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Title: Andrew%20Jackson

The Rise of Mass Democracy in the Age of Jackson
Mr. Walters Chapter 13
Essential Question
Champion of the Common Man?
King Andrew?
Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
Voter Turnout 1820 - 1860
Why Increased Democratization?
  • White male suffrage increased
  • Party nominating committees vs. old appt. system
  • Spoils system, less corruption and turnover.
  • Rise of Third Parties - more specific interests
  • Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
  • Two-party system returned in the 1832 election
  • Dem-Reps ? Natl. Reps.(1828) ? Whigs
    (1832) ? Republicans (1854)
  • Democrats (1828)

Jacksons Opponents in 1824
Henry Clay KY
John Quincy Adams MA
John C. Calhoun SC
Results of the 1824 Election
A Corrupt Bargain?
Opposition to John Quincy Adams
  • Some believed he allowed too much political
    control to be held by elites.
  • Some objected to his support of national economic
    development on constitutional grounds.
  • Adams believed a strong, active central
    government was necessary.
  • A national university.
  • An astronomical observatory.
  • A naval academy.
  • Many Americans saw Adams vision of a might
    nation led by a strong president as a threat to
    individual liberties.

Tariff Battles
  • Tariff of 1816 ? on imports of cheap textiles.
  • Tariff of 1824 ? on iron goods and more expensive
    woolen and cotton imports.
  • Tariff of 1828 ? higher tariffs on imported raw
    materials like wool hemp.
  • Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from
    farmers in NY, OH, KY.
  • The South alone was adamantly against it.
  • As producers of the worlds cheapest cotton, it
    did not need a protective tariff.
  • They were negatively impacted ? American textiles
    and iron goods or the taxed English goods were
    more expensive!

Land Indian Policies
  • John Quincy Adams
  • His land policies gave westerners another reason
    to dislike him.
  • He attempted to curb speculation for public lands
    ? his opponent accused him of denying their
    individual rights and freedoms to expand
  • He supported the land rights of Native Americans
    against white settlers.
  • 1825 ? govt. officials negotiated a treaty with a
    group of Creek Indians to cede their land rights
    to GA.
  • The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to renounce
    the treaty.
  • Congress sided with the governor of GA.

The 1828 Election
  • Jacksons campaign was engineered by Senator
    Martin Van Buren of NY
  • He wanted to recreate the old Jeffersonian
    coalition of
  • Northern farmers and artisans.
  • Southern slave owners.
  • Farmers with small land holdings.
  • He created the Democratic Party from the remains
    of Jeffersons old party
  • Created a national committee that oversaw local
    and state party units.
  • Mass meetings, parades, picnics.
  • A lot of political mudslinging on both sides.

Rachel Jackson
Final Divorce Decree
1828 Election Results
The New Jackson Coalition
  • The Planter Elite in the South
  • People on the Frontier -West
  • Artisans competition from factory labor.
  • State Politicians ? spoils system
  • To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy!
    William Marcy of NY
  • Immigrants in the cities.

Jackson as Satan Dangles the Spoils of Victory
over his Supporters
Jacksons Faith in the Common Man
  • Intense distrust of Eastern establishment,
    monopolies, special privilege.
  • His heart soul was with the plain folk.
  • Belief that the common man was capable of
    uncommon achievements.

The Peggy Eaton Affair
Tariff of Abominations
  • Jackson pushes forth the Tariff of 1828
  • Helps Northern industry
  • Southerners take exception
  • SC proposes/threatens Nullification
  • VP Calhoun (SC) chooses his side . . .

Votes in the House for the Tariff of Abomination
1832 Tariff Conflict
  • 1832 --gt new tariff Dont mess with Jackson!
  • South Carolinas reaction?
  • Jacksons response?
  • Clays Compromise Tariff
  • -Who won?

Clays Sews Up Jacksons Mouth (1834)
Indian Removal
  • Jacksons Goal?
  • 1830 ? Indian Removal Act
  • Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) domestic
    dependent nation
  • Worcester v. GA (1832)
  • Jackson John Marshall has made his
    decision, now let him enforce it!

Indian Removal
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
The National Bank Debate
President Jackson
Nicholas Biddle an arrogant aristocrat from
Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S.
Soft (paper)
Hard (specie)
  • state bankers felt it restrained their banks from
    issuing bank notes freely.
  • supported rapid economic growth speculation.
  • felt that coin was the only safe currency.
  • didnt like any bank that issued bank notes.
  • suspicious of expansion speculation.

The Monster Is Destroyed!
  • Pet Banks
  • 1832 ? Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2nd
    National Bank of the United States.
  • 1836 ? the charter expired.
  • 1841 ? the bank went bankrupt!

The Bank the 1832 Election
  • Jackson saw Biddles pushing forward a bill to
    renew the Banks charter earlier as an attempt to
    block his re-election!
  • Biddle his associates preferred Clay.
  • Jackson refused to sign the bill to re-charter.
  • The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I will
    destroy it!
  • Jackson drops Calhoun and runs with Martin Van
  • BUT, both parties Democrats Whigs had
    contradictory positions regarding their party
    principles, to many of the issues of the day!

Positions on the Key Issues of 1832
  • Felt the widening gap between rich and poor was
  • Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators
    were non-producers who used their govt.
    connections to line their own pockets.
  • Govt. should have a hands-off approach to the
    economy to allow the little guy a chance to
  • For Indian removal.
  • Oppose tariffs.
  • States rights.
  • Oppose federal support for internal improvements.
  • Opposed the National Bank.
  • Less concerned about the widening gap between
    rich and poor.
  • Opposed liberal capitalism because they
    believed it would lead to economic chaos.
  • Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding
    economy was critical.
  • Opposes Indian removal.
  • Favored tariffs.
  • Supported a National Bank.

Compare to today . . . .
1832 Election Results
An 1832 Cartoon King Andrew?
The 1836 Election Results
Martin Van Buren
The Specie Circular (1836)
  • Speculators created wildcat banks that fueled
    the runaway inflation.
  • So, buy future federal land only with gold or
  • This move shocked the system.
  • Jacksons goal ? to curb the land speculation.

Results of the Specie Circular
  • Banknotes loose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before
his death)
1767 - 1845