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Classification of Matter

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Classification of Matter Unit 2 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Matter


1
Classification of Matter
  • Unit 2

2
Which of the following are examples of matter?
  1. Rock
  2. Water
  3. Carbon dioxide
  4. 1 2 only
  5. All of the above

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
3
What criteria must be met in order to be matter?
  • Is Gas Matter?
  • What about Helium ?

4
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5
Investigation
  • Without bumping the table, add 1 drop of food
    coloring to your hot water and 1 drop to your
    cold water. Observe carefully for 1 minute.
  • Write down your observations, then look again at
    your beakers and make any further observations
  • What do you think is different about the hot and
    cold water that caused this difference?

6
How many phases of matter exist?
  1. One
  2. Two
  3. Three
  4. Four

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
7
  • PHASES OF MATTER
  • Matter exists in four States (or Phases)
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma

8
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9
Solids.
  • are packed tightly together in an organized
    pattern
  • have a definite shape and volume
  • Particles do not move much, but vibrate in place

10
Liquids.
  • Particles move freely over one another in an
    unorganized pattern
  • Do NOT have definite shape - take shape of
    container
  • DO have a definite volume
  • Particles stay in close contact with each other,
    but usually less dense than solid

11
What do you think will happen when the solid is
dropped in to the liquid?
Solid Methanol
  1. It will Float
  2. It will Sink
  3. It will hang midway


Liquid Methanol
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
12
We would expect the solid to sink because the
particles are more closely packed in a solid than
liquid
Solid Methanol


Can you think of an exception to this trend?
13
Water Exception to the Rule
14
Liquids.
  • Do NOT have definite shape - take shape of
    container
  • DO have a definite volume (can not be compressed)
  • Particles stay in close contact with each other,
    but usually less dense than solid
  • Particles freely move over one another in an
    unorganized pattern

15
Gases.
  • Gas does have mass
  • Particles are very spread out and move a lot
  • Do NOT have definite shape - take shape of
    container
  • Do NOT have a definite volume - fill volume of
    container. Can be compressed (volume can be made
    smaller)
  • Collisions of particles with wall causes Pressure

16
Animation of Phase Changes
17
Factors affecting Volume of Gas
  • Change in temperature will change volume.
  • An increase in temperature will cause an _______
    in volume of a gas
  • Charles Law V1/T1 V2/T2
  • Change in pressure will change volume
  • An increase in the outside pressure will cause
    a(n) _________ in the volume of a gas.
  • Boyles Law P1V1 P2V2

increase
Is this a direct or inverse relationship?
decrease
Is this a direct or inverse relationship?
18
What are two ways to increase the pressure in a
basketball?
  • Increase the Amount of Gas
  • more gas particles means more collisions
  • Increase the Temperature
  • Particles move faster, means more collisions
  • Faster moving particles mean collisions have more
    force

19
Pressure vs Temperature
  • At a fixed volume, changing temperature will
    affect the pressure

20
Pressure vs Temperature
  • At a fixed volume, changing temperature will
    affect the pressure
  • An increase in temperature will cause a(n)
    _________ in pressure
  • P1/T1P2/T2
  • Finish this sentence Increasing the temperature
    of a gas at fixed volume will cause an increase
    in pressure because.

increase
Is this a direct or inverse relationship?
21
Back to our colored water investigation
  • Lets share our observations
  • Write a new explanation to explain why the
    coloring behaved differently
  • What was different about your original
    explanation and your new explanation?

22
Units of Temperature Air Pressure
  • When using gas law formulas, all Temperatures
    must be in Kelvin
  • Kelvin C 273
  • Example Room Temp of 25C 273 298K
  • Units of Standard Air Pressure
  • 1.00 Atmosphere (atm)
  • 760 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
  • 101,325 Pascals (Pa)
  • 29.92 inches of mercury (in Hg)
  • 14.70 psi

23
If the air pressure today is 29.32in Hg what is
the pressure in mm Hg?
  1. 22,280 mmHg
  2. 25.92 mmHg
  3. 744.8 mmHg
  4. 755.3 mmHg
  5. 775.6 mmHg
  6. 1.15 mmHg

1 2 3 4 5
24
Which of the following is not true of gases?
  1. They have mass
  2. They exert pressure
  3. They have a definite volume
  4. They have large distance between particles.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
25
Which of the following will not cause an increase
in pressure?
  1. Adding more gas
  2. Lowering the temperature
  3. Reducing the volume the gas occupies

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
26
A gas initially at 2.0 atm is in an adjustable
volume container of 10. L in volume. If the
outside pressure is increased to 4.0 atm, what is
the new volume?
  1. 40.L
  2. 20.L
  3. 10.L
  4. 5.0L

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
27
Assuming pressure is held constant, to what
volume will a balloon initially at 1.0 L change
if its temperature is decreased from 300 K to 75
K?
  1. 1.0 L
  2. 2.0 L
  3. 4.0 L
  4. 0.25 L
  5. 0.50 L

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
28
  • Almost all substances can exist as solids,
    liquids, or gases
  • The phase will depend on the temperature,
    pressure, and attractive forces of particles
  • As substance gains kinetic energy (Temperature),
    it will change phases
  • Solid --gt Liquid --gt Gas --gt Plasma

29
Phase Changes
MELTING
  • Solid Liquid
  • Liquid Gas
  • Solid Gas

FREEZING
EVAPORATION
CONDENSATION
SUBLIMATION
DEPOSITION
30
  • SUBLIMATION A phase change that skips the
    liquid state.

