassination

35
Lee Harvey Oswald
  • The Presidents body was brought to Love Field
    and placed on Air Force One.  Before the plane
    took off, a grim-faced Lyndon B. Johnson stood in
    the tight, crowded compartment and took the oath
    of office, The brief ceremony took place at 238
    p.m.
  • Less than an hour earlier, police had arrested
    Lee Harvey Oswald, a recently-hired employee at
    the Texas School Book Depository. He was being
    held for the assassination of President Kennedy
    as well as the fatal shooting, shortly afterward,
    of Patrolman J.D. Tippit on a Dallas street.
  • Lee Harvey Oswald
  • On Sunday morning, the 24th, Oswald was scheduled
    to be transferred  from police headquarters to
    the county jail.
  • Viewers across America watching the live TV
    coverage suddenly saw a man aim a pistol and fire
    at point blank range. The assailant was
    identified as Jack Ruby, a local nightclub owner.
    Oswald died two hours later at Parkland Hospital.
  • Oswald is Shot
  • What really happened to Oswald?

36
Jack Ruby
  • On November 24, 1963, Dallas, Texas, police were
    transferring Lee Harvey Oswald, who had been
    arrested for assassinating President John F.
    Kennedy two days earlier, from one jail to
    another.
  • A crowd of journalists, photographers, and police
    crowded around in the jail's basement garage, and
    watched as Oswald was led out and was about to be
    placed in a police car.
  • Suddenly, Jack Ruby, an owner of a Dallas
    nightclub and admirer of President Kennedy,
    stepped forward, drew a gun, and killed Oswald.
    The whole incident was captured on live
    television, shocking viewers who witnessed the
    crime
  • Jack Ruby was found guilty of murder on March 14,
    1964, and sentenced to death
  • In 1967, Jack Ruby died of cancer in prison
    before a new trial could be held.
  • A Plot?

37
Laying JFK to Rest The Eternal Flame
  • On Monday, November 25, 1963 President Kennedy
    was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery.
    The funeral was attended by heads of state and
    representatives from more than 100 countries,
    with untold millions more watching on television.
  • Afterward, an eternal flame was lit at the grave
    site by Mrs. Kennedy and her husbands brothers,
    Robert and Edward. Perhaps the most indelible
    images of the day were the salute to his father
    given by little John F. Kennedy, Jr. (whose third
    birthday it was), daughter Caroline kneeling next
    to her mother at the Presidents bier, and the
    extraordinary grace and dignity shown by
    Jacqueline Kennedy.
  • JFK Funeral and John John

38
Zapruder Film
  • The Zapruder Film
  • The Zapruder film is a silent Standard 8 mm color
    home movie of the presidential motorcade of John
    F. Kennedy through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas,
    on November 22, 1963, filmed by a private citizen
    named Abraham Zapruder.
  • The film is the most complete visual recording of
    the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
  • There were 32 other photographers there that day.
  • The Warren Commission looked at the Zapruder Film
    when conducting its investigation.
  • Truth or Hoax?

39
The Warren Court
  • After Kennedy was killed, Vice President Lyndon
    Johnson became president, and he appointed the
    President's Commission on the Assassination of
    President John F. Kennedy. Chaired by Supreme
    Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Commission
    investigated circumstances surrounding the
    shootings of Kennedy and Oswald.
  • In September 1964, the commission reported it had
    found no evidence that Oswald and Ruby were
    involved in a conspiracy to assassinate the
    president.

40
The Conspiracy Theories
  • Secret Service Standoff
  • Conspiracy Theory part 1
  • Part 2
  • part 3
  • What do you think? Assassination? Conspiracy?

41
JFK Will Always be Remembered
  • . . . don't let it be forgot that for one brief
    shining moment there was Camelot

42
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