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Title: Jacksonian%20Democracy

Jacksonian Democracy
  • Unit 5

New Democracy
  • Politicians appealing to the masses
  • High offices still belonged to the wealthy
  • Democracys emphasis change
  • -government for the people
  • -done by the people
  • Leads to the spoil system

New Democracy Cont
  • Bases on white-male suffrage rather than property
  • Between 18101821 6 new western states grant
    more male suffrage, 4 eastern state reduce voting
  • South was the last region to grant universal
    white-male suffrage

New Democracy Cont
  • Jackson-result, not cause of new democracy.
  • Fredrick Jackson Turner- Frontier Shapes
  • The rise of workingmen parties
  • -labor movements
  • -Locos Focos for example

Causes of New Democracy
  • Panic of 1819-McCullough vs. Maryland
  • Missouri Compromise-Goal of the white southerners

New Political Age
  • Two Party System reemerged by 1832
  • Jacksonian Democrats vs. Whigs (National
  • Voter turnout dramatically increases
  • New campaign styles to appeal to the people
  • Voting Reform-Electoral college now chosen by the

Election of 1824 The Corrupt Bargain
  • 4 candidates Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, John
    C. Calhoun, and General Andrew Jackson
  • Jackson wins popular vote, but not enough
    electoral votes to be elected ?Similar to who.?
  • 12th amendment state the House of Reps must
    choose between the top 3 finishers
  • Clay finished fourth, but was Speaker of the
  • Clays hatred for Jackson support for John
    Quincy Adams Jackson Losing and Adams becoming
  • Jacksons supporters call it the Corrupt
  • Adams presidency would be plagued with growing
    sectionalism and the splitting of the republican

Tariff of Abominations
  • 1828 Adams Presidency
  • Congress Increases Tariff to 37 on goods (from
  • Goal of the Jacksonians to increase the tariff to
    45 (Would look bad on Adams)
  • Supported by New England
  • Webster now in support,
  • Calhoun against? The Southern Carolina Exposition

Calhoun and the Tariff continued
  • Denounced tariff as unjust and unconstitutional
  • States should nullify the tariff.similar to?
  • Wanted to save the Union by lowering the tariff
  • No other states supported South Carolina and its

Election of 1828
  • Personified the West
  • GovtHaven of wealth taken away from the public
  • Reduce role of the govt
  • Against Henry Clays systemwhich was?
  • Unionist and Nationalist
  • Defied Congress and Supreme Court
  • Used Veto Power

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Election of 1828
  • J.Q.A. vs. Andrew Jackson
  • Jackson wins.178-83 (electoral votes)
  • Common Man, from the West
  • Support came from who?
  • The Revolution of 1828
  • ? No Landslide victory
  • ? Voter turnout increases
  • ? Power shift to west from east

Jacksonian Democracy
  • White Male Suffrage
  • Spoils System
  • ?Rewarding Political Supporters with public
  • ? Martin Van Buren and the Albany Regency
  • Believed in the Rotation of Office
  • Civil Service is corrupt.
  • Replace Adams-Clay appointees with loyal

Jacksons Cabinet
  • Informal group of people of about 13
  • Kitchen Cabinet
  • Group never officially met, and did not have too
    much influence
  • NOT Unconstitutional

Nat Turner's Rebellion
  • Slave Rebellion 1831
  • Nat Turner Rises up in Virginia! Lasts for days!
  • Finally suppressedcause widespread Panic. Local
    Militias kill absurd amounts of slaves in
  • Laws passed against educating slavesthink
    reformation, abolition, education, etc

Webster-Hayne Debate
  • Daniel Webster-NE
  • Robert Hayne-SC
  • Issue-Protective Tariff

Webster-Hayne Debate Continued
  • NE wants to curb sale of public land
  • People Created the Constitution, not the states
  • Webster accredited for jumpstarting a new
    generation of northerners
  • West Disagrees, South Allies with west
  • NE disloyal during the War of 1812
  • Against Tariff of Abominations
  • Said Calhouns Nullification Doctrine only means
    of protecting States Rights

Nullification Crisis
  • Jefferson Day Dinner begins the political split
    between Calhoun and Jackson.
  • States Rights vs. National Rights
  • Our UnionIt must be preserved! Jackson
  • The Union, next to our liberty, most dear!

Nullification Continued
  • Tariffs marked a major issue between Calhoun and
  • Calhoun resigns in 1832
  • ?Becomes Senator
  • Calhoun now a fierce sectionalist
  • ? States rights and slavery.

