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International Comparison:


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Title: International Comparison:

  • International Comparison
  • How to Negotiate with People from Different

Influences of cultural factors
  • 1. what is culture???????????????,???????????????
  • 2. influences of cultures on INB
  • (1)understanding of time value
  • (2)egoism and collectivism
  • (3)roles hierarchy and coordination of
  • (4)linguistic and non-linguistic communication

  • I?how to negotiate with Americans
  • In the U.S., the rituals involved in exchanging
    business cards are sometimes not observed as
    closely as in other cultures.
  • Meetings will proceed after some brief,
    preliminary small talk. Usually, business is
    conducted at an extremely fast pace. Americans
    tend to dislike periods of silence during
    negotiations they are used to making up their
    minds quickly and decisively. Often, American
    business people try to extract an oral agreement
    at the first meeting.
  • Many Americans believe that their country is the
    most successful economic and democratic power,
    and assume that American ways are the correct
    ones. This attitude frequently leads to a lack of
    interest in or knowledge of other cultures.

  • 4. The United States is a very ethnocentric
    culture, and so it is closed to most outside
    information. Thinking tends to e analytical,
    concepts are abstracted quickly, and the
    universal rules is preferred.
  • 5. Regardless of the negotiator, company policy
    is always followed. There are established rules
    fro everything, and experts are relied upon at
    all levels.
  • 6. The concept time is money is taken seriously
    in U.S. business culture, so always get to the
    point. Americans often know little of concept
    such as saving face and the social niceties and
    formalities that are vitally important to other
    cultures. In general, people can be very blunt
    and will not hesitate to disagree with you.
  • 7. In arguments, Americans will often emphasize
    their financial strength and/or indomitable
    position. Generally, they will use a majority
    vote unhesitatingly if they have it and will not
    spend much time seeking

  • consensus. In many cases, they are willing to
    fire anyone jeopardizing their deal.
  • 8. Americans regard negotiating as problem
    solving through give and take based on
    respective strength. They often are unaware that
    other side may have only one position.
  • 9. American businesspeople are opportunistic and
    willing to take chances. Opportunism and risk
    taking often result in Americans going for the
    biggest possible slice of the business, 100 if
  • 10. U.S. salespeople sometimes bring final
    contracts to first meeting with prospective
    clients. In large firms, contracts under 10,000
    can often be approved by one middle manager in a
    single meeting.
  • 11. Be aware that the United States is the most
    litigious society in the world. There are lawyers
    who specialize in practically every industry and
    segment of society.

  • 12. In negotiations, evidence is sometimes biased
    by faith in the ideologies of democracy,
    capitalism and consumerism. The subjective
    feelings of the participants are not as much of a
  • 13. Persistence is another characteristic you
    will frequently encounter in American
    businesspeople there is a prevailing belief that
    there is always a solution. Moreover, they will
    explore all options when negotiations are at an
  • 14. Anxiety often develops over deadlines and
    results. The work ethic is strong, so that it
    appears that Americans lives revolve around
  • 15. Consistency is another characteristic among
    American business people when they agree to a
    deal, they rarely change their minds.
  • 16. Americans tend to be future oriented.
    Innovation often takes precedence over tradition.
    This culture stresses individual initiative and
    achievement. Moreover, Americans can also be very
    competitive in

  • both work and leisure.
  • 18. Golf is a popular sport, especially among
    business people. Moreover, the golf course is
    often a venue for business discussion and deals.
  • 19. Ethnic and social bias against some
    minorities does exist. Nevertheless, personal
    equality is advocated by law.
  • 20. Outside of the office, Americans tend to
    informal and insist on staying on a first name
    basis. nevertheless, its important to
    understand the office hierarchy, and a visitor
    should learn the rank and titles of all members
    of the organization.

