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Title:

Rome

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... economic prosperity Dynastic Cycles Families compete for power, ... wars erupt Roman cities begin to erect walls Political instability=military & economic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rome


1
Rome Han China
  • Mr. Ermer
  • Miami Beach Senior High
  • World History AP

2
The Age of Empires
  • The late centuries BCE and the early centuries CE
    see the rise of larger, more centralized empires
  • Imperial Rome Han Dynasty China (Han China)
  • Rome China have no direct contact
  • Connected by complicated trading networks
  • Rome China have little influence on each other
  • Rome China establish long lasting stability in
    area
  • Rome China both establish territorial-cultural
    links that persevere to the present day
  • Important differences
  • Han China looked to past dynasties for
    inspiration
  • Romans evolved pragmatically

3
The Roman Republic
  • Small republic of farmers grows rich through
    trade
  • Italys central location in Mediterranean makes
    natural marketplace for trade, agricultural
    tradition meant land wealth
  • Geography fertile farmland, cultural unity
  • Romans influenced by neighbors Etruscans
    Greeks
  • The Seven Hills of Rome (Palatine Hill)
  • Seven kings of Rome, overthrown by Brutus the
    Liberatorcreates the Res Publica The Public
    Thing
  • The Roman Republic
  • Senate and consuls, votes of the wealthy counted
    more
  • Conflict of the Orders patricians vs. plebeians
  • Twelve Stone Tablets Romes first code of laws
  • Tribunes officials elected to protect the
    interest of the lower class

4
Etruscan Royalty of Rome
5
The Senate of Rome
6
Roman Society
  • Latin Clan of Indo-Europeans
  • Patron/Client Relationship
  • Emperorspatrons of the masses, give gifts
  • Basic unit of Roman life family
  • paterfamilias
  • Roman women have more rights than Greek
  • Rome adopts the Greek pantheon
  • Priests appointed from the wealthy class to
    perform rituals and maintain pax deorum

7
The Military War Ethos
  • Roman divisions more maneuverable than Phalanx
  • Drafted conquered peoples into army
  • Non-Italians afforded citizenship
  • Romes army gains power as it conquers
  • Rome vs. Carthage
  • First Punic War, Rome wins control of Sicily
  • Second Punic War, Hannibal attacks Italy
  • Rome sacks Carthage, Carthaginian Empire ends
  • The Roman War Ethos
  • Romans hold strong ideals of honor, fight harder
  • Soldiers are rewarded for courage

8
Hannibal Crossing The Alps
9
Battle of Zama
10
Phoenician Carthage
11
The Carthaginian Empire
12
The Roman Empire in 129 B.C.
13
Building An Empire
  • After defeating Carthage, Romans set sights on
    Greek city-state of Corinthand win
  • Romans continue to fight for control of the
    Hellenistic kingdoms of Asia Africa
  • Julius Caesar conquers the Gauls
  • Caesars army kills a million Gauls, enslave
    another million

14
Caesar, Protector of Rome
15
Death of the Republic
  • Rich farmers leave for long military service
  • Investors consolidate land into latifudia
  • Conflict of the Orders increasescrisis
  • Dictators keep the peace during times of crisis
  • Ruled for six month terms, dicta (word) law
  • 90s-30s BCE Rome engulfed in civil war
  • Generals command personally loyal armies
  • Two Triumvirates
  • Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus
  • Marc Antony, Octavian, Lepidus

16
The Roman Empire
  • Octavian emerges victorious from civil war
  • Designated Imperator by the Senate
  • Changes name to Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus
  • Assumes other titles like princeps
  • Emperors presented as semidivine with civil
    consent
  • Caligula presents self as living god
  • Many emperors commit suicide or assassinated
  • Military now comprised by life-long professionals
  • Emperors seen as successful based on military
    victory
  • Private contracting of government function
    creates tension between fair government and
    profit motives of the publicans

17
Hail, Caesar Augustus!
18
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19
The Urban Empire
  • Urban centers administer and benefit from empire
  • Heavy commerce during pax romana
  • Also aided by the Romanization of the empire
  • Eastern side of the empire still has Hellenistic
    culture
  • Citizenship extended to non-Italians
  • Military service path to citizenship
  • City centers in the provinces provide some of the
    most influential Romans of the first few
    centuries C.E.

20
Roman City Life
  • Insulae
  • Bread Circuses
  • Coliseum and arenas
  • Economy of Scale
  • Aqueducts
  • Roads

21
Christianity
  • Yeshua ben Yosef (Joshua/Jesus son of Joseph)
  • Jewish charismatic preaching in early C.E.
  • Crucified by Romans for what others claimed he
    was
  • Jesus taught exclusively to the Jewish pop of
    Palestine, and only in the local Aramaic dialect
  • The Christian scriptures written in Greek
  • Preached about the responsibility of rich to the
    poor
  • Empowerment of the meek
  • Paul of Tarsus Jewish Roman citizen
  • Calls Jesus Christos or anointed one
  • Spreads Christianity throughout Mediterranean

22
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23
Spread of Christianity
  • Paul travels, writes letters, preaches throughout
    the Mediterranean
  • Roman elites see Christianity as exciting, exotic
    faith
  • Roman government sees Christianity as a threat to
    the well-being of the state
  • Persecution of Christians
  • Martyrs
  • Conversion of Constantine, Edict of Milan
  • Theodosius establishes official religion

24
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25
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26
The Roman Decline
  • Augustus warns against expanding the empire
  • Emperors continue to expand in Europe North
    Africa
  • War with the Germanic Tribes Parthian Empire
  • Roman army reorganized to defend, not conquer
  • Hadrians Wall, forts on the Danube Rhine
    rivers
  • Germanic tribes ready supply of slaves, wars
    erupt
  • Roman cities begin to erect walls
  • Political instabilitymilitary economic breaks
  • Progressively deeper raids by Germanic tribes
  • Wars drain treasury, coins devalued, rise of
    barter
  • Diocletians economic reforms help save economy

