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Antebellum Reform Movements

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Antebellum Reform Movements A New Wave of Reform Before the Civil War Election of 1840 William Henry Harrison (Whig) vs. Martin Van Buren (Democrat) LOG CABIN ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Antebellum Reform Movements


1
Antebellum Reform Movements
  • A New Wave of Reform Before the Civil War

2
CHANGE
  • YOUR REALMS OF CHANGE
  • RELIGIOUS CHANGE
  • ABOLITION CHANGE
  • SOCIAL CHANGE
  • LITERARY CHANGE
  • WOMENS RIGHTS CHANGE
  • EDUCATIONAL CHANGE
  • JACKSONIAN POLITICAL CHANGE
  • EACH OF THESE CHANGES AFFECTED THE NEW COUNTRY.

3
Reasons for Reform
  • Similar to reasons for Cult of True Womanhood /
    Domesticity
  • Barbara Welter Women were supposed to be
  • Pious
  • Purity
  • Submission
  • Domesticity
  • Fear of rapid change (urbanization,
    industrialization, immigration)
  • Desire to return to a less materialistic (money
    and thing centered) lifestyle
  • Religious fervor When things are wrong with
    society or there is progress, turn to GOD!

4
Second Great Awakening
  • Renewed interest in religion
  • Traveling (itinerant) preachers
  • Religious revivals
  • Focus on emotion
  • Idea that anyone could be saved, anyone could
    preach
  • Participation of many social groups
    (African-Americans, women, slaves, etc.)
  • Influenced by Alex de Tocquevilles Democracy
    in America
  • . there is no country in the world where the
    Christian religion retains a greater influence
    over the souls of men than in America and there
    can be no greater proof of its utility and of its
    conformity to human nature than that its
    influence is powerfully felt over the most
    enlightened and free nation of the earth.

5
Camp Meetings
  • Multi-denominational gatherings that demonstrate
    fanatical fervor about God
  • Fiery speakers taught that the return of Jesus
    was imminent
  • Speakers were not college educated and opposed
    the orthodox customs why? Popularity?
  • Methodism fastest growing denomination 1800
    70,000 1844 over 1 million
  • Charles G. Finney Father of American Revivalism

6
New York
  • Burned over District
  • Charles Finney, the father of American
    revivalism, who explained in the 1870's that the
    region had seen so many revivals in the previous
    decades that it no longer had any more fuel
    (the unconverted) to burn (convert).
  • Western New York
  • Welcomed women into active public life in the
    church
  • Rejected Pre-destination human effort in
    salvation

7
Religious Sects
  • Unitarians
  • Universalists
  • God as ONE person contrast with Trinitarians
    (God as 3 persons)
  • Jesus was a Prophet not necessarily the Son of
    God as a God
  • Did not believe in the concept of original sin
    that man was inherently sinful from the dawn of
    time
  • No belief in Hell
  • Living truth is much more important than
    national, cultural, or religious boundaries
  • All religions are true and are therefore worthy
    of dignity and respect
  • Uphold principles, ethics, and actions that
    promote living right

8
Mormonism
  • Joseph Smith grew up in the Burned Over
    District in NY and continued to question
    traditional religious customs and orthodoxy
  • Angel led him to interpret a book of revelation
    and Book of Mormon
  • Seen by his followers as a prophet
  • Belief that Jesus and God are two separate beings
    differed from orthodox Christianity
    Trinitarianism
  • Persecuted because of polygamy moved the church
    to Illinois Joseph Smith killed
  • Brigham Young moves the church and followers to
    UTAH

9
Religious Utopian Societies
  • Utopia- a community designed to create a perfect
    society -- idea formed by Sir Thomas More
  • Often wanted to bring the kingdom of heaven into
    reality on earth
  • Shakers- stressed simple, communal lifestyle
    (shared everything), equality, celibacy (What
    could be 1 problem with this?)
  • Mormons- founded by Joseph Smith, practiced
    plural marriage, mob in Carthage, IL. killed
    Smith in 1844.
  • Moved west under Brigham Young to Great Salt Lake
    Valley

10
Oneida in New York
  • Founded by John Humphrey Noyes
  • Believed in equality of men and women
  • Practices
  • Complex marriage and communal child-rearing
  • Birth control through male continence ascending
    fellowship (older people with younger)
  • Stirpiculture- selective breeding to produce
    better offspring
  • How might this have been liberating for women?
    How might it have been oppressive? Downfall?

