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Baseball Vice: Gambling and Scandal

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Title: Baseball Vice: Gambling and Scandal


1
Baseball Vice Gambling and Scandal
  • Artemus Ward
  • Dep. of Political Science
  • Northern Illinois University
  • aeward_at_niu.edu

"Any professional base ball club will 'throw' a
game if there is money in it. A horse race is a
pretty safe thing to speculate on in comparison
with the average ball match."  --
Beadle's Dime Base Ball Player, 1875
2
Introduction
  • Why have baseball and gambling been linked from
    the sports beginnings?
  • Why are baseball officials so sensitive to
    gambling issues?
  • Is there a relationship between money in terms of
    player salaries and team revenues (or lack
    thereof) and gambling?
  • Should baseball punish individuals for being
    involved with gambling? If so what should be the
    penalty?

3
New York Mutuals (1865)
  • As with all contests, gambling has been
    associated with baseball from the beginning.
  • At the end of the Civil War, a betting scandal
    nearly destroyed the Mutuals, a professional team
    organized by corrupt Tammany Hall boss William
    Marcy Tweed.
  • The catcher, third baseman and shortstop, who
    claimed they were victimized by a "wicked
    conspiracy", were all banned from baseball for
    accepting 100 apiece to throw a game.

Ken Burns Baseball Clip Gambling
Synonymous With Baseball 209
4
The National League and the 1877
Conspiracy
  • One reason the National League was founded was
    because there was a lucrative market for
    exhibiting baseball games that were free from
    vices such as gambling.
  • In 1877, after a great run early in the season,
    the Louisville Grays mysteriously lost seven
    games in a row. 
  • Four players were found to have thrown games in
    exchange for bribes from gamblers, or had
    knowledge of such transactions and would not
    cooperate.
  • The players (Jim Devlin left, George Hall, Al
    Nichols and Bill Craver) were suspended by their
    clubs, later supported by National League
    President William Hulbert.
  • The players claimed they threw the games because
    their owner had failed to meet payroll
    obligations and begged for forgiveness, but
    Hulbert would hear none of it and the players
    were never reinstated.
  • Louisville dropped out of the circuit and St.
    Louis followed, partly in consequence.

Ken Burns Baseball Clip National League
Survives First Gambling Scandal 424
5
1905 World Series
  • John McGraw, manager of the National League's New
    York Giants, won 400 betting on his team to win
    the 1905 World Series.
  • McGraw had held his team out of the 1904 Series
    against Boston because of a grudge against
    American League president Ban Johnson, who had
    suspended and publicly ripped McGraw for his
    boorish on-field behavior during McGraw's tenure
    as an American League manager.
  • But McGraw agreed to take on Connie Mack's
    Philadelphia A's following the 1905 season.
  • Led by Christy Mathewson's three shutouts (thrown
    in a span of six days), the Giants beat the A's
    in five games and McGraw got his money and his
    revenge on Johnson. The winnings were known to
    the public, and would have almost certainly
    gotten McGraw banned from baseball in a later day.

6
(No Transcript)
7
1908 Bribery Attempt
  • On the eve of the one-game playoff between
    the Chicago Cubs and the New York Giants that
    resulted from the Merkle boner and would decide
    the National League championship, an umpire
    refused an attempted bribe intended to help the
    Giants win.
  • The Giants lost to the Cubs, and the matter was
    kept fairly quiet. But the story came out the
    following spring, an official inquiry was
    launched by the National League but the results
    were kept secret.
  • The Giants' team physician for 1908 was
    reportedly the culprit and was banned for life.
  • Recent research has suggested that the team
    physician was allowed to be the "scapegoat" some
    baseball historians now suspect that the Giants'
    manager, John McGraw, was behind the physician's
    bribe attempt, or that it may in fact have been
    McGraw himself who approached the umpire. If
    true, and had it become known, it could have been
    disastrous, as McGraw was such a prominent figure
    in the game.

8
The OConnor-Howell Conspiracy (1910)
  • On the last day of the regular season in 1910,
    the St. Louis Browns were scheduled to play a
    doubleheader against Cleveland at Sportsmans
    Park. Cleveland star Napolean Lajoie was hitting
    .376 going into the final two games, but was
    losing in the batting title to Detroit Tigers
    outfielder Ty Cobb, who was hitting .385.
  • Because Cobb was so hated at the time, Browns
    manager Jack OConnor told his third baseman, Red
    Corriden, to position himself in shallow left
    field. Every time Lajoie came up to bat against
    the Browns, he bunted successfully down the third
    base time five consecutive times. During the
    sixth at-bat, reached base on an error, which
    lowered his average.
  • OConnor and his coach, Harry Howell, sought to
    change the error to a hit by attempting to bribe
    the official scorer with a new wardrobe. Their
    efforts were reported to American League
    President Ban Johnson, who immediately ordered
    Browns owner Robert Hedges to fire both OConnor
    and Howell, and then awarded the batting to title
    to Cobb.
  • Both OConnor and Howell were effectively banned
    from baseball for life.

