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Western Civilization I HIS-101


Western Civilization I HIS-101 Unit 3 - Archaic and Early Classical Greece (1150-400 BCE) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Western Civilization I HIS-101

Western Civilization IHIS-101
  • Unit 3 - Archaic and Early Classical Greece
  • (1150-400 BCE)

Greek Dark Age (c. 1150-800 BCE)
  • After the fall of the Mycenaean kingdoms, Greece
    went into a period known as the Greek Dark Ages
  • It lasted roughly from 1150-800 BCE
  • This was a period of characterized by
  • Instability due to the effects of the Sea People
    not only in Greece but in the entire eastern
  • Failing food supplies
  • Large migrations both within Greece and out of it
  • The population of Greek declined by up to 90
    during this period
  • Many moved to Asia Minor and islands in the
    Aegean Sea
  • Those who remained in Greece moved inland as it
    was safer to be away from the coast

Greek Dark Age (c. 1150-800 BCE)
  • The Greek religion began to reflect new attitudes
  • The gods were no longer viewed in positive light
    with the same faults as humans
  • They were considered to be moody and petty and
    liked to interfere in the lives of humans
  • To the Greeks, the gods were to be humored and
    placated but never trusted
  • By 1000 BCE, other groups from around the Near
    East began to increase their contact with the
  • Greek pottery was in huge demand so trade was
    opened up with them

Greek Dark Age (c. 1150-800 BCE)
  • One of the first groups that the Greeks came into
    contact with was the Phoenicians
  • The Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet and
    modified it to fit their language better
  • They also adopted the Phoenician boat designs for
    merchant sea vessels
  • As their economy grew so did their movement
    throughout the region
  • Many traveled between the mainland, the islands,
    and Asia Minor, coming into greater contact with
    other Greeks
  • There was also migration into the cities
  • By 800 BCE, the Dark Age ended

  • Greece c. 750 BCE

Archaic Greece (800-480 BCE)
  • Greek civilization flourished during this period
  • Life centered around the polis as the main
  • The Polis (pl. poleis) is a small but autonomous
    political unit
  • It centered on a city or town and its surrounding
  • All major political, social, and religious
    activities were held in one central location
  • The actual origins of the polis started with
  • This is the process of conquering and absorbing,
    and/or working together with neighboring
  • Not all poleis were the same
  • They varied in size and population
  • Each polis also had its own patron deity
  • Rivalries and animosity between poleis would
    eventually lead to the ruin of Greece

Archaic Greece (800-480 BCE)
  • Greek colonization began during the 8th and 7th
    centuries BCE
  • By the 6th century Greek colonization spread from
    the Black Sea to the western Mediterranean
  • What were the reasons behind Greek colonization?
  • Overpopulation
  • Shortage of land
  • Establishment of trade routes
  • Impacts
  • Colonization also helped spread Greek culture
  • There was also the creation of a new group of
    wealthy elites
  • They acquired their wealth through trade
  • They wanted political privileges proportionate to
    their wealth

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  • Homer
  • (c. 8th c. BCE)

The Heroic Tradition
  • In Archaic Greece, wealth as well as trade became
    important in Greek society
  • A small group of aristocrats (aristoi) began to
  • They saw their wealth as proof of their
  • But wealth was not the only thing the aristocracy
    strived for
  • Rise of the heroic tradition
  • They needed to be heroes as well they needed
    to win battles, travel to distant lands, be
    courageous, strong, and wise
  • Overall, they must be favored by the gods
  • This was best illustrated in the works of Homer
    (8th century BCE)

The Heroic Tradition
  • His two main works were the Iliad and the Odyssey
  • Writing in the 8th century BCE but were about
    events that occurred during the Mycenaean period
  • They reflect social conditions of 8th century BCE
  • Both stories illustrate courage, acts of bravery,
    and battles the foundations of the Heroic
  • These stories may have originated as oral
  • Homers poems were treated as historical facts
  • They were used as educational texts on how to be
    a proper aristocrat

  • Hoplites

Rise of the Hoplites
  • During the Dark Age, fighting occurred on
    horseback amongst aristocrat-warriors
  • As the dominant military force, they were able to
    hold political and social power
  • During the 7th century BCE, a new military order
    emerged hoplite warrior
  • Heavily armed infantrymen
  • Wore basic equipment helmets, breastplates, and
  • They carried a round shield, a short sword, and
    an 8-10 foot long thrusting spear
  • To become a hoplite, all you had to do was
    provide your own armor