11
New Harmony in Indiana
  • Goal a planned environment will improve social
    behavior and misery will eventually banish
  • Based on SOCIALISM / COLLECTIVISM and COMMUNISM
  • Equal distribution of wealth
  • Cooperation NOT Competition

12
Brook Farm in Massachusetts
  • Founded near Boston by Transcendentalists
    commune with nature / protest technology
  • Founded for people to personally connect with
    divinity (God) rather than participate in
    organized ritualistic religion
  • Intellectuals such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and
    Nathaniel Hawthorne

13
Shakers
  • Founded by Mother Ann Lee
  • Sex was the main cause of EVIL in the world
  • Named because of convulsive dances
  • Isolationist communities based of separation of
    genders and equality
  • Population growth due to converts and adoption of
    orphans

14
Transcendentalists
  • Romantic movement, early 1800s
  • Protest movement
  • Emphasized importance of individual, natural
    simplicity, spiritual renewal
  • Belief that people could transcend (rise above)
    material things in life
  • Emerson- Self Reliance -- rely on oneself
    instead of new technology / commune with nature
  • Henry David Thoreau- Walden (about his time
    living in the woods, getting away from
    technology, big cities), Civil Disobedience --
    PROTEST

15
Poem of Emily Dickinson
  • Some keep the Sabbath going to church
  • I keep it staying at home,
  • With a bobolink (bird) for a chorister (choir),
  • And an orchard for a dome.
  • How does this reflect the themes of
    transcendentalists?

16
Literary Reform
  • Emily Dickinson emotional poetry
  • James Fennimore Cooper The Last of the Mohicans
    American Historical Fiction
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter
  • Walt Whitman Leaves of Grass
  • Edgar Allan Poe The Raven
  • American authors writing distinctly American
    stories and poems about American culture

17
Hudson River School
  • Philosophy or school of thought People
    sharing ideas about ART
  • Artists painting or depicting distinctly American
    landscapes, figures, CULTURE!!!
  • Thomas Cole / Asher Durand

18
Other Reform Movements
  • Temperance (persuade people to temper or limit
    alcohol consumption)
  • Education- Horace Mann, common schools, uniform
    curriculum teacher training, bigger impact in
    the North.
  • Mentally ill- Dorothea Dix advocated better
    treatment, separation of criminals, mentally ill
  • Prisons- try to rehabilitate, penitentiary new
    institution
  • Abolitionism attempt to rid the South of
    slavery
  • Womens Rights attempt to gain the right to
    vote

19
Temperance Movement
  • By 1830, Americans were drinking 7 gallons of
    alcohol per person, per year on average
  • Men spent too much , avoided their families,
    and beat their wives (domestic violence)
  • Lyman Beecher and Protestant churches formed
    Temperance societies
  • Economic PANIC of 1837 caused workers to question
    their drinking habits
  • Womens Christian Temperance Union protest
    organization that pushes for legalizing morality
    (outlawing drinking)

20
Temperance
21
The Bar of Destruction Thomas Nast Original
Date March 21, 1874
Source http//www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/BrowseBy
DateCartoon.asp?MonthMarchDate21
22
Reforms
  • In each small group cooperatively investigate and
    discuss who were the leaders of these movements
    and how did their reforms change / shape American
    society. Lets look at each reform area and
    discuss one / two that is found on the next
    several slides. This will give each group an idea
    of what is expected after your chart is
    completely filled out think about todays reforms
    in your particular area.

23
Womens Rights / Seneca Falls Convention
  • Womens Movement Seneca Falls Convention NY-
    call for suffrage- Lucretia Mott/ Elizabeth Cady
    Stanton / Sojourner Truth
  • Declaration of Sentiments many men respected
    the drafting of this document but conventional
    thinking would not permit women the right to vote
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident that
    all men and women are created equal
  • 1900s Womens Rights Carrie Chapman Catt/
    Susan B. Anthony culminated in 19th Amendment
    (womens suffrage in 1920)

24
Seneca Falls Convention- Lucretia Mott/ Elizabeth
Cady Stanton
25
  • Caption "Get Thee Behind Me, (Mrs.) Satan!
  • Wife (with heavy burden). "I'd rather travel the
    hardest path of matrimony than follow your
    footsteps."
  • Satan Victoria Woodhull, an advocate of womens
    rights and free love, who ran for President in
    1872.

