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Unit 1 Matter: Properties and Change


Unit 1 Matter: Properties and Change Matter: Properties and Change Objectives Students should be able to: Distinguish between chemical and physical properties Apply ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1 Matter: Properties and Change

Unit 1 Matter Properties and Change
Matter Properties and Change
  • Objectives
  • Students should be able to
  • Distinguish between chemical and physical
  • Apply the Law of Conservation of Mass to chemical
  • Classify matter as elements, compounds, or
  • Contrast homogenous and heterogeneous mixtures
  • Describe techniques used to separate mixtures

What is matter?
  • Matter anything that takes up space and has
  • Mass a measure of the amount of matter in an
  • Weight is due to gravity it changes from
    location to location mass is always constant.

States of Matter
Definite Shape Definite Volume Temperature increase Compressible
Solid Yes Yes Small expansion No
Liquid No Yes Small/moderate expansion No
Gas/ Vapor No No Large expansion Yes
  • Vapor gas form of a substance that is normally
    a liquid at room temperature.

Types of Matter
  • I. Pure Substance- one particular kind of matter
    is uniform (all the same) and has a definite
  • A. Elements simplest kind of matter
  • cannot be broken down any simpler
  • composed of only one kind of atom.
  • written shorthand w/ chemical symbols
  • ex carbon C, iron Fe, mercury Hg

  • B. Compounds made of two or more elements,
    chemically combined
  • broken down only by chemical change
  • when broken down, pieces have different
    properties than original compound.
  • adhere to Law of Definite Proportions compound
    is always made of the same elements in the same
    proportions by mass
  • ex water H2O, 21 ratio H to O
  • methane CH4, 41 ratio H to C

  • II. Mixture- more than one kind of matter
    physically combined
  • has a variable composition
  • each part keeps its own properties
  • can be separated by physical means

  • A. Heterogeneous- mixture is not uniform in
    composition, (visibly different parts)
  • ex chocolate chip cookie, soil
  • B. Homogeneous- same composition throughout (all
    looks the same)
  • Aka - solutions
  • ex Gatorade, air, salt water

Separating Mixtures
  • Distillation separates components of solution
    w/ different boiling points
  • Filtration separates solid from a liquid using
    porous barrier
  • Crystallization forms pure solid particles from
    a saturated solution of dissolved particles
  • Chromatography separates components (mobile
    phase) across a piece of paper (stationary phase)

Properties of Matter
  • I. Physical Properties can be observed and
    measured without changing the composition.
  • color, odor, texture, hardness, density, melting
    and boiling pts.
  • Physical change change in appearance without
    changing the composition.
  • ex boil, freeze, dissolve, melt, condense,
    cut, bend, split, crack

  • II. Chemical Properties can only be observed by
    changing the composition of the material.
  • Chemical change a change where a new kind of
    matter is formed.
  • ex rust, rot, explode, burn, decompose,

Indications of a Chemical Change
  • Energy absorbed or released temperature gets
  • Color change (sometimes)
  • Gas production bubbling, fizzing, or odor
  • Precipitate formed solid that separates from
    solution and wont re-dissolve

Law of Conservation of Mass
  • matter can not be created or destroyed in
    chemical reactions it is conserved
  • Example 2Na Cl2 2 NaCl
  • reactants products
  • 200 g 15 g 215 g
  • mass of reactants mass of products
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