Rise of the Hoplites
  • New battle formation phalanx
  • Stand shoulder to shoulder in tight formation,
    eight ranks deep
  • They would carry their large shields to protect
    the man next to him and a large spear
  • As long as they did not break their formation or
    were outflanked they were nearly unbeatable
  • Origins of hoplite warfare
  • Unknown but may have learned it from the
  • It was quickly became a standard military tactic
  • The aristocratic cavalry was now outdated
  • As a result, the aristocracy was no longer the
    dominant military power
  • Hoplites began demanding political power

  • The Greek Symposium

Archaic Greek Society
  • Society was based not only on wealth but status
  • King was at the top
  • Warrior-aristocracy dominated the poleis in both
    wealth and political power
  • Everybody else was at the bottom
  • Roles of men and women reflected the heroic
  • Men were to be the heroes
  • Women helped their men live up to their roles
  • The aristocrats developed a very distinct culture
    and lifestyle
  • Holding office in the polis
  • The symposium
  • Pederasty

  • The erastes (lover) fondling the genitals of the
    eromenos (beloved)

Rise of Greek Tyranny
  • Not all aristocrats enjoyed power
  • Small oligarchies controlled the politics in the
  • Others were left feeling alienated
  • Some aristocrats turned to hoplites as allies
  • Both groups felt excluded from politics
  • With military backing, these aristocrats could
    now take power through force
  • Rise of Tyranny (7th century BCE)
  • Old oligarchies were overthrown via coup d'état
  • Those who took control became known tyrants
  • Lydian term tyrannos - someone who seized power
  • They gave the hoplites legal and economic rights
    and even in some cases political rights

Rise of Greek Tyranny
  • The term tyrant did not originally have a
    negative connotation
  • Because they had taken power illegally, they had
    to justify their rule
  • Their heirs were corrupt and tended to be cruel
    and unjust rulers
  • By the end of the 6th century, tyranny was
    largely eliminated in Greece
  • It did have a number of long lasting effects
  • Ended the rule of aristocratic oligarchies
  • Opened the door for greater participation in
  • Led to the rise of democracy in some poleis and
    extended oligarchies in others

  • The Greek World

The Archaic Poleis
  • During the Archaic period, the various Greek
    poleis developed in unique and very different
  • The diversity is seen in three different Greek
    poleis Athens, Sparta, and Miletus
  • None of these should be seen as typical because
    of the level of diversity
  • These are the three most documented poleis and
    historians know little about many of the others
  • By 500 BCE, they all developed into powerful yet
    unique entities

  • Vessel from Archaic Period Athens

Archaic Athens
  • Governed by aristocratic oligarchy
  • Two main bodies
  • Archons Magistrates
  • Areopagus Council High Court
  • 7th century BCE problems
  • Rise of debt-slavery
  • Increasing violence among rival aristocratic
  • First coup detat attempt was in 632 BCE
  • Cylon tried to seize control over Athens
  • The Athenians revolted against him
  • Cylon managed to flee the city but his followers
    were executed

Archaic Athens
  • The aristocracy need to stabilize the rivalries
    between themselves
  • They thought clarifying the old laws and put them
    in writing would help
  • In 621 BCE, Draco was selected to write the laws
  • Draconian punishments
  • Used harsh punishments by the state to stop
  • Failed to do so
  • Calls were made for a neutral figure to run the
  • This was to prevent an attempted coup d'état
    and/or civil war

Archaic Athens
  • In 594 BCE, the aristocracy selected Solon to be
    sole archon of Athens for one year
  • He brought about sweeping economic reforms
  • Cancelled all land debts
  • Outlawed debt slavery and bought the freedom for
    those already put into slavery
  • Encouraged the cultivation of cash-crops (e.g.,
    grapes and olives)
  • He made sweeping political reforms
  • Divided up the citizen population into four
  • Every male citizen, except those in the poorest
    class, could now hold political office
  • Even the poorest class were eligible to vote

Archaic Athens
  • He put more control into the hands of the people
  • The Ecclesia now had the right to elect archons
  • The Heliaia was created where all four classes
    could sit in as jurors and heard
  • However, he did not fix the main problems
  • He did not redistribute the land
  • The aristocracy viewed his reforms as being too
  • The poorer classes believed that Solon had not
    done enough
  • For the next forty years, internal conflicts

