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Title: Andrew%20Jackson


1
The Rise of Mass Democracy in the Age of Jackson
Mr. Walters Chapter 13
2
Essential Question
Champion of the Common Man?
King Andrew?
OR
3
Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
4
Voter Turnout 1820 - 1860
5
Why Increased Democratization?
  • White male suffrage increased
  • Party nominating committees vs. old appt. system
  • Spoils system, less corruption and turnover.
  • Rise of Third Parties - more specific interests
  • Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
    etc.)
  • Two-party system returned in the 1832 election
  • Dem-Reps ? Natl. Reps.(1828) ? Whigs
    (1832) ? Republicans (1854)
  • Democrats (1828)

6
Jacksons Opponents in 1824
Henry Clay KY
John Quincy Adams MA
John C. Calhoun SC
7
Results of the 1824 Election
A Corrupt Bargain?
8
Opposition to John Quincy Adams
  • Some believed he allowed too much political
    control to be held by elites.
  • Some objected to his support of national economic
    development on constitutional grounds.
  • Adams believed a strong, active central
    government was necessary.
  • A national university.
  • An astronomical observatory.
  • A naval academy.
  • Many Americans saw Adams vision of a might
    nation led by a strong president as a threat to
    individual liberties.

9
Tariff Battles
  • Tariff of 1816 ? on imports of cheap textiles.
  • Tariff of 1824 ? on iron goods and more expensive
    woolen and cotton imports.
  • Tariff of 1828 ? higher tariffs on imported raw
    materials like wool hemp.
  • Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from
    farmers in NY, OH, KY.
  • The South alone was adamantly against it.
  • As producers of the worlds cheapest cotton, it
    did not need a protective tariff.
  • They were negatively impacted ? American textiles
    and iron goods or the taxed English goods were
    more expensive!

10
Land Indian Policies
  • John Quincy Adams
  • His land policies gave westerners another reason
    to dislike him.
  • He attempted to curb speculation for public lands
    ? his opponent accused him of denying their
    individual rights and freedoms to expand
    westward!
  • He supported the land rights of Native Americans
    against white settlers.
  • 1825 ? govt. officials negotiated a treaty with a
    group of Creek Indians to cede their land rights
    to GA.
  • The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to renounce
    the treaty.
  • Congress sided with the governor of GA.

11
The 1828 Election
  • Jacksons campaign was engineered by Senator
    Martin Van Buren of NY
  • He wanted to recreate the old Jeffersonian
    coalition of
  • Northern farmers and artisans.
  • Southern slave owners.
  • Farmers with small land holdings.
  • He created the Democratic Party from the remains
    of Jeffersons old party
  • Created a national committee that oversaw local
    and state party units.
  • Mass meetings, parades, picnics.
  • A lot of political mudslinging on both sides.

12
Rachel Jackson
Final Divorce Decree
13
1828 Election Results
14
The New Jackson Coalition
  • The Planter Elite in the South
  • People on the Frontier -West
  • Artisans competition from factory labor.
  • State Politicians ? spoils system
  • To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy!
    William Marcy of NY
  • Immigrants in the cities.

15
Jackson as Satan Dangles the Spoils of Victory
over his Supporters
16
Jacksons Faith in the Common Man
  • Intense distrust of Eastern establishment,
    monopolies, special privilege.
  • His heart soul was with the plain folk.
  • Belief that the common man was capable of
    uncommon achievements.

17
The Peggy Eaton Affair
18
Tariff of Abominations
  • Jackson pushes forth the Tariff of 1828
  • Helps Northern industry
  • Southerners take exception
  • SC proposes/threatens Nullification
  • VP Calhoun (SC) chooses his side . . .

19
Votes in the House for the Tariff of Abomination
20
1832 Tariff Conflict
  • 1832 --gt new tariff Dont mess with Jackson!
  • South Carolinas reaction?
  • Jacksons response?
  • Clays Compromise Tariff
  • -Who won?

21
Clays Sews Up Jacksons Mouth (1834)
22
Indian Removal
  • Jacksons Goal?
  • 1830 ? Indian Removal Act
  • Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) domestic
    dependent nation
  • Worcester v. GA (1832)
  • Jackson John Marshall has made his
    decision, now let him enforce it!

23
Indian Removal
24
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
25
The National Bank Debate
President Jackson
Nicholas Biddle an arrogant aristocrat from
Philadelphia
26
Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S.
Soft (paper)
Hard (specie)
  • state bankers felt it restrained their banks from
    issuing bank notes freely.
  • supported rapid economic growth speculation.
  • felt that coin was the only safe currency.
  • didnt like any bank that issued bank notes.
  • suspicious of expansion speculation.

27
The Monster Is Destroyed!
  • Pet Banks
  • 1832 ? Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2nd
    National Bank of the United States.
  • 1836 ? the charter expired.
  • 1841 ? the bank went bankrupt!

28
The Bank the 1832 Election
  • Jackson saw Biddles pushing forward a bill to
    renew the Banks charter earlier as an attempt to
    block his re-election!
  • Biddle his associates preferred Clay.
  • Jackson refused to sign the bill to re-charter.
  • The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I will
    destroy it!
  • Jackson drops Calhoun and runs with Martin Van
    Buren.
  • BUT, both parties Democrats Whigs had
    contradictory positions regarding their party
    principles, to many of the issues of the day!

29
Positions on the Key Issues of 1832
WHIGS
DEMOCRATS
  • Felt the widening gap between rich and poor was
    alarming.
  • Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators
    were non-producers who used their govt.
    connections to line their own pockets.
  • Govt. should have a hands-off approach to the
    economy to allow the little guy a chance to
    prosper.
  • For Indian removal.
  • Oppose tariffs.
  • States rights.
  • Oppose federal support for internal improvements.
  • Opposed the National Bank.
  • Less concerned about the widening gap between
    rich and poor.
  • Opposed liberal capitalism because they
    believed it would lead to economic chaos.
  • Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding
    economy was critical.
  • Opposes Indian removal.
  • Favored tariffs.
  • Supported a National Bank.

Compare to today . . . .
30
1832 Election Results
31
An 1832 Cartoon King Andrew?
32
The 1836 Election Results
Martin Van Buren
33
The Specie Circular (1836)
  • Speculators created wildcat banks that fueled
    the runaway inflation.
  • So, buy future federal land only with gold or
    silver.
  • This move shocked the system.
  • Jacksons goal ? to curb the land speculation.

34
Results of the Specie Circular
  • Banknotes loose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!
35
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before
his death)
1767 - 1845
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