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Jacksonian Democracy

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Title: Jacksonian Democracy


1
Jacksonian Democracy
2
A. The New Democracy
  • New effort among politicians to appeal to to the
    masses.
  • New Democracy based on universal manhood suffrage
    rather than property qualifications
  • Common man much more influential.
  • 1812-1821 6 new western states granted
    universal manhood suffrage.
  • 1810-1820 4 eastern states significantly
    reduced voting requirements.
  • Caused by Panic of 1819
  • Western farmers resented eastern bankers and BUS
  • Push to get more involved in politics to affect
    change.

3
B. The Corrupt Bargain
  • 4 Candidates
  • Andrew Jackson (TN)
  • John Q. Adams (MA)
  • William Crawford (GA)
  • Henry Clay (KY)
  • Jackson popular vote winner, but no majority in
    E.C. (needed 131 to win.
  • House of Reps gets to decide
  • Picks from top 3 (Clay out but Speaker of the
    House)
  • Clay throws his weight behind Adams Adams
    becomes President
  • Clay becomes Secretary of State.
  • Wha wha what? A. Jackson
  • Dubbed the corrupt bargain by Jackson and his
    supporters.

4
C. The Tariff of Abominations (1828)
  • Biggest issue of Adams Presidency
  • Congress increased duty from 23 to 37 on
    dutiable goods.
  • Jackson supported tariff,
  • thought it would NOT pass and give Adams a
    political black eye.
  • Actually backfired, because it passed and he
    inherited it as President.
  • Webster supported it (reversal from 1816) because
    it would protect northern manufacturers.
  • South HATED it as they imported and exported A
    LOT (Europe passed retaliatory tariffs)
  • John C. Calhoun anonymously (he was VP) wrote the
    South Carolina Exposition
  • Denounced tariff as unjust and unconstitutional.
  • Said states should nullify it (similar to VA and
    KY Resolutions of 1798.
  • No states joined in SCs protest.

5
D. Election of 1828
  • Intense feud within the Democratic-Republican
    party.
  • National Republicans supported JQ Adams
  • Democratic Republicans supported Jackson.
  • Jackson defeats Adams 178-83 (E.C.)
  • First President from the west seen as a great
    common man (although he owned 142 slaves)
  • Dubbed the Revolution of 1828
  • No sitting President had been voted out since J
    Adams in 1800.
  • Increased voter turnout
  • Balance of power shifting from East to West
  • America heretofore had been ruled by educated
    wealthy elites.
  • Inauguration found huge rowdy crowds in the White
    House.

6
E. Old Hickory
  • 61 140 lbs., sickly and violent tempered.
  • Personified the new West
  • Saw federal govt as a haven for the wealthy and
    detached from common folk experience.
  • Nationalist and a unionist
  • Rewarded loyal supports with govt jobs
  • spoils system
  • Every man is as good as his neighbor
  • Many corrupt and incompetent, but helped cement
    emerging two party system loyalty.

7
F. Jacksonian Democracy
  • Increased manhood suffrage
  • End of the caucus and beginning of nominating
    conventions.
  • Spoils system
  • Reward political supporters with public office.
  • Rotation in office
  • National political machine built around Jackson
  • Competence and merit subordinate to loyalty
  • Corruption resulted.
  • Kitchen Cabinet
  • Unofficial group of 13 advisors to the President
  • Critics branded these members Kitchen Cabinet
  • Angry that these advisors not answerable to
    Congress.
  • Congress saw it as a threat.
  • Not unconstitutional however

8
G. Webster Hayne-Debate
  • Webster introduced bill to curb sale of western
    lands.
  • West obviously against it
  • South sided with the West
  • Debate in Senate lasted 9 days in Jan. 1830
  • Each side thought it won.
  • Senator Robert Hayne (SC)
  • Accused NE of disloyalty during War of 1812
  • Blasted northern tariffs
  • Championed Calhouns doctrine of nullification.
  • Senator Daniel Webster (MA)
  • Insisted that people, not states had framed
    Constitution.
  • Assailed doctrine of nullification
  • Liberty and Union, one and inseparable, now and
    forever

9
H. Peggy Eaton Affair
  • Wife of Sec. of War Eaton being snubbed by othr
    Cabinet members wives, esp. Mrs. Calhoun
  • Jackson, remembering trauma inflicted on his late
    wife Rachel, defended Mrs. Eaton
  • Demanded Cabinet members make their wives include
    her.
  • Began purging Calhoun allies in Senate in 1831
  • Martin Van Buren gained Jacksons attention by
    being nice to Mrs. Eaton
  • Split between Jackson and Calhoun caused mostly
    by tariffs, but this didnt help.