Jack OConnor (above) and Harry Howell (right)
9
1914 World Series Upset
  • The four-game sweep of the Philadelphia
    Athletics by the Boston Braves in the 1914 World
    Series was stunning.
  • Students of that Series suspect that the
    Athletics were angry at their notoriously miserly
    owner, Connie Mack, and that the A's players did
    not give the Series their best effort.
  • Although such an allegation was never proven,
    Mack apparently thought that it was at least a
    strong possibility, and he soon traded or sold
    all of the stars away from that 1914 team.
  • Unfortunately for the decimated A's, within two
    years they had limped to the worst season
    won-loss percentage in modern baseball history
    (36-117 .235), and it would be well over a decade
    before they recovered.

10
Charles Comiskey
  • Ban Johnson continually battled AL owners
    including his old ally Charles Comiskey. When
    Comiskey warned Johnson that his players may have
    been bribed to fix games for gamblers, Johnson
    ignored him.
  • Comiskey was a star player and manager in the
    1880s and 1890s. He is sometimes credited with
    being the first 1B to play behind the bag and
    inside the foul line, which is common now.
  • He became the owner of the Chicago White Sox from
    1900 until his death in 1931 and oversaw the
    building of Comiskey Park in 1910.
  • Notoriously frugal with his players, he made them
    pay to launder their own uniforms, hence the
    Black Sox nickname for their often dirty
    uniforms.
  • The substandard wages tempted many of his players
    to talk to gamblers about throwing games for
    money. After eight of his players were accused of
    throwing the 1919 World Series he provided them
    with expensive legal counsel. But ultimately
    supported the decision to ban them for life,
    despite the fact that it decimated his team by
    depriving them of its stars including shoeless
    Joe Jackson.

11
1917 World Series
  • The manner in which the New York Giants lost to
    the Chicago White Sox in the 1917 World Series
    raised some suspicions.
  • A key play in the final game involved Heinie
    Zimmerman (top left) chasing Eddie Collins across
    an unguarded home plate. Immediately afterward,
    Zimmerman (who had also hit only .120 during the
    Series) denied throwing the game or the Series.
  • Within two years, Zimmerman and his corrupt
    teammate Hal Chase would be suspended for life,
    not so much due to any one incident but to a
    series of questionable actions and associations.
  • The fact that the question of throwing the Series
    was even raised suggests the level of public
    consciousness of gamblers' potential influence on
    the game.

12
1918 World Series
  • In 1918 there were rumors of World Series fixing
    by members of the Chicago Cubs.
  • The Cubs lost the 1918 Series to the Boston Red
    Sox in a sparsely-attended affair that also
    nearly resulted in a players' strike demanding
    more than the normal gate receipts.
  • With World War I dominating the news (as well as
    having shortened the regular baseball season and
    having caused attendance to shrink) the
    unsubstantiated rumors were allowed to dissipate.

Ken Burns Baseball Clip Gambling in the Early
Game 237
13
Hal Chase (1919)
  • One of the best players of his era, Chases
    career is tainted by fixing scandals.
  • Beginning in 1910 he was accused of laying down
    in games by his own managers.
  • Midway through the 1918 season, Chase, playing
    for the Reds, allegedly paid pitcher Jimmy
    Ring 50 (729 today) to throw a game against the
    Giants. He was suspended for the season by the
    team but National League president John
    Heydler acquitted him due to lack of evidence.
  • After the end of the 1919 season, an unknown
    individual sent Heydler a copy of a 500 (6,349
    today) check that Chase, now playing for the
    Giants, received from a gambler for throwing a
    game the previous season. Armed with this
    evidence, Heydler ordered Giants owner Charles
    Stoneham to release Chase. No American
    League team would sign him and he was effectively
    blackballed from the major leagues.
  • On why he bet on baseball "I wasn't satisfied
    with what the club owners paid me. Like others, I
    had to have a bet on the side and we used to bet
    with the other team and the gamblers who sat in
    the boxes. It was easy to get a bet. Sometimes
    collections were hard to make. Players would pass
    out IOUs and often be in debt for their entire
    salaries. That wasn't a healthy condition. Once
    the evil started there was no stopping it, and
    club owners were not strong enough to cope with
    the evil."

