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Matter and Changes

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Filtration Evaporation Chromatography Distillation Properties of matter A ... Physical properties are ... a solid to a liquid. Some physical properties of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matter and Changes


1
Matter and Changes
  • Matter - anything that has mass and takes up
    space.
  • Mass - the measurement of the amount of matter in
    an object.
  • We use a balance to determine mass.
  • The amount of space is a volume measurement

2
Four states of matter
  • Solid - anything that has both a definite volume
    and a definite shape.
  • Liquid - anything that has definite volume but no
    definite shape - flows and can be poured.
  • Gas - has no definite volume and no definite
    shape. 
  • always takes volume and shape of container
  • if not in container, it will spread as far as
    can.
  • Plasma - has no definite volume or shape -
    composed of electrical charged particles.

3
Characteristics of matter
  • Atoms are small particles that make up matter.
  • A pure substance that is made of only one kind of
    atom is called an element.
  • Most elements are found combined together as
    molecules rather than individual atoms.
  • Elements in their pure state are difficult to
    find because they usually react to form
    compounds, a substance that is composed of
    molecules containing more than one element.

4
Flow Chart Of Matter
MATTER
PURE SUBSTANCE
MIXTURE
physical change
HOMOGENEOUS
HETEROGENEOUS
solutions
chemical change
ELEMENT
COMPOUND
5
Physical Changes
  • One important characteristic of compounds is that
    they cannot be separated into atoms they are made
    of by physical methods.
  • Physical methods include freezing, boiling,
    straining, filtering, or even dissolving in
    water.
  • Water, for example, can be frozen or boiled, but
    the ice or water vapor is still water! 
  • Freezing and boiling cannot separate water
    molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

6
  • Most matter is not pure but is made of a
    combination of molecules of two or more different
    substances. 
  • A mixture is the combination of different
    molecules that are not chemically combined.
  • The key characteristic of a mixture is that each
    of the different kinds of molecules in the
    mixture keeps its own identity.

7
  • You can take a mixture apart, and separate the
    different molecules of the mixed substances.
  • Unlike compounds, mixtures can be separated into
    their parts using physical methods.
  • Filtration
  • Evaporation
  • Chromatography
  • Distillation

8
Properties of matter
  • A substance may be identified by certain
    qualities, or traits - a quality or trait that
    identifies a substance is called a property.
  • The properties of a substance stays the same even
    if its volume changes.
  • Color, mass, small, density, and composition are
    all examples of properties that can help
    scientist identify substances.

9
  • Every substance has two kinds of properties -
    physical properties and chemical properties.
  • A physical property is a property of matter that
    can be observed or measured without changing the
    composition of the substance.
  • Physical properties are often used to identify
    substances.

10
Some physical properties of matter
  • Boiling point - the temperature at which a
    substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
  • Condensation point - the temperature at which a
    substance changes from a gas to liquid same
    temperature as boiling point.
  • Freezing point - the temperature at which a
    substance changes from a liquid to a solid  same
    temperature as melting point.
  • Melting point - the temperature at which a
    substance changes from a solid to a liquid.

11
Some physical properties of matter
  • Density - the mass of a specific volume of
    substance.
  • Resistance - the ability of a substance to slow
    down the flow of electric current.
  • Solubility - the degree to which a substance will
    dissolve in a given amount of another substance,
    such as water.

12
Physical changes
  • A physical change is a change that does not
    produce a new kind of matter.
  • When you stretch a rubber band or crush a cube of
    ice, you are causing physical change.
  • Only certain physical characteristics of matter,
    such as shape, and volume, are changed.

13
  • Common physical changes include phase changes
    such as freezing, melting and boiling.
  • All pure substances can change from phase to
    phase without changing their chemical
    composition.
  • When a liquid freezes, it changes from a liquid
    phase to a solid phase.
  • The temperature at which a substance changes from
    a liquid to a solid is called its freezing point.

14
  • Water for an example, turns to ice at its
    freezing point. If the ice is heated, it changes
    back to a liquid.
  • The temperature at which a substance changes from
    a solid to a liquid is called its melting point.

15
  • Condensation is the changing of phases from a gas
    to a liquid. Condensation is the opposite of
    boiling. If water is then boiled, it changes from
    a liquid phase to a gaseous phase.
  • Evaporation is the opposite of condensation. A
    liquid changes to a gas and moves into the
    surrounding atmosphere.
  • Sublimation is a phase change in which a solid
    changes directly into a gas. Dry ice is an
    example of a substance that sublimes.

16
  • Phase changes are related to temperature.  If you
    have a colorless liquid that boils at 100 degrees
    C and freezes at 0 degrees C, you can be
    reasonably certain the substance is
    ______________.

17
What is a chemical change?
  • Chemical changes are changes substances undergo
    when they become new or different substances.
  • For example, the fireworks we see on the 4th of
    July are actually metals such as magnesium and
    copper that change chemically - they light up the
    night skies with their fantastic colors.

18
To identify a chemical change look for observable
signs such as
  • Color change
  • Bubbling and fizzing
  • Light production
  • Smoke
  • Presence of heat or cold
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