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Chapter 2 Foundations of Government

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Chapter 2 Foundations of Government Section 1: Why Americans Have Governments Section 2: The First Government Section 3: A New Constitution Section 1: Why Americans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 Foundations of Government


1
Chapter 2 Foundations of Government
  • Section 1 Why Americans Have Governments
  • Section 2 The First Government
  • Section 3 A New Constitution

2
Section 1 Why Americans Have Governments
  • The Main Idea
  • Government plays an essential role in every
    country. A countrys government affects the
    lives of its people. Often, it affects people
    around the world.
  • Reading Focus
  • What are two main types of government?
  • What are the purposes of government?
  • How does the U.S. government guarantee freedom to
    its citizens?

3
Governments are influenced by
Section 1 Why Americans Have Governments
  • The peoples beliefs and the countrys history
  • Dictators or absolute monarchs with authoritarian
    power
  • Ceremonial monarchs with separate governing
    bodies
  • The rule of the people in a democracy

4
Section 1 Why Americans Have Governments
Types of Governments
Characteristics of Governments
Democracy
People rule directly or indirectly
???Direct ???Representative
???All voters make decisions together. ???People
elect representatives.
Monarchy
Ruled by a king or queen
???Absolute
???Monarchs have total control.
A person or small group has absolute power and
does not answer to the people.
Dictatorship
5
Democracies
Section 1 Why Americans Have Governments
  • There is no absolute ruler or absolute ruling
    body
  • The people rule directly (direct democracy) or
    through elected officials (representative
    democracy or republic).

6
Roles of Government
Section 1 Why Americans Have Governments
  • Provides a means for cooperation and unity among
    people
  • Enables groups of people to achieve large goals
  • Provides protection, security, transportation,
    monetary assistance, education, and health
    related services
  • Provides laws and a Constitution

7
Section 2 The First U.S. Government
  • The Main Idea
  • The American ideals that people should rule
    themselves and that government should protect
    human rights are clearly set forth in the
    Declaration of Independence.
  • Reading Focus
  • Why is the Declaration of Independence so
    important?
  • What were the Articles of Confederation, and what
    were their weaknesses?
  • What was the effect of a weak national government
    on the United States?

8
The Declaration of Independence
Section 2 The First U.S. Government
  • Upholds the philosophy on which the United States
    is based
  • Is a statement of the American ideals
  • Declares that the purpose of government is to
    protect human rights
  • Stresses equality among individuals

9
Limitations of the Articles of the Confederation
Section 2 The First U.S. Government
  • Congress had difficulty passing important
    measures.
  • There was no executive branch to ensure that new
    laws would be carried out.
  • There were no national courts to interpret the
    laws and uphold them.
  • A unanimous vote was required to make changes to
    the Articles of the Confederation.
  • There was no money to pay for expenses or
    services.
  • Each state regulated its own trade and had its
    own currency.
  • Conflicts between the states and Congress
    developed.

10
Section 2 The First U.S. Government
11
Effects of a weak national government
Section 2 The First U.S. Government
  • Had no power to operate effectively or settle
    disputes
  • The country lacked a national identity.
  • The states quarreled over boundary lines and
    trade.
  • The country looked weak to other nations.

12
Section 3 A New Constitution
  • The Main Idea
  • The framers of the U.S. Constitution drew upon a
    history of democratic ideals while developing a
    document that would establish a new, stronger
    federal government.
  • Reading Focus
  • What historical principles of government
    influenced the delegates to the Constitutional
    Convention?
  • How did the U.S. government become stronger under
    the Constitution?
  • How did the viewpoints of Federalists and
    Antifederalists differ, and how were these
    differences resolved?

13
Principles of Great Britains government that
influenced the delegates
Section 3 A New Constitution
  • Magna Cartafree people cannot be arrested
    without a trial by jury of their peers
    Parliaments rights are protected English
    citizens only judged by English laws
  • English Bill of Rightsright to petition a change
    of laws right to a fair punishment
  • Parliamentary governmenta bicameral body a
    prime minister administers the government and can
    be replaced by a majority vote

14
The U.S. government became stronger under the
Constitution.
Section 3 A New Constitution
  • A federal system was established.
  • Powers included the coining and printing of
    money, raising armed forces, trade regulations,
    and levying taxes.
  • Provisions for an executive and a judicial branch
    were established.

15
Section 3 A New Constitution
???Provide a president to carry out the countrys
laws ???Establish the Supreme Court and other
national courts to interpret laws
???Print money ???Raise armed forces ???Regulate
trade ???Set taxes
16
Differences among Federalists and Antifederalists
Section 3 A New Constitution
  • Federalistsstrong national government would keep
    the country united
  • Antifederalistsstrong national government would
    not protect the peoples freedoms and would take
    power from the states
  • A bill of rights was proposed to outline the
    rights of the people under the Constitution.

17
Chapter 2 Wrap-Up
1. What are two of the major factors that shape
a countrys government? 2. How are a democracy
and other types of governments
different? 3. What were the key purposes of the
Declaration of Independence? 4. What were some of
the problems the country faced after
independence was declared? 5. In what ways did
the colonists English political heritage
influence American ideas about government and
individual rights? 6. What was the outcome of the
Constitutional Convention? 7. What were the
arguments of the Federalists and Antifederalists?
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