14
1919 Black Sox Scandal
  • The 1919 World Series (often referred to as
    the Black Sox Scandal) is the most famous scandal
    in baseball history.
  • Eight players from the Chicago White
    Sox (nicknamed the Black Sox) were accused of
    throwing the series against the Cincinnati Reds.
  • Details of the scandal remain controversial, and
    the extent to which each player was involved
    varied. It was, however, front-page news across
    the country when the story was uncovered late in
    the 1920 season, and despite being acquitted of
    criminal charges (throwing baseball games was
    technically not a crime), the eight players were
    banned from organized baseball (i.e. the leagues
    subject to the National Agreement) for life.
  • The eight men out" were the great "natural
    hitter" "Shoeless" Joe Jackson pitchers Eddie
    Cicotte and "Lefty" Williams infielders "Buck"
    Weaver, "Chick" Gandil, Fred McMullin,
    and "Swede" Risberg and outfielder "Happy"
    Felsch.

Ken Burns Baseball Black Sox Scandal 2752
15
(No Transcript)
16
Shoeless Joe Jackson
  • Juries acquitted Jackson of any involvement in
    the conspiracy in the criminal trial in 1921 and
    again in a 1924 civil suit that Jackson filed. In
    the latter, Jackson won a 16,711.04 judgment
    against White Sox owner Charles Comiskey.
  • But Jackson, who hit a convincing .375 in the
    Series, setting a major league record for hits,
    did take 5,000 from a teammate after Game Four
    of the eight-game series. Some say that because
    Jackson refused to take the cash in his hand and
    a teammate simply left it on a table, for
    him. Jackson told a grand jury in 1920 that hed
    accepted the money but hadnt participated in any
    effort to lose a game.
  • In the years after he was banned from baseball,
    Jackson started a barbecue restaurant in
    Greenville and later ran a liquor store. He never
    learned to read or write. Hes believed to have
    signed his name all of five times in his life
    on his draft card, his drivers license, his
    mortgage, a baseball and his will, which is in
    the museum.
  • As the years went on Jackson rarely spoke about
    the scandal, but when he did, he contended that
    he had tried to report his suspicions about a fix
    to Comiskey, who allegedly rebuffed him.
  • On his deathbed, Jackson declared just as he
    always had Im innocent.
  • In 2005, Congress unanimously passed a resolution
    seeking Jacksons reinstatement.
  • Jacksons famous bat, Black Betsy, was sold at
    auction in 2000 for almost 600,000.

17
The Commissioner
Ken Burns Baseball Commissioners Office Begins
553
  • Hoping to restore public confidence in the sport
    following the 1919 Black Sox Scandal in which
    Chicago White Sox players accepted bribes from
    gamblers in order to throw the World Series, the
    owners named federal Judge Kenesaw Mountain
    Landis commissioner of baseball, to replace the
    three-person National Commission that had
    formerly governed the sport.
  • Landis accepted but on the condition that he have
    absolute power to take any action he deemed in
    the best interest of baseball. The owners agreed
    and Landis first decision was to ban the eight
    White Sox players involved in the scandal.
  • Throughout 1921 Landis came under intense
    criticism for his moonlighting, and congressional
    members called for his impeachment. In February
    1922, Landis resigned his position as a federal
    judge saying that, "There aren't enough hours in
    the day for me to handle the courtroom and the
    various other jobs I have taken on."
  • Ban Johnson continually clashed with the new
    Commissioner and was ultimately forced out of
    baseball by the owners who also hoped that Landis
    would follow Johnsons lead and that after the
    Black Sox scandal passed, Landis would retire
    to a quiet life as the titular head of baseball.
  • But instead, Landis ruled baseball with an iron
    fist for 25 years. At times he antagonized the
    owners and the players but historians generally
    agree that his actions were consistent with his
    best interest of baseball mandate and the
    independence of the office.