  • Solon
  • (594-593 BCE)

Archaic Athens
  • In 546 BCE, Peisistratus succeeded in seizing
    power through a coup detat
  • He had to justify his illegal takeover
  • Public works projects that included the
    beautification of Athens
  • He opened up the Black Sea to Athenian traders
    and merchants
  • Strengthened the demos using Solons reforms
  • Aristotle wrote that his government appeared
    more like constitutional government than a
  • He remained in power until his death in 527 BCE

Archaic Athens
  • Hippias (527-510 BCE)
  • Was Peisistratus son and supposedly co-ruled
    with his brother Hipparchus
  • First half of his reign was good
  • He was a patron of the arts and he instituted
    many building projects
  • It all changed in 514 BCE
  • Hipparchus was murdered by Harmodius and
    Aristogeiton (Tyrannicides)
  • Hippias then became a cruel and unjust ruler
  • Athens sought the aid of Sparta to overthrow
  • Hippias fled to Persia

  • Harmodius and Aristogeiton
  • The Tyrannicides

Archaic Athens
  • The aristocrats hoped to control Athens with an
  • However, the people of Athens like having
    political rights
  • In 508 BCE, the Athenian people revolted and put
    Cleisthenes in as archon
  • Championed the cause of the demos
  • His main goal was to limit aristocratic power
  • He reorganized the government based on location
    (deme) instead of family or clan ties
  • Reformed voting practices
  • Reorganized the population into ten tribes
  • Introduced ostracism to banish political rivals
    for ten years
  • Based on ostraka, a type of potsherd

  • Examples of ostraka

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Archaic Sparta
  • Sparta was located at the southern end of the
    Peloponnesus peninsula
  • It originally consisted of four villages that
    merged into one polis
  • Its government consisted of
  • Two kings
  • A strong council (gerousia)
  • An assembly (apella)
  • It grew in size by conquering neighboring poleis
  • By 750 BCE, conquered Laconia
  • By 720 BCE, conquered Messenia
  • Population was enslaved (helots)

Archaic Sparta
  • The Spartan military state had its origins in the
    7th century BCE
  • In 650 BCE, the helots in Messenia revolted and
    almost won
  • Because of this, the Spartans created a military
    state to protect itself
  • Sparta became literally a perpetual military camp
  • Examination of child at birth
  • At age 7, boys would be moved to the state-run
  • At 20, were required to join the army for regular
    military duty
  • From 20 to 30, they were required to marry but
    they continued to live in the barracks
  • At 30, the men were considered mature
  • They remained in military service until they were

Archaic Sparta
  • Women were not exempt from duty
  • Girls would remain at home and receive training
    in letters until they were married
  • Women were encouraged to exercise and stay in
    shape in order to have healthy babies
  • They were expected to be brave and run the
    household while their husbands and sons went off
    to war
  • Three social classes
  • Spartitates Full Spartan citizens and ruling
  • Perioeci Free but did not have citizen rights
  • Helots These were the people who were forced to
    work the land

Archaic Sparta
  • Spartan political structure
  • Two kings Military and religious leaders
  • Gerousia - Council of 28 men over the age of 60
    who were responsible for most of the policy
  • Apella - Assembly of all the Spartan male
    citizens over the age of 30 who voted on
    proposals from the gerousia
  • Other important bodies
  • Ephors - Highest-ranking Spartan magistrates
  • Krypteia A secret police force that lived among
    the helots and were ordered to kill anyone deemed

Archaic Sparta
  • Close-minded society
  • Were forbidden from participating in outside
  • Discouraged foreigners from visiting Sparta
  • Discourage Spartans from traveling
  • Were not allowed to come into contact with an
    persons or material that was dangerous
  • Greater control of the Peloponnesus
  • In 6th century BCE, the Spartans organized the
    Peloponnesian League
  • It was a loose alliance of poleis on the
  • It was also created to prevent the helots from
    getting outside aid for their revolts

  • Miletus

Archaic Miletus
  • Miletus was the largest commercial, military, and
    cultural power in Ionia
  • Blend of Greek and Near Eastern cultures
  • Heroes of Greek epics possibly based on Near
    Eastern models
  • Milesian politics
  • It joined the Ionian League in 800 BCE
  • Its government was an aristocratic oligarchy
  • In 687 BCE, Miletus fell under the control of
  • It began to expand its territory with the
    creation of colonies
  • Ionia was conquered by Lydia c. 560 BCE
  • Then in 546 BCE, Ionia became a Persian satrapy
    when Croesus was defeated by the Cyrus and