  • II?how to negotiate with Japanese
  • Choose your intermediaries carefully. Select
    someone of the same rank as the person with whole
    you will have dealings. Moreover, an intermediary
    should not be part of either company involved
    with the deal.
  • Business cards (meishi) are an important part
    of doing business in Japan and key for
    establishing credentials. Have the reverse side
    printed in Japanese.
  • Its a good policy to refrain from discussing
    business until the first 15 minutes of any
  • Saving face is an important concept to
    understand. In Japanese business culture, a
    persons reputation and social standing rests on
    this concept. When a person loses his or her
    composure of otherwise causes embarrassment, even
    unintentionally, this

  • be disastrous for business negotiations.
  • 6. In your dealings with Japanese business
    culture, remain indirect. If it is necessary to
    discuss bad news, use an intermediary, such as
    the one who introduced you to the company. Using
    a Japanese lawyer, rather a Western one, will be
    perceived as a gesture of good will and
  • 7. The highest-ranking individual may appear to
    be the most quiet of everyone present. When the
    Japanese are trying to listen carefully to what
    is being said, they sometimes appear to be
    sleeping with their eyes closed.
  • 8. In a presentation, you must describe how your
    product can enhance the prosperity and reputation
    of the Japanese side.

  • 9. The Japanese will commit themselves to an oral
    agreement, which may be acknowledged by a nod or
    slight bow, rather than by shaking hands.
    Contracts can be renegotiated in Japanese
    business protocol, they are not final agreement.
  • 10. It is considered polity to frequently say
    Im sorry. For example, the Japanese will
    apologize for any personal flaw.

III?How to negotiate with Korean people
  • You and your new acquaintances will risk losing
    face if you do not have cards to present during
    introductions. Your title should be emphasized on
    your business card. Have the reverse side of your
    card translated into Korean.
  • Contracts are important here, since South Koreans
    tend to be suspicious of people they do not know
    or those with whom they do not have mutual
    contact. Be aware that personal relationships
    generally take precedence over business.

  • 4. South Korea is a collectivist culture, so the
    group, rather than the individual, prevails.
    Always treat the elderly with respect. Make a
    point of acknowledging them first in a group. Do
    not smoke or wear sunglasses in their presence.
  • 5. Saving face is an important concept to
    understand and in South Korea business culture, a
    persons reputation and social standing rests on
    this concept.
  • 6. There is often a reluctance to give a direct
    answer of no. sucking in air through our teeth
    is one way to signal a definite answer of no. A
    lukewarm response

  • such as maybe may also be used to disguise a
    no answer. A yes answer should not always be
    taken literally. For example, a yes may be used
    to disguise a non-committal response such as
    Ill think about it or an outright no.
  • 7. South Korea often prefer to reach a general
    agreement, and then work out the details later.
    To some South Koreans, a contract is only a
    general guide for conducting business. They may
    still have the perception that a contract is not
    as important as the interpersonal relationship
    between the two parties.
  • 8. Do not sign a contract or write a persons
    name in red ink, since this indicates that the
    person is deceased.

  • IV?how to negotiate with Germans
  • Include in your card your full title or position,
    and any university degrees you have earned or
    professional organizations with which you are
    affiliated. Your business cards can be printed in
    English, since most German businesspeople are
    familiar with it.
  • Germans tend to be intensely analytical thinkers.
    Objective facts are the basis for truth in German
    business culture feelings are irrelevant,
    especially in negotiations.
  • There can also be a tendency among German
    business people to be unreceptive to new ideas
    and concepts. Flexibility and spontaneity are not
    prominent traits in German business culture.
  • When you are preparing promotional or
    presentation material, be aware that German
    business people are

  • usually unimpressed by glitzy advertising,
    illustrations, and memorable slogans. Brochures
    should be serious in tone, go into lengthy
    detail, and make claims that can be proven.
  • 5. Germans will sometimes look for deficiencies
    in your products or services and will criticize
    you openly if you fail to live up to all of your
    claims. You should be prepared to apologize to
    your German counterpart if you have disappointed
    them in any way. And you will also be expected to
  • 6. In German culture, rules of any kind are meant
    to be taken seriously. German businesspeople will
    not make concessions easily. Any attempts to be
    aggressive and confrontational with a sizeable
    German company are usually counterproductive.