18
Claude Hendrix (1920)
  • Hendrix was a spitball pitcher for the Chicago
    Cubs and had pitched in the 1918 World Series,
    which was rumored to have been fixed.
  • On August 31, 1920, Hendrix was scheduled to
    pitch against the Philadelphia Phillies. Cubs
    president Bill Veeck received telephone calls and
    telegrams saying Detroit gamblers were betting
    heavily that the Phillies, ranked at the bottom
    of the league, would beat the Cubs, a top team.
    The Cubs switched their rotation and went with
    their better pitcher, Grover Cleveland Alexander,
    instead but still ended up losing the game.
  • A grand jury was convened in Chicago to
    investigate the incident, and during the course
    of the investigation the Black Sox scandal
    emerged. Needless to say, the grand jury never
    ruled on whether the Cubs/Phillies game was
    linked to gambling.
  • Hendrixs career was on a downturn in 1920 and he
    had announced his retirement at the end of the
    season, while the grand jury was still convened.
    In February 1921, the Cubs gave him an
    unconditional release and Veeck issued a
    statement that Hendrixs release had nothing to
    do with events of 1920, alluding to the
    Cubs/Phillies game and the rumors that had
    circulated.
  • Commissioner Landis never banned Hendrix. But
    thats been the popular belief because Landis
    1947 biography made the false claim.

19
Shufflin Phil Douglas (1922)
  • In 1922 New York Giants pitcher, and former
    Chicago Cub, Phil Douglas sent a strange letter
    to former Cubs teammate Les Mann, who was then
    with the Cardinals, one of the teams battling the
    Giants for the pennant.
  • Douglas proposed that he would quit the team if
    Mann and his teammates came up with, the goods.
    So you see the fellows, Douglas wrote, and if
    you want to send a man over here with the goods,
    and I will leave for home on the next train, send
    him to my house so nobody will know, and send him
    at night.
  • Douglas, it seemed, was trying to throw the
    pennant race.
  • Mann turned the letter over to his manager,
    Branch Rickey, who passed it on to Commissioner
    Landis.
  • After meeting with McGraw, Landis banned Douglas
    from baseball.

20
The OConnell-Dolan Scandal (1924)
  • The Giants and Dodgers were battling for the 1924
    National League championship. As the last weekend
    arrived, the Giants had a 1 ½ game lead in the
    standings with three home games against the lowly
    Phillies. The Dodgers had two games left with the
    even more lowly Braves and should they win both
    and the Giants lose both, the Dodgers would take
    the division.
  • Before the Giants-Phillies game of Saturday,
    September 27, Giants utility outfielder Jimmy
    O'Connell, at the instigation of Coach Cozy
    Dolan, sounded out Phillies shortstop Heinie Sand
    as to whether, for 500, he might be willing to
    avoid "bearing down hard."
  • Afterwards, O'Connell also contended that Giant
    stars Frankie Frisch, Ross Youngs, and George
    Kelly had spoken with him before the game about
    the feeler.
  • At any rate, Sand rejected O'Connell's
    invitation. Growing worried during the course of
    the game, Sand that evening reported the bribe
    offer to his manager, Art Fletcher. The latter
    immediately took the matter to the, executive
    level and soon Commissioner Landis was involved.
  • Hearings were promptly held at which O'Connell,
    Dolan, Sand, Frisch, Kelly, and Youngs testified.
  • OConnell and Dolan were banned while Sand was
    booed by fans for being a squealer for years
    until he left the game.
  • Frisch, Kelly, and Youngs3 future Hall of
    Famerswere likely behind the incident, testified
    that they were simply kidding, and were not
    sanctioned.

Jimmy OConnell
Cozy Dolan
21
The Cobb-Speaker Incident (1926)
  • Ty Cobb and Tris Speaker were permitted by
    American League President Ban Johnson to resign
    from baseball near the end of the 1926 season
    after former pitcher Dutch Leonard charged that
    Cobb, Speaker and Smoky Joe Wood had joined him
    just before the 1919 World Series in betting on a
    game they all knew was fixed.
  • Leonard presented letters and other documents to
    Johnson, and Johnson thought they would be so
    potentially damaging to baseball in the wake of
    the Black Sox scandal that he paid Leonard
    20,000 to have them suppressed.
  • Commissioner Landis exposed the cover-up and the
    eventual fallout forced Johnson out his job as
    president of the league he had created.
  • Cobb and Speaker vehemently denied any
    wrongdoing, Cobb saying that "There has never
    been a baseball game in my life that I played in
    that I knew was fixed, and that the only games
    he ever bet on were two series games in 1919,
    when he lost 150 on games thrown by the Sox. He
    claimed his letters to Leonard had been
    misunderstood, that he was merely speaking of
    business investments.
  • Landis took the case under advisement and
    eventually let both players remain in baseball
    because they had not been found guilty of fixing
    any game themselves. It was after this case,
    though, that Landis instituted the rule mandating
    that any player found guilty of betting on
    baseball would be suspended for a year and that
    any player found to have bet on his own team
    would be barred for life.
  • Cobb later claimed that the attorneys
    representing him and Speaker had brokered their
    reinstatement by threatening to expose further
    scandal in baseball if the two were not cleared.