Archaic Miletus
  • Miletus biggest contribution was the development
    of pre-Socratic philosophy
  • Milesian School of Thought
  • They were mostly interested in physics
  • They wanted to remove myth from their
    understanding of nature, the kosmos
  • Anaximenes - (c.585 BCE c.525 BCE)
  • Air was the source of all things found in nature
  • As air becomes more dense, it transforms into
    fire, then wind, then water, the earth, then
  • Thales (c.624 BCEc.546 BCE)
  • He saw water was the primary principleit was
    the basis for everything

Archaic Miletus
  • Anaximander (c.610-c.547 BCE)
  • He believed that the world came from an invisible
    substance called the apeiron (Boundless) which
    was the origin of everything (the first
  • From there, it was separated into different
    qualities, the primary opposites hot and cold,
    moist and dry
  • Created a struggle between religion and
  • School of thought ended with the Persian conquest
  • Many moved to other Greek colonies
  • The discussions were later picked up by the

  • Thales of Miletus
  • (c.624545 BCE)

End of the Archaic Age (c.500 BCE)
  • Athens
  • An economic power as the principle exporter of
    wine, olive oils, and pottery in Greece
  • Developed a new form of government that was more
    democratic and participatory
  • Sparta
  • A powerful, highly-organized military state
  • Loss of freedom for both the helots and the
  • Miletus
  • A powerful economic and political state
  • Blending of Greek and non-Greek cultures
  • Development of the first schools of philosophy

  • Greek hoplite fighting Persian warrior
  • (c. 5th century BCE)

Ionian Revolt (499-494 BCE)
  • Persian Wars mark the end of the Archaic Period
  • Ionian Revolt (499-494 BCE)
  • Ionia did not like being a Persian satrapy
  • Started by Aristagoras, tyrant of Miletus
  • He rallied the support of the people against
    Persian rule
  • Calls were made to the other Greeks states for
  • Sparta refused to help
  • Athens sent 20 ships to help the Ionians
  • They helped capture and sack Sardis, the capital
    of Lydia
  • After that, the Athenians left the Ionians on
    their own
  • The Ionians were able to hold their own until 494
  • Persian fleet defeated the Ionians at the Battle
    of Lade

  • Greco-Persian Wars (492-449 BCE)

Greco-Persian Wars (492-449 BCE)
  • Darius already wanted to attack Greek mainland
  • Athens participation in Ionian Revolt gave him
    the excuse
  • In 492 BCE, Darius sent the fleet to attack
    Athens directly
  • That fleet was lost in a storm and that plan was
  • In 490 BCE, he sent ground forces to attack
  • The Persian forces met the Athenians on the plain
    of Marathon
  • Battle of Marathon (490 BCE)
  • Athenians were outnumbered 11,000 to the Persian
  • Sparta showed up late for the battle
  • Mobile and ranged Persian army versus hoplite,
    infantry Greeks
  • Greeks attacked while Persian horses being
  • Persians lost over 6,000 while the Athenians only
    lost 192

Greco-Persian Wars (492-449 BCE)
  • Pheidippides died after running 25 miles to
    Athens to give the city news of victory
  • Marathon was the only major defeat during Darius
  • He had planned a third attempt at Greece
  • Attention was diverted to uprisings in Egypt
  • He died before he was able to mount another
  • Building of the Athenian navy
  • Themistocles knew Persia was coming back
  • Pushed to build a better, faster navy
  • By 480 BCE, had a fleet of 200 triremes and new
    port facilities
  • Athens now had a navy to go alongside their
    hoplite forces

  • Model of a Greek trireme

  • Xerxes
  • (486-465 BCE)

Greco-Persian Wars (492-449 BCE)
  • Xerxes (486-465 BCE)
  • He was the son of Darius
  • He wanted to attack Greece as well
  • In 483 BCE, he began preparations for a massive
  • The actual invasion began in 480 BCE
  • He had amassed 200,000 troops and 700 naval ships
  • Plenty of supplies either on ships or along the
    roads to feed his armies
  • He also had two pontoon bridges built across the
    Hellespont for his troops to cross from Persia
    into Greece
  • Many Greek states immediately surrendered to