10
I. Nullification Crisis of 1832
  • South Carolina still steamed over Tariff of
    Abominations of 1828.
  • Tariff of 1832
  • Jackson tried to lower tariff of 1828 to 35 from
    45.
  • Still protective in nature (south didnt like
    that) and fell short of southern demands.
  • South Carolina nullified tariff of 1832 and
    threatened Secession if Jackson tried to collect
    tariff by force.

11
  • Jacksons Reaction
  • Violently angry in private threatened to hang
    nullifiers, incl. Calhoun.
  • Dispatched modest army and naval force to SC -
    prepared sizable army quietly
  • Compromise Tariff of 1833
  • Introduced by Henry Clay (surprise)
  • Tariff would be reduced by 10 over 8 yrs.
  • Rates would eventually be at 1816 level (20-25)
  • Just squeaked through Congress.
  • Force Bill
  • Congress and Jackson followed this showdown up
    with face-saving legislation
  • President, in the future, could use military to
    collect federal tariffs if necessary.
  • Dubbed the Bloody Bill by South Carolinians.

12
J. Election of 1832
  • Henry Clay (National Republican Whigs) vs.
    Jackson (Democrat)
  • Clay lost to Jackson in E.C. 219-49.
  • New political trends in 1832 campaign
  • First third party in US Presidential Election
    (Anti-Masons)
  • National nominating conventions in all three
  • Jacksons second term goals
  • Divorce government from the economy.
  • Anti-monopoly common should have a chance to
    succeed.
  • Return to Jeffersonian democracy govt role
    should be limited.
  • Give more power to the states to promote equal
    opportunity.

13
K. Bank War
  • Jackson distrusted BUS and huge businesses.
  • Clay tried to ram bank recharter before election
    to tie up Jackson
  • Signs it alienates western support
  • Vetoes it alienates wealthy and influential in
    east.
  • Jackson The Bank is trying to kill me, but I
    will kill it.

14
  • Jackson VETOED BUSs recharter in 1832.
  • Assailed it as monopolistic and unconstitutional.
  • Criticized Nicholas Biddle, Prez of BUS
  • Ignored SC ruling of McCullough vs. Maryland
    (1819) which declared bank constitutional.
  • Became major issue of 1832 election.
  • Pet Banks Scheme
  • Jackson hoped to weaken BUS by transferring fedl
    funds out of BUS and into 23 pet banks
  • Hoped to bleed BUS dry and irrelevant
  • Cabinet saw this as a mistake
  • Financial crisis ensued
  • Wildcat banks unstable and issues depreciated
    notes

15
  • Benefits of the BUS
  • Sound organization that reduced bank failures.
  • Issued sound paper notes while US flooded with
    depreciated paper.
  • Spurred economic expansion by making credit and
    currency available.
  • Safe depository for federal govt funds.
  • Specie Circular
  • wildcat banks unstable and issuing depreciated
    currency.
  • A Jackson required all western land sales to be
    paid for with hard money.
  • Brought hard times to westerners.

16
L. Economic Expansion under Jackson
  • General incorporation laws
  • State granted corporate charters traditionally
    monopolies.
  • States began to make incorporation easier
  • Small and medium business growth spurt.
  • Limited liability allowed business owners to be
    separated from their business entity reduced
    risk of business ownership.
  • Part of increased democracy under Jackson

17
  • Charles River Bridge decision (1837)
  • Chas. River Bridge builders given monopoly for
    bridge from MA in 1780.
  • 1828 Warren Bridge Co. granted charter by MA to
    build bridge 300 yds away.
  • Chas. River Bridge Co. sued Warren Bridge Co. for
    a state interfering with a contract protected by
    Constitution.
  • Supreme Court granted Warren Bridge Co. right to
    build
  • Significance Encouraged economic development in
    transportation and elsewhere via competition.
  • Another step towards democracy under Jackson.

18
M. Jackson and States Rights
  • Jackson believed in supremacy of national laws,
    but also a proponent of states rights.
  • Refused to spend federal money for intrastate
    improvements.
  • Vetoed bill for improving the Maysville Road in
    KY
  • Similar to Madisons veto of Bonus Bill for
    internal improvements in 1817.

19
  • Removal of Native Americans
  • Indian Removal Act (1830)
  • Jackson wanted to remove remaining tribes (5
    Civilized Nations) that still lived east of
    Mississippi River to Oklahoma Territory.
  • Individual natives could stay if they adopted
    white ways.
  • More than 100,000 natives forcibly uprooted and
    moved in 1830s
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs est. in 1836 to
    administer relations with natives.