27
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28
Roman Struggles Change
  • Government now seen as oppressive, disloyalty
  • Emperor Constantine reorganizes the empire
  • Conversion to Christianity, religious tolerance
  • Transfer of capital from Rome to Greek Byzantium
  • Renames city Constantinople, major building
    projects
  • Eastern end of empire richer, more educated, more
    Christian
  • Byzantium
  • Constantine appoints new patriarchs of
    Constantinople
  • Constantine affects church doctrineCouncil of
    Nicaea (325 CE)
  • Many in the country side (pagani) retain old
    religion
  • 395 CE Western and Eastern empires formally
    split
  • 476 CE Western Roman Empire collapses
  • Germanic kingdoms form, Roman cities in ruins,
    rural population
  • Eastern Roman Empire changes name to Byzantine
    Empire

29
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30
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31
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32
Large Empires of the First Century C.E.
33
China Rise of the Qin Dynasty
  • 230-221 BCE King Zheng of Qin defeat the Warring
    States
  • King Zheng assumes Zhou Dynastys Mandate of
    Heaven
  • Declares self Shi Huangdi First August Emperor
    (like Augustus)
  • Establishes capital in Xianyang
  • Qin administrative system commanderies
    counties
  • Commanderies ruled by civilian and military
    governors
  • All male citizens register with imperial clerks
    for conscription and taxes
  • Establishment of standard weights and measures,
    coinage minting
  • Qin emperors expand into Korean peninsula
    Vietnam
  • Han idea of grand unity justifies expansion,
    oppression of rebel states
  • Qin officials Han Fei Li Si espouse Legalism
  • Citizens organized into mutually responsible
    groups
  • Free labor preferred over slaves, high tax base
    wealth
  • Economic regulation, agricultural surplus, high
    level of regional trade

34
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35
The Qin Decline
  • Nomadic warrior peoples on frontier
  • Xiongnu people especially troublesome for Qin
  • Qin emperors push on, build defensive wall
  • Wall allows for the colonization of Inner
    Eurasian Steppe
  • Constant warfare burdens Qin tax base
  • Dissention among nobles conscripted workers
  • Chief Master Li Si executed, Xiang Yu leads
    rebellion
  • Third Qin Emperor surrenders to Han forces
  • Xiongnu Confederacy reconquers Steppes
  • Xiang Yu commits suicide, feudal lords war
  • Han prince Liu Bang declares himself Han emperor
  • Rules with Confucian philosophy, moral value

36
Xiongnu Territory
37
The Han Dynasty 206 BCE-220 CE
  • Han rulers keep Qin bureaucratic system
  • Army of 50,000 crossbow armed soldiers
  • Western/Former Han Dynasty (206 BCE-9 CE)
  • Territorial expansion, economic prosperity
  • Dynastic Cycles
  • Families compete for power, claim authority of
    past dynastiesmandate of heaven
  • Dynasties rise and fall according to the cycle
  • Imperial continuity through multiple dynasties
    until 1911

38
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39
Han Power
  • Worlds most centralized bureaucracy
  • Regional administrators played active role in
    local affairs
  • Removal of princes, management of aristocrats
  • Governor-Generals appointed during crisis/famine
  • Bureaucratic schools breed government officials
  • Imperial University started by Emperor Wu (136
    BCE)
  • Rational thought brings diagnoses of body
    function, link between weather and disease,
    invention of magnetic compass, making of paper
  • Confucian thought dominates education of the
    elites
  • Balance between emperors power and bureaucracy
  • Honor tradition, emperors responsibility,
    respect historys lessons

40
Han Social Economic Order
  • Han unite various groups who once warred
  • Allowed former Qin lords to reacquire power
  • Status of scholars rises in societymasters
  • Emperor Wu est. state monopolies to pay for wars
  • Minting of standard copper coins, The Silk Road
  • Han cities designed in grid, wide avenues
  • Palaces become forbidden inner cities
  • Large building projects aggrandize imperial power
  • Patriarchal family, women worked/respected
  • Public entertainment, gambling, debauchery
  • Funerary rites important to rich and poor

41
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42
Han Social Structure Religion
  • Free peasantrybase of society
  • Farmers honored, merchants controlled
  • Scholar officials protect moral authority
  • Top of societyimperial clan and nobles
  • Merchants begin to espouse Daoist ideas to
    improve position
  • Emperor Wu turns Confucian philosophy into the
    state religion, Confuciusdivine/demigod
  • Astronomical omens
  • Chinese not as religious/otherworldly as Romans

43
Expanding Han Rule
  • Creating stability for improving trade
  • Standing army of 1,000,000 10,000 Imperial Guard
  • Emperor Wu conquers Korea and Sichuan
  • Emperor Wu sends expeditionary forces to battle
    the Xiongnu and their horsemen
  • Xiongnu tribes split southern tribes conquered
  • Northern Xiongnu pushed westward, threaten Rome
    (Huns)
  • Retreat of Nomadic peoplespax sinica

44
Declining Han Power
  • Chinas Sorrow natural disaster
  • Economic problems, political instability
  • The usurper Wang Mang (9-23 CE)
  • Later Han emperors justify anti-reformist rule
  • Elites reform tax code, benefit
  • Government no longer controls economy
  • Increased social inequality, rebellion
  • Confucius replaced by Laozi Yellow Emperor as
    model citizenrise of Daoism
  • The Yellow Turban rebellion
  • Buddhism arrivesmillenarian movement
  • Han fallthree competing states (Wei, Shu, Wu)

45
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