  • Battle at Thermopylae

Greco-Persian Wars (492-449 BCE)
  • Creation of the defensive Hellenic League
  • Sparta headed the military and Athens the Navy
  • Battle at Thermopylae (480 BCE)
  • King Leonidas of Sparta met the Persian forces at
    the pass at Thermopylae
  • He had only a small force of roughly 9,000 men
  • Held the pass for three days, killing
    approximately 10,000 Persians a day
  • The Persians found a mountain path to outflank
    the Greeks
  • Leonidas sent most of his troops away to safety
  • He stayed behind with 300 Spartans and 1,100
    Boeotians to delay the Persians
  • He succeeded for several days but his entire
    force was killed

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Greco-Persian Wars (492-449 BCE)
  • Persians went on to burn down Athens
  • The Greeks were able to regroup on Salamis
  • Easier to defend with the Greek navy
  • Greeks were outnumbered but used the narrow
    Straits to their advantage
  • They were able to destroy around 200 Persian
  • Xerxes returned to Persia after this loss
  • He left most of the army behind to finish the war
  • Battle of Plataea (479 BCE)
  • Greeks had the largest Greek army seen to date
  • The Spartans decimated the Persians
  • What was left of the Persian forces retreated to
    Asia Minor

  • The Delian League

Delian League
  • With the defeat of Persia, Athens is the main
    Greek power
  • Sparta withdrew from its role in Greek affairs
  • Many wanted an offensive attack to free Ionia
    from Persian control
  • Delian League (478-404 BCE)
  • Technically led by Athens
  • It was a democratic league with each polis
    holding one vote
  • The main function of the League was to battle the
  • It held close to 300 ships, most of which were
  • If a polis could not provide ships, it provided
    money instead

Delian League
  • By 469 BCE, all of the Greek states in the Aegean
    region were freed
  • Many wanted the dissolution of the League
  • First Naxos attempted to leave in 470 BCE and
    then Thasos in 465 BCE
  • Athens attacked both poleis and decimated them
  • Walled fortifications were destroyed
  • Their navies captured
  • Their lands confiscated
  • Residents were all forced to pay tribute to the
  • Athens took on the policy of no succession
  • The League became the Athenian empire
  • It was also an instrument of Athenian imperialism

  • Pericles
  • (461-429 BCE)

Athenian Golden Age
  • Athenian economic golden age
  • Money from Delian League was used to finance
    building projects
  • This led to numerous construction jobs
  • Not everybody was happy as lower classes wanted a
    greater role in the government
  • Strategos A military position (general)
  • Were responsible for drafting and overseeing
    troops and acting as military judges
  • After 490 BCE, ten were elected each year
  • Voting was done by popular elections rather than
  • Popular political path during 5th century BCE
  • Themistocles was the first example of a strategos
    using it for political power

Athenian Golden Age
  • Prior to 462 BCE, the conservatives held power
    under strategos Cimon
  • Cimon led the Delian League against the Persians
  • He also suppressed the other poleis who had tried
    to succeed from the League
  • Pericles (c.495-429 BCE)
  • Young, liberal aristocrat
  • Wanted to see more changes taking place in the
  • Wanted to end the aristocratic power of the
    Aeropagus Council
  • Also wanted to severe ties with Sparta to expand
    Athenian power

Athenian Golden Age
  • Pericles was elected strategos in 462 and 461 BCE
  • In 461 BCE, convinced the Ecclesia to take away
    the remaining powers of the Areopagus
  • That year, he also was able to secure the
    ostracism of Cimon
  • He then pushed through more democratic reforms
  • He paid the poor to attend the Ecclesia
  • Ecclesia could now propose or amend legislation
  • Citizenship required both parents to be citizens
  • He was heavily involved in public building
  • Acropolis started in 447 BCE
  • Parthenon to replace the old Temple of Athena
    that was destroyed in 480 BCE

  • The Acropolis in Athens

  • Great Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)

Great Peloponnesian War
  • Most of what we know comes from Thucydides
    History of the Peloponnesian War (424 BCE)
  • He had been an Athenian general and politician at
    the beginning of the war
  • Rather accurate account of the war
  • Long range cause of war the fear the Spartans
    held towards Athens and its empire
  • Others believe the cause of the war was that
    Athens had created a tyrannical empire
  • It began when Athens got involved in the affairs
    of the Peloponnesus in 433 BCE
  • Athens helped Corcyra hold off attack by Corinth
  • Corinth was a member of the Peloponnesian League

