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Matter Kinetic Theory Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

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Matter Kinetic Theory Solid Liquid Gas Plasma The Sun is an example of a star in its plasma state PLC-Unit 1B STATES OF MATTER SOLID LIQUID GAS PLASMA Tightly packed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matter Kinetic Theory Solid Liquid Gas Plasma


1
Matter Kinetic Theory Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
2
Matter
3
Matter
  • Anything that has mass and occupies space
  • The materials or stuff that all objects and
    substances in the universe are made of
  • 4 States of Matter Solid, liquid, gas, and
    plasma

4
Matter
  • Because all matter takes up space (has volume)
    and contains a certain amount of material (has
    mass), all matter can be detected and measured

5
Examples of Matter
  • Rocks, water, trees, bicycles, lighting, animals,
    stars, smoke, are all easily seen and observed
  • Dust mites that live in your furniture and rugs
    you may need a microscope to view
  • Air maybe invisible but we can feel it when the
    wind blows and see it bend the branches of trees
    (oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, CO2)

6
What is not matter?
  • Light
  • Sound
  • Gravity
  • Friction

7
Part (a)
What is Matter made up of?
Matter is made up of ATOMS! Atoms are little bits
too small for us to see. They are so tiny you
cant break them down further.
8
Matter
  • Atoms are the building blocks of matter
  • The elements in our periodic table make up all
    matter

9
Kinetic Theory
10
Kinetic Theory
  • All matter consists of tiny particles that are
    in constant motion.

11
Kinetic Theory
1. All matter is composed of small particles
(atoms, molecules, or ions). There is an
attractive force between them. 2. They are in
constant, random motion. The particles may
collide with one another or the sides of their
container.
3. As the temperature increases the speed of the
particles increases. As the temperature decreases
the speed of the particles decreases.
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13
Solid
14
SOLIDS
  • State of matter that has a definite shape and a
    definite volume.
  • Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating
    about a fixed position.
  • Particles are strongly attracted to each other

15
Part (b)
SOLID
16
Examples of Solids
17
Liquid
18
LIQUID
  • A state of matter that has a definite volume but
    takes the shape of its container
  • Liquids do not have a definite shape
  • Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are
    far enough apart to slide over one another,
    allowing it to flow

19
Liquid
20
Examples of Liquid
21
Gas
22
GAS
  • A state of matter that has no definite shape and
    no definite volume expands to fill the shape of
    its container
  • Particles of gases are very far apart and move
    freely.
  • Attractive forces are very weak
  • Contain mostly empty space because the
    particles are so far apart
  • Particles spread throughout a given volume
    until distributed equally diffusion

23
Gas vs. Vapor
  • Gas a substance that is naturally in the
    gaseous state at room temperature
  • EXAMPLE Helium
  • Vapor the gaseous state of a substance that is
    a solid or liquid at room temperature
  • EXAMPLE Steam

24
Examples of Gas
25
Plasma
26
PLASMA
  • A state of matter that does not have a definite
    shape or volume and whose particles have broken
    apart
  • Consists of and charged particles (electrons
    are knocked off due to collisions)
  • A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity
    and is affected by magnetic fields.
  • Plasma is the most common state of matter in the
    universe

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Some places where plasmas are found
1. Flames
31
2. Lightning
32
3. Aurora (Northern Lights)
33
Neon Sign
34
The Sun is an example of a star in its plasma
state
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36
STATES OF MATTER
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
PLASMA
Tightly packed, in a regular pattern Vibrate, but
do not move from place to place, definite shape
and volume
Close together with no regular arrangement. Move
about, flow and slide past each other. Definite
volume, no definite shape takes shape of its
container.
Well separated with no regular arrangement. Move
freely at high speeds. No definite shape or
volume. Easily compressible.
Has no definite volume or shape and is composed
of electrical charged particles
37
STATES OF MATTER
LIQUID
PLASMA
SOLID
GAS
Tightly packed, in a regular pattern Vibrate, but
do not move from place to place
Close together with no regular arrangement. Vibrat
e, move about, and slide past each other
Well separated with no regular arrangement. Vibrat
e and move freely at high speeds
Has no definite volume or shape and is composed
of electrical charged particles
38
Phase Change
A transition of matter from one state to another.
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40
Some phase changes are more common and easier for
us to visualize. For example, you have probably
witnessed freezing, melting, and vaporization
just by making ice, melting ice, and boiling
water.
41
Condensation often occurs on the outside of cold
beverage containers. This is when the humid air
changes directly to a liquid on the surface of
the container.
42
Sublimation Dry ice is actually solid carbon
dioxide. When it sits in the open or is placed in
water it rapidly changes directly from solid to
gas creating a foggy cloud.
43
Deposition Frozen patterns of ice on your car
windshield is an example. Deposition involves a
gas changing to a solid. This occurs during
winter months when the humid air directly freezes
into solid ice.
44
Ionization and recombination do not occur often
around us. These processes involve high energy
matter found in lightning and stars changing from
one form to another.
45
States of Matter
  • Characteristics
  • . Definite shape and volume
  • . Particles tightly packed
  • . Particles vibrate
  • 4. Particles strongly attracted to each other
  • Characteristics
  • . Definite volume
  • . No definite shape, takes shape of container
  • . Particles close together but move or flow, by
    sliding over each other
  • 4. Attractive forces between particles are weaker

Examples 1. rock 2. book 3. ice
Examples 1. water 2. soda 3. milk
Solid
Liquid
  • Characteristics
  • . No definite shape or volume
  • . Particles are so far apart they are no longer
    touching
  • . Diffusion
  • 4. Attractive forces between particles is very
    weak
  • 5. Easily compressable

Plasma
Gas
  • Characteristics
  • . No definite shape or volume
  • . Consists of and charged particles
  • . Occurs at high temperatures, particles moving
    very fast
  • 4. Most common state of matter in the universe

Examples 1. Lighting 2. stars 3. Neon signs
Examples 1. Oxygen 2. Nitrogen 3. CO2
46
  Shape Volume Compressibility
Solid   Definite   Definite   Not Easily
Liquid   No Definite   Definite   Not Easily
Gas  No Definite   No Definite    Easily
Plasma   No Definite No Definite    Easily
47
  Arrangement of particles Distance between particles Motion of particles Force between particles
  Solid   Regular or orderly arrangement   Tightly packed   Vibrate around fixed point   Strong attraction
  Liquid   No regular arrangement Close together  Slow movement, flows, slide over one another  Moderate attraction 
  Gas   No regular arrangement   Far apart   Fast movement   Very weak attraction
  Plasma   No regular arrangement   Far apart, electrons have been knocked off   Very fast movement   Very weak attraction
48
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