Nullification Continued
  • Calhoun suggests concurrent majority plan
  • ?2 presidents (NS), each have veto power.
  • ? Union could be stable only through
    representation of the majority and minority

Nullification Controversy of 1832
  • SC and Tariff of Abominations
  • Jackson attempts to lower the tariff of 1828.
  • ?45 to 35
  • ?Did not meet southern demands
  • South Carolina Nullifies and threatens secession
  • Jackson threatens to hang nullifiers and sends
    naval and military to SC

Calhoun ?
Henry Clay ?
Controversy Continued
  • Henry Clay proposes a compromise
  • ?tariff reduced 10 every 8 years (Compromise
  • ? Force Bill enacted which extends the power of
    the president
  • Aftermath
  • ? Victory for both sides
  • ?Stepping stone for civil war
  • ? Tariff issue main reason for Calhoun and
    Jackson split

Election of 1832
  • Henry Clay
  • Andrew Jackson
  • Advantage Highly funded
  • ?Easterners and BUS
  • Advantage Most newspapers supported Clay and
    disliked Jackson
  • Advantage Support of the masses
  • Advantage Support overwhelms the wealthy vote
  • Jackson wins 219-49

Jacksonian Democracy
  • Focus on Economy and States Rights
  • Divorce government from the economy (laissez
  • ?Anti-monopoly
  • ?Return to Jeffersonian
  • ?More power to the states, equal opportunity

Jackson and the Bank
  • Distrust for the Bank
  • Clay tries to recharter the bank in 1832 to anger
    JacksonWanted to put the recharter through
    Congress so it mad it to the White House
  • ?If Jackson signed it, it would alienate western
  • ?If he vetoed it, he would alienate the wealthy
    and the influential of the East
  • Jackson Vetoes BUS Charter

Bank continued
  • Criticized Nicholas Biddle (head of BUS)
  • Jackson says the bank supports the elite
    (wealthy and stock owners)
  • ? Appeals to the common people

Bank continued
  • BUS strengths before its downfall
  • ?Organized, reduced bank failures, spurred
    economic expansion, safe depository for the govt

Pet Banks
  • 23 state banks controlled by Jackson
  • ?Federal funds transferred funs over to them
  • Biddle wants public to reconsider charter
  • Specie Circular
  • ?payment for government land to be in gold and
    silver (hard money/paper currency vs Gold and
    silver standard)
  • ?currency becomes unreliable-leads to inflation

Specie Circular Continued
  • All public land had to be purchased with federal
  • Hard moneyhard times for the west
  • Inflation continues

General Incorporation Laws
  • Connecticut, 1837
  • Allow corporations to be formed without a charter
    from the legislature
  • ? Examples Railroads
  • States make incorporation easier, helping the
    economy through small and medium sized businesses
  • Limited liability for business owners-reduced the
    risk of owning a business

Charles River Bridge (CRB) vs. Warren Bridge (WB)
  • Builders of CRB gain charter through
    MassachusettsBoston has high growth making
    stocks skyrocket
  • WB also gains charter enabling it to build 300
    yards away from CRB
  • CRB takes WB to court saying the states charter
    cannot interfere with contracts
  • Supreme Court allows WB to build bridge
  • ?Economic development between companies
    encouraged (transportation for example)
  • ?Began to end monopoles in public facilities

Maysville Road Veto
  • Example of Jackson using his power to veto
  • The bill would call for federal funding for
    intrastate improvements (road linking Lexington
    to the Ohio River)
  • Jackson vetoes on the ground that federal funding
    for intrastate projects was unconstitutional
  • ? Also says this would have disrupted the
    ability to pay off the national debt

Indian Removal Act 1830
  • Jackson proposes removing of Native Americans
    (Cherokee, Creek, Chocktaw, Chickasaw and
  • ? Mississippi to Oklahoma
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • ?Helps with Native American relations
  • ?Was around until 1954, where it merged with the
    the U.S. Department of Health, Education and
  • (known today as the Department of Health and
    Human Services)
  • ? Known now as the Indian Health Service (IHS)

Indian Removal
Indian Removal Continued
  • Black Hawk War (1832)
  • ?Black Hawk leads Indian Resistance
  • ?Crushed by US Troops
  • ?Are a west of Lake Michigan open for settlement
  • Second Seminole War
  • ?Indian resistance in Florida
  • ? Bloodiest Indian conflict in US history
  • ?3,000 moved to Oklahoma

Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia (1831)
  • Georgia creates a law that nullifies Cherokee
  • Cherokee challenge Georgia and take them to the
    Supreme Court
  • Supreme Court rules in favor of Georgia, stating
    the Cherokee have no jurisdiction over their land)

Worcester vs. Georgia (1832)
  • Sam Worcester
  • ?missionary living with Cherokee
  • ? Georgia forces him to have allegiance with GA
    or leave Cherokee land
  • ?Refuses and is arrested
  • Marshall rules Cherokee nation is a
    self-sufficient nation that must be recognized
  • Georgia has no jurisdiction in Cherokee land

Worcester vs. Georgia continued
  • Cherokee can invite whomever they wished to their
  • Jackson says John Marshall has made his
    decisionnow let him enforce it!
  • Case helped prevent political conflict between
    the executive and judicial, while still
    delivering what appeared to be a pro-Indian

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Trail of Tears
  • 18,000 Cherokees forcibly removed 1,000 miles to
    Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
  • ?4,000 die from malnutrition, cholera, etc.
  • ?Soldiers force the march
  • 25 of Choctaw die en route
  • 3,500-15,000 Creeks die during removal in 1836

Birth of Texas
  • By 1821, Stephen Austin tries to migrate 300
    families to Texas
  • ?Tries to Mexicanize them ( requirements were to
    convert them to Catholicism and allow now
  • ?Requirements are ignored by most migrants
  • Mexico Prohibits importation into Texas and
    prohibits further settlements by Americans
  • ?Americans refuse and still import slaves and
    new settlers

Texas continued
  • Santa Anna (Mexican Dictator) raises army to
    exert control in Texas.
  • ?Outlaws all local rights in Texas
  • Texas declares independence in 1836
  • Santa Annas Army invades
  • ?Goliad, ALAMO
  • ?America Unites

Defeat at San Jacinto
  • Sam Houston and American army victorious at San
  • Santa Anna agrees to withdraw troops and
    recognize Rio Grande as the new border
  • ?Does not honor agreements
  • America still aids Texas in its fight for
  • ?Public opinion nullifies neutrality agreement

Jacksons Dilemma
  • Should he recognize Texas?
  • ?Would re-open slavery issue among states rights
  • Recognizes Texas on the last day of office
  • North disagrees (anti-slavery petitions)
  • South welcomes Texas
  • Texas left to fend for themselves and feared
    reprisals from Santa Anna.
  • ?Also courted the British and French for aid
  • ?Sam Houston become first president for the
    Independent Republic of Texas

Election of 1836
  • Whigs vs. Jacksonian Democrats
  • ?William Henry Harrison vs. Martin Van Buren
  • ?Van Buren wins 170-73
  • Whigs beliefs?
  • ?Many of these beliefs foundation for modern day
    Republican party.

Jacksons Legacy
  • Positives
  • Negatives
  • Strong Executive leadership
  • Common People
  • Democratic party
  • Spoil System
  • Death of the BUS
  • Specie Circular
  • Trail of Tears
  • Increased Sectionalism

Van Burens Presidency
  • Continued Spoils system
  • Presided over the Panic of 1837 (Jacksons
    policies were a major cause)
  • Formalizes the Pet Banks (Independent Treasury
  • Caroline Incident-Rebellion in Canada threatens
    war with Britain
  • He is ineffective as president

Panic of 1837
  • Over-speculation yet again
  • ?Remember Panic of 1819?
  • Bank War and Specie Circular hurts economy
  • Flour Riot
  • 2 Major British banks fail, call in foreign loans

Results of the Panic of 1837
  • Banks Collapse (including Pet Banks)
  • Commodity prices and public land sale decreases
  • Factories close leading to soaring unemployment
  • Whigs sought expanding bank credit, higher
    tariffs, and internal improvement funds
  • Treasury Bill of 1840-Independent Treasury system

Election of 1840
  • Van Buren (D) vs. William Henry Harrison (W)
  • Depression blamed on who?
  • Harrison Wins
  • Significance
  • ?1st mass turnout election in US history
  • ?Propaganda and slogans set examples for future
    campaigns (Tippecanoe and Tyler Too and Log
    Cabin and Hard Cider)
  • ?Liberty Party Will Run (Anti-Slavery Agenda)
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