Great Peloponnesian War
  • Sparta issues ultimatum to Athens in 432 BCE
  • Either back down with Corinth or it would be war
  • Athens refused to back down as it was admitting
    that Sparta was the dominant power in Greece
  • Neither side had a clear advantage
  • Athens had good navy but poor army
  • Sparta had good army but no navy
  • Athenian Plan
  • Stay inside the walled city of Athens
  • The Long Walls gave a path to the port at Piraeus
  • The navy would then raid the coast of Peloponnesus

Great Peloponnesian War
  • Spartan Plan
  • Invade Attica and lay siege to Athens
  • Cut off the city from its supplies in the
  • Could only lay siege for a few weeks at a time
  • Spartans laid siege but could not break through
    the walls
  • Athenian Plague (430-428 BCE)
  • Over 1/3 of its population was killed, including
  • Even the Spartans temporarily retreated in fear
    of the plague
  • Spartans could not take advantaged of weakened
    Athenian state
  • Peace of Nicias was signed in 421 BCE
  • All lands would return to their pre-war status

Great Peloponnesian War
  • Peace lasted for six years
  • In 420 BCE, Alcibiades was elected strategos
  • New plan against Sparta
  • Athens invades Sicily, cutting off the Spartan
    supplies from Syracuse
  • In 415 BCE, Alcibiades was removed as strategos
  • Fled to Sparta and informed them of Athens plan
  • Told them to turn to Persia for help
  • In 413 BCE, Athenian forces unable to take
  • All of the Athenian forces were either killed or
    sold into slavery

Great Peloponnesian War
  • Athens domestic problems
  • Many politicians fled in fear of repercussions
    from losses
  • City voted out democracy and created an oligarchy
    of 400 men
  • Army refused to accept it
  • New government-in-exile created under Alcibades
  • Athenian navy went on to defeat the Spartans in a
    number of key battles from 410-406 BCE
  • Sparta turned to Persia for help
  • Persia provided money and expertise to build a
  • Starting in 407 BCE, Spartan navy starts winning
  • Under the command of Lysander

Great Peloponnesian War
  • In 405 BCE, Lysander destroyed the Athenian fleet
    at Aegospotami
  • Spartans then lay siege to Athens
  • Athens could no longer defend itself
  • Athens surrendered in 404 BCE
  • The Long Walls around Athens were destroyed
  • What was left of the navy was disbanded
  • Thirty Tyrants
  • New oligarchic government set up by Sparta
  • Executed roughly 1,500 people and over a thousand
    more exiled
  • In 403 BCE, the Athenians revolted
  • A new democratic government was set up

  • Pythagoras
  • (c.580-c.500 BCE)

Early Classical Philosophy
  • The Milesian School of Thought was picked up by
    early Classical Greek philosophers
  • They were more cynical and pessimistic
  • What is the truth?
  • Pythagoras of Samos (c.580-c.500 BCE)
  • Founded the Pythagorean Brotherhood that focused
    on logical thinking
  • Ignored the desires of the flesh
  • Were pacifists and vegetarians
  • Devoted to an ethical lifestyle, mathematics, and
    musical theory

Early Classical Philosophy
  • Sophism
  • Derived from sophia meaning wisdom
  • Experts in the science of oratory (rhetoric)
  • Used rhetoric as a skill to persuade others
  • Done for political motivations or just to argue
    their point of view
  • Protagoras (c.485-c.410 BCE)
  • Relativism - Man is the measure of all things
    of things which are, that they are, and of things
    which are not, that they are not
  • Making the worst case better through use of
  • Was an agnostic and believed that there is no
    proof that the gods in fact did exist

Early Classical Philosophy
  • Later, sophists used their skill to argue unjust
  • Anyone with enough skill could argue for
    anything, no matter how negative or brutal the
    thing was
  • Socrates (469 - 399 BCE)
  • Wanted to find what was good, just, and virtuous
  • The unexamined life is not worth living
  • Unlike the sophists, he did believe in some
    certainties including absolute goodness
  • Used the Socratic Method to find out how much
    knowledge his students had and what their beliefs
  • Wrote nothing down
  • Found guilty of corrupting the youth and

  • Socrates
  • (469-399 BCE)
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