  • 7. Decision-making in German business culture is
    slow, protracted, and every detail relating to
    your proposal will be painstakingly examined.
  • 8. Contracts are taken very seriously in German
    business culture anything agreed to in writing
    is virtually guaranteed. Once a decision is
    finally made, its unchangeable.
  • 9. At the end of a meeting, Germans sometimes
    signal their approval or thanks by gently rapping
    their knuckles on the tabletop instead of

V?How to negotiate with Russians
1. Its advisable to have your business card
translated into Russian on the reverse side. In
addition to your full name and title, ensure that
you include any university degrees you have
  • 2. Its essential that you deal with the key
    decision-makers, rather than gate-keepers or
    other go-betweens who are often sent to meet with
    new visitors. Ensure that you have a contact
    outside of the negotiations who is an expert in
    Russian law.
  • 3. Allowing your Russian contact to get to know
    you personally is an essential part of
    successfully conducting business here. Having a
    drink with your Russian counterpart is one of the
    easiest ways to establish good will.
  • 4. The first meeting is usually just a formality,
    a time for the Russians to assess the credibility
    of you and your company. Try to appear very firm
    and dignified, while maintaining an air of warmth
    and approachability. Meetings will often be
    interrupted by phone calls or visitors. And it
    will take a long time for decisions to be made.

  • 5. Presentations should be simple and easy to
    understand given the lack of resources, there is
    no need for special visuals or other frills. When
    conducting a presentation in English, its
    essential that any promotional material and other
    documentation be printed in Russian.
  • 6. Generally, Russians view compromise as a sign
    of weakness. Often, they will refuse to back down
    until the other side agrees to make sufficient
    concessions or shows exceptional firmness.
    Sometimes youll expect loss of temper, walkouts,
    threats to end the deal.
  • 7. The Russians sometimes insist on having a
    written protocol similar to minutes, detailing
    what has been discussed in the meeting. At the
    end of the meeting, the protocol is read,
    everyone agrees to it, and it is signed.

  • 8. Contracts should be clear, concise, and
    translated into Russian. Once a contract is
    signed, dont be surprised if terms in the
    contract are not met. It is quite common for
    Russians to attempt to make modifications.
  • ?. How to negotiate with Saudi Arabians
  • Non-Muslims may not enter Saudi Arabia without an
    invitation, which typically involves being
    sponsored by a prominent Saudi. Your Saudi
    contact-sponsor is vital to your business success
    here. Your sponsor will act as an intermediary
    and arrange appointments with the appropriate
  • Business cards should be translated into Arabic
    on the reverse side.
  • In Saudi Arabia, however, religions has a

  • influence on politics, social behavior, and
    business. Saudis tend to be unreceptive to
    outside information that is incompatible with
    Islamic values.
  • 4. The male leader is the key decision-maker, but
    he does not proceed until he had the consensus of
    the group. Since the pace of business is slow in
    Saudi Arabia, patience is essential.
  • 5. its an asset for all business
    travelers-regardless of their personality-to make
    an effort to offer praise rather than criticism,
    learn about the basis tenets of Islam, dress
    well, receive and extend favors without qualms,
    show respect for elders, and be very
    accommodating and relaxed at all times.
  • 6. Typically, business meetings start slowly,
    with plenty of questions regarding your health
    and journey.

  • 7. Eye contact is extremely important when
    speaking to Saudis. Take your sunglasses off and
    look people directly in the eye.
  • 8. Appointments are rarely private occasions.
    Interruptions in the form of phone calls and
    visits from your contacts friends and family are
    to be expected. Furthermore, you may find other
    business people present and several meetings
    occurring simultaneously.
  • 9 . Women business travelers will be accepted
    without veils, but only if they dress
  • 10. Its normal to speak in a verbose and almost
    aggressive manner to make a point. Not only do
    you have to speak more, you have to increase the
    volume as well. Loudness of voice, rising pitch
    and tone - even shouting are perceived as signs
    of sincerity.

  • 11. Saving face and avoiding shame are of deep
    importance to Saudis. You may have to compromise
    on an issue to protect someones dignity.
  • 12. Flattery is important in Saudi business
    culture. Do not hesitate to praise aspects of
    Saudi Arabia that you find appealing. Praising
    Saudi women, however, is strictly out of bounds.
  • 13. Be aware that Arabic is a language of
    hyperbole. For example, when a Saudi says yes,
    he may actually mean possibly. Although you
    should feel encouraged by these positive
    responses, it would be wrong to assume that the
    negotiating is over.
  • 14. Saudis may be reluctant to give you bad news
    about business keep this in mind if all of the
    feedback you receive seems unusually positive.
  • 15. When coffee is served and incense lit, this
    is often a signal that the meeting is about to