31
Learning Check True or False
32
All substances can exist in all 3 states
  1. True
  2. False

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
33
The faster gas particles are moving, the more
pressure they will exert.
  1. True
  2. False

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
34
Water always boils at 100 degrees C
  1. True
  2. False

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
35
Liquids and solids both have a definite volume
  1. True
  2. False

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
36
All three phases expand or contract with changes
in temperature
  1. True
  2. False

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26
37
Warm-Up
Gas Law Info V1P1V2P2 V1/T1 V2/T2 P1/T1
P2/T2
  • A basketball is inflated to a pressure of 465.4
    mm Hg at a temperature of 298K. If the
    basketball can withstand a pressure 195.3 kPa
    before it bursts, what temperature would we need
    to heat it up to before it blows up? (Assume the
    volume of the basketball does not change after it
    was inflated). Put your answer in ?C.

Standard Air Pressures 760.0 mm Hg 1.000
atm 101,325 Pa
Temperature TK TC 273
Answer on next slide
38
Warm-Up
Gas Law Info V1P1V2P2 V1/T1 V2/T2 P1/T1
P2/T2
  • Answer 938 K or 665 ? C

Standard Air Pressures 760.0 mm Hg 1.000
atm 101,325 Pa
Temperature TK TC 273
39
Time to Investigate Properties of Gases
  • Gas Stations Lab
  • Boyles Law Graphing POGIL

40
Element, Compounds, Mix
  • Warm-Up
  • Read Page 77 in text and complete Sections 1,2,
    4 on page 3 of Unit 2 Packet.

41
Elements
Silver Oxygen Carbon
  • Homogeneous
  • Made of only 1 type of atom
  • Simplest form of matter
  • Cant be broken down
  • Pure Substance

42
Compounds
Water Salt Sugar
  • H2O
  • NaCl
  • C12H22O11
  • Homogeneous
  • 2 or more types of atoms Chemically Bonded
  • Made of only 1 type of Molecule
  • Pure Substance
  • Can be separated chemically, not physically
  • Each substance gains new identity (ex NaCl)
  • Has a definite ratio

43
Mixtures
Chex Mix Chili Kool Aid
  • Can appear heterogeneous or homogeneous
    (solutions are homogeneous mixtures)
  • 2 or more types of atoms/molec. Physically
    Blended -- see pic of all three.
  • Impure substance
  • Can be separated physically
  • Ratio of components not exact
  • Each Substance maintains its identity

No Magic
44
Your Turn Which of the following pictures
represent
  1. Pure Elements
  2. Elements made of single atoms
  3. Elements made of molecules
  4. Mixtures
  5. Pure Compounds
  6. Mixture of 2 compounds
  7. Mixture of 2 elements

45
Types of Homogeneous Mixtures Solutions
  • A True Homogeneous mixture
  • All particles are broken down into individual
    molecules or ions
  • A beam will light will pass straight through,
    with no dispersion.
  • Examples Saltwater, Kool-Aid

46
Types of Homogeneous Mixtures Colloidal
Suspensions (Colloid)
  • Appear Homogeneous
  • Breaks down into small clumps of molecules, but
    not into individual molecules
  • Examples mayonnaise, Jell-O, fog, butter and
    whipped cream
  • Tyndall Effect will scatter a beam of light
    passed through it. (Ex. Light reflecting off dust
    in the air)

47
Distinguishing Colloids from Solutions The
Tyndall Effect
48
Types of Colloids
Dispersing Medium Dispersed Phase Name Examples
Gas Liquid Aerosol
Gas Solid Solid Aerosol
Liquid Gas Foam
Liquid Liquid Emulsion
Liquid Solid Sol
Solid Gas Solid Foam
Solid Liquid Gel
Solid Solid Solid Sol
Fog, mist
Smoke
Whipped Cream
Mayonnaise
Latex paint
Styrofoam
Jelly, butter
Alloys (steel)
49
Classification of Matter
50
  • Example putting iron and sulfur together.

51
  • SECTION 15-4
  • PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

52
  • In a physical change, substances change form but
    not their identities. In a chemical change,
    substances change into other substances.
  • CHANGES OF STATE and DISSOLVING are examples of
    PHYSICAL changes. In both cases, the substances
    retain identity.

53
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54
Signs of a Chemical Reaction
  • Observing any one of the following is an
    indication that a Chemical Rxn is occurring
  • Change in Color
  • Bubbling (a gas is being produced)
  • Formation of a Precipitate
  • Change in Temperature

55
METALS vs NONMETALS
  • Shiny Luster
  • Malleable
  • Ductile
  • Conduct Electricity
  • On left side of staircase of Pd Table
  • Dull, glassy luster
  • Brittle
  • Do not conduct electricity
  • On right side of staircase of Pd Table

56
Return to Comparison of Metals and NonMetals
57
Common Methods of Separation
  • Filtration
  • Distillation
  • Crystallization
  • Chromatography
  • Extraction by Separatory Funnel
  • Centrifugation
  • Electrolysis

Physical
Chemical
58
Household Centrifuge
59
Centrifuge
Useful for quickly separating substances with
different densities
Examples Pulp out of OJ Fats out of Milk
60
Extraction by Separatory Funnel
Can be used to separate liquids that do not mix
together
Liquid A
Liquid B
61
Distillation
62
Atom
  • The smallest piece of an element that still
    retains the properties of that element.

Return to Elements
63
Molecule
  • The smallest part of a compound that still
    retains the properties of the compound.
  • Made of two or more atoms bonded chemically

Return to Compounds
64
Classification of Matter
Impure Substance
Pure Substances
Back to Mixtures
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