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Unit 1 Matter: Properties and Change

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Unit 1 Matter: Properties and Change Matter: Properties and Change Objectives Students should be able to: Distinguish between chemical and physical properties Apply ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1 Matter: Properties and Change


1
Unit 1 Matter Properties and Change
2
Matter Properties and Change
  • Objectives
  • Students should be able to
  • Distinguish between chemical and physical
    properties
  • Apply the Law of Conservation of Mass to chemical
    reactions
  • Classify matter as elements, compounds, or
    mixtures
  • Contrast homogenous and heterogeneous mixtures
  • Describe techniques used to separate mixtures

3
What is matter?
  • Matter anything that takes up space and has
    mass.
  • Mass a measure of the amount of matter in an
    object
  • Weight is due to gravity it changes from
    location to location mass is always constant.

4
States of Matter
Definite Shape Definite Volume Temperature increase Compressible
Solid Yes Yes Small expansion No
Liquid No Yes Small/moderate expansion No
Gas/ Vapor No No Large expansion Yes
5
  • Vapor gas form of a substance that is normally
    a liquid at room temperature.

6
Types of Matter
  • I. Pure Substance- one particular kind of matter
    is uniform (all the same) and has a definite
    composition
  • A. Elements simplest kind of matter
  • cannot be broken down any simpler
  • composed of only one kind of atom.
  • written shorthand w/ chemical symbols
  • ex carbon C, iron Fe, mercury Hg

7
  • B. Compounds made of two or more elements,
    chemically combined
  • broken down only by chemical change
  • when broken down, pieces have different
    properties than original compound.
  • adhere to Law of Definite Proportions compound
    is always made of the same elements in the same
    proportions by mass
  • ex water H2O, 21 ratio H to O
  • methane CH4, 41 ratio H to C

8
  • II. Mixture- more than one kind of matter
    physically combined
  • has a variable composition
  • each part keeps its own properties
  • can be separated by physical means

9
  • A. Heterogeneous- mixture is not uniform in
    composition, (visibly different parts)
  • ex chocolate chip cookie, soil
  • B. Homogeneous- same composition throughout (all
    looks the same)
  • Aka - solutions
  • ex Gatorade, air, salt water

10
Separating Mixtures
  • Distillation separates components of solution
    w/ different boiling points
  • Filtration separates solid from a liquid using
    porous barrier
  • Crystallization forms pure solid particles from
    a saturated solution of dissolved particles
  • Chromatography separates components (mobile
    phase) across a piece of paper (stationary phase)

11
Properties of Matter
  • I. Physical Properties can be observed and
    measured without changing the composition.
  • color, odor, texture, hardness, density, melting
    and boiling pts.
  • Physical change change in appearance without
    changing the composition.
  • ex boil, freeze, dissolve, melt, condense,
    cut, bend, split, crack

12
  • II. Chemical Properties can only be observed by
    changing the composition of the material.
  • Chemical change a change where a new kind of
    matter is formed.
  • ex rust, rot, explode, burn, decompose,
    ferment

13
Indications of a Chemical Change
  • Energy absorbed or released temperature gets
    hotter/colder
  • Color change (sometimes)
  • Gas production bubbling, fizzing, or odor
    change
  • Precipitate formed solid that separates from
    solution and wont re-dissolve

14
Law of Conservation of Mass
  • matter can not be created or destroyed in
    chemical reactions it is conserved
  • Example 2Na Cl2 2 NaCl
  • reactants products
  • 200 g 15 g 215 g
  • mass of reactants mass of products
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