20
  • Cherokee
  • Tried to assimilate into white society
  • Sequoya created 85 character alphabet and created
    their own newspaper.
  • Had a written constitution similar to US
  • Established agriculture-based economy.
  • Still not accepted by white society.
  • Cherokee sat on valuable land in northeast GA.
  • Gold discovered in 1829 whites want it
  • Could also be used for cotton coveted by
    farmers too
  • Cherokee right to land recognized by Treaty of
    1791
  • Many Georgians ignored federal laws however.

21
  • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
  • Sam Worcester (missionary) arrested for living on
    Cherokee territory and not leaving when ordered
    by state to do so.
  • John Marshall ruled that Georgias laws had no
    jurisdiction within Cherokee nation boundaries.
  • Jackson defied ruling
  • Did not release Worcester
  • Reportedly said John Marshall has made his
    decision, let him enforce it
  • 1838 forcibly removed Cherokee from their homes
  • Marched 1,000 mi to Indian Territory (OK)
  • 4,000 died en route
  • 25 of Choctaw died en route in 1831-35
  • 3,500 of 15,000 Creeks died during removal in
    1836.

22
N. Jacksons Legacy
  • Positive Contributions
  • Demonstrated value of strong executive
  • Became the champion of the common people.
  • Established the Democratic Party (and sparked the
    two party system)
  • Liabilities
  • Spoils System
  • Killing BUS led to bank failures and economic
    crisis.
  • Snubbed authority of Supreme Court.
  • Trail of Tears
  • Break with Calhoun led to deeper sectionalism.

23
O. Election of 1836
  • Birth of the Whig Party
  • Extension of Hamiltons Federalist ideas
  • Emerged when Clay and Calhoun joined forces to
    oppose Jacksons removal of federal deposits from
    BUS.
  • Mutual hatred of King Andrew I
  • Evolved into a national political party of groups
    alienated by Jackson.
  • War hero William Henry Harrison chosen as
    candidate over Henry Clay
  • Martin Van Buren was Jacksons hand-picked
    successor.
  • Ran for third term vicariously though Van Buren
  • Defeats Harrison 170-73

24
Second Two-Party System
  • Whigs
  • Supported by northern industrialists and
    merchants (wealthiest)
  • Supported Clays American System
  • Sought to reduce spoils system
  • Southern states rigths advocates angry at
    Jacksons stand on nullification.
  • Later supported social reforms like abolition and
    temperance.
  • Sought to use national govt to solve ills of
    society
  • Democrats
  • Supported by the common people and political
    machines in the east.
  • States Rights opposed to American System
  • Favored spoils system
  • Anti-monopoly favored increased competition
  • Believed federal govt should not be involved in
    peoples personal lives.

25
P. Van Burens Presidency
  1. First President born under American flag.
  2. Smart and deft NY politician dubbed The Little
    Magician.
  3. Further developed the 2-Party System
  4. Presided over the Panic of 1837 (Jacksons
    policies a major cause)
  5. Formalized the Independent Treasury System (pet
    banks)

26
Q. Panic of 1837
  • Causes
  • Overspeculation (risky loans)
  • Jacksons Policies
  • High Grain Prices
  • Failure of 2 major British Banks
  • Effects
  • American banks failed and took several million
    dollars of govt funds with it.
  • Prices and land sales dropped
  • Custom revenues dried up
  • Factories closed unemployment soared

27
  • Divorce Bill or Independent Treasury Bill of
    1840
  • Outcry among Whigs for govt to DO something
    about Panic
  • Van Buren stayed true to Jacksonian separation of
    Govt from economy.
  • Decided to separate govt funds from private
    banks entirely.
  • Removed govt funds from pet banks and locked it
    up in vaults in some select large banks.
  • Money was safe, but not available to make loans
  • Repealed a year later, but returns in 1846 with
    Polk.

28
P. Election of 1840
  • Van Ruin re-nominated by Dems
  • Whigs chose Harrison again and made John Tyler
    his running mate (Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!)
  • Not the ablest (Clay and Webster overlooked) but
    the biggest vote-getterest (!?)
  • Issueless and enemyless
  • Voters blamed Van Buren and Democrats for
    depression.
  • Whigs created a myth of Harrison being a poor
    western farmer who grew up in a log cabin (Log
    Cabin and Hard Cider campaign)
  • Harrison defeats Van Buren
  • First mass turnout of voters
  • Campaign more style over substance
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