Date February 17, 1872
Source http//www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/BrowseB
yDateCartoon.asp?MonthFebruaryDate17
26
Abolitionist Movement
  • Abolition Freedom from slavery
  • American Colonization Society wanted free
    slaves then move ALL blacks to Liberia (in
    Africa) / didnt work slaves are from America
  • American Anti-Slavery Society (1833-1870)
    founded by Wm. Lloyd Garrison believed in
    IMMEDIATE abolition of the slave / slave owners
    are sinful / criticized the A.C.S. (above)
  • Lucy Stone / womens rights / maiden name /
    divorce rights etc.

27
Fredrick Douglass
  • American abolitionist, author, womens suffragist
  • Wrote and published The North Star
  • Purchased his freedom and became an ardent
    abolitionist
  • In thinking of America, I sometimes find myself
    admiring her bright blue sky-her grand old
    woods-her fertile fields-her beautiful rivers-her
    mighty lakes and star-crowned mountains. But my
    rapture is soon checked when I remember that all
    is cursed with the infernal spirit of
    slave-holding and wrong When I remember that
    with the waters of her noblest rivers, the tears
    of my brethren are borne to the ocean,
    disregarded and forgotten That her most fertile
    fields drink daily of the warm blood of my
    outraged sisters, I am filled with unutterable
    loathing.

28
Believed in IMMEDIATE ABOLITION NOT GRADUALISM
William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator
29
Sarah and Angelina Grimke-
  • Abolitionists who moved from South Carolina
    (daughters of slave owner) to the North to
    promote the abolitionist movement
  • AMERICAN ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY- END SLAVERY
    HEADED BY WILLIAM LLYOD GARRISON

30
Education Reform
  • Horace Mann- (Massachusetts) pressed for more
    public education and helped create a state board
    of education in 1837.
  • He was secretary of the new board he doubled
    teacher salaries, opened 50 new high schools, and
    establish training schools for teachers.
  • 1st State School Superintendent
  • Pushed COMPULSORY EDUCATION

31
Dorothea Dix
  • Led Sunday school classes for prisoners.
  • Saw the mentally ill in the prisons and saw how
    neglected they were as they lay on the floor.
  • Started the crusade to improve the conditions for
    the mentally ill- hospital.

32
Elizabeth Blackwell
  • First woman to earn a medical degree.

33
Nativism Feelings of anger and hatred toward
immigrants
  • Know Nothing Party political party aimed at
    promoting native American views and ideals.
    Fear of Irish Catholics helped fuel this party.
  • Most of their program goals and aims were NOT
    achieved.
  • Wanted increased naturalization requirements.

34
Election of 1840
  • William Henry Harrison (Whig) vs. Martin Van
    Buren (Democrat) LOG CABIN ELECTION
  • Whigs (Party formed chiefly out of dislike for
    Jackson viewed him as a king)
  • Tippecanoe and Tyler Too Harrison and Tyler
    promoted the idea of the common man just as
    Jackson had before them (WON)
  • E.C. Booze distilled hard apple cider and
    poured them in log cabin bottles to pass out at
    political functions BOOZE

35
Tippecanoe and Tyler Too
36
Spirit of Reform
  • You are to participate and find changes/ reforms
    in American history from 1828- 1845 in the areas
    listed on the prior slide. Each cooperative group
    have a specific area to show the reforms. Follow
    the flow charts in each area. Then relate these
    changes to the changes of today (EX. Changes
    today in the area of education. )

37
Spirit of Reform
  • Looking Forward The United States in 1850
    Manifest Destiny brought western lands into the
    country which helped bring about sectionalism
    which was apart of the reforms Americans had to
    dealt with in society. (abolition)

38
Manifest Destiny- John OSullivan- caused
sectionalism- how would the nation deal with the
issue of slavery as it spreads westward. Painting
by John Gast- The American Progress.
39
Spirit of Reforms
  • VOCABULARY Standard Course of Study reform,
    transcendentalism, utopia, romanticism,
    nativists, Second Great Awakening, abolition,
    emancipation.
  • Group activity help one another complete the
    assignment vocabulary on Jacksonian Democracy
    and Reforms. Work with one another in your groups
    to complete each term and discuss the terms while
    you define themthis will be graded.
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