22
Leo Durocher Suspension (1947)
  • After the scandals of the 1920s it appeared that
    baseballs gambling problem had been solved.
  • In 1947 Leo Durocher, manager of the Brooklyn
    Dodgers, became involved in a feud with New York
    Yankee owner Larry MacPhail (top left)each
    accusing the other of inviting gamblers into the
    clubhouse.
  • Commissioner Happy Chandler was under pressure
    from MacPhail, a close friend who was pivotal in
    having him appointed to succeed Landis as
    Commissioner.
  • Chandler first warned Durocher and then suspended
    him for the 1947 season after he discovered
    evidence that Durocher and actor George Raft were
    running rigged crap games in order to take money
    from unsuspecting players.
  • Commissioners have always taken an almost
    fanatical interest in gambling, suspending
    well-known individuals for lengthy times just for
    having been seen with gamblers.

23
Denny McLain The Rise (1968-1969)
  • In 1968 Detroit Tigers pitcher Denny McLain won
    31 games (the last pitcher to do so), the Cy
    Young and MVP awards, and led his team to a World
    Series championship. He became famous, racked up
    endorsements, did TV appearances, and won 24
    games and the Cy Young the following year.
  • In February 1970, Sports Illustrated and Penthouse
     both published articles about McLain's
    involvement in bookmaking activities. Sports
    Illustrated cited sources who alleged that the
    foot injury suffered by McLain late in 1967 had
    been caused by an organized crime figure stomping
    on it for McLain's failure to pay off on a bet. 
  • Early in his career, McLains interest in betting
    on horses was piqued by Chuck Dressen, one of his
    first managers. McLains descent into his
    gambling obsession was further precipitated by an
    offhand remark made during an interview that he
    drank about a case of Pepsi a day. (When he
    pitched, he was known to drink a Pepsi between
    innings.) A representative from Pepsi then
    offered McLain a contract with the company, just
    for doing a few endorsements. McLain soon
    realized that he and the Pepsi rep shared an
    affinity for gambling when the two realized how
    much money they were losing, and that they could
    earn so much more by "taking the action" on bets,
    they attempted to set up a bookmaking operation
    as hands-off, silent partners.

24
Denny McLain The Fall (1970)
  • McLain was suspended indefinitely by Baseball
    Commissioner Bowie Kuhn the suspension was then
    set for the first three months of the1970 season.
  • He returned in mid-season, but struggled to pitch
    well. He received a seven day suspension in
    September for dousing two sportswriters with
    buckets of water. Just as the seven day
    suspension was about to end, he received another
    suspension from Kuhn for carrying a gun on a team
    flight that effectively ended his season.
  • Later that year, despite being the first 100,000
    player in Tigers history, he was forced into
    bankruptcy, traded, had arm trouble, traded again
    and again, and was out of baseball by the age of
    29.
  • McLains troubles didnt end there, however. He
    was imprisoned for drug trafficking, embezzlement
    and racketeering, spending a good portion of the
    1980s and 1990s behind bars.

25
Mickey Mantle
Ken Burns Baseball Mickey Mantle 843
26
Mickey Mantle and Willie Mays Banned (1983)
  • After their retirement, Hall-of-Famers Mickey
    Mantle and Willie Mays were no longer involved in
    Major League Baseball.
  • In 1983 they were hired by casinos in Atlantic
    City, New Jersey, for public relations to be
    greet guests and autograph signers.
  • Mantle was hired by the Claridge Hotel and Casino
    to become their goodwill ambassador, and Mays
    held a similar position at Bally's Park Place.
  • Commissioner Bowie Kuhn banned them from baseball
    saying that any affiliation with gambling were
    grounds for being placed on the "permanently
    ineligible" list. He added that a casino was "no
    place for a baseball hero and Hall of Famer."
  • Newspaper articles of the time pointed out that
    Mantle and Mays played before there were large
    player salaries and that they were simply trying
    to make money to live.
  • Their bans were finally lifted in 1985 during
    Commissioner Peter Ueberroth's tenure.

27
The Steinbrenner-Winfield Feud (1990)
  • In late 1980, New York Yankees owner George
    Steinbrenner, who had already developed a
    reputation for spending lavish amounts of money
    on free agents, signed Dave Winfield to a
    10-year, 23 million contract.
  • In 1985, Steinbrenner referred to Winfield as
    Mr. May, in an interview with New York Times
    reporter Murray Chass after a late September
    series against the Toronto Blue Jays, saying,
    Where is Reggie Jackson? We need a Mr. October
    or a Mr. September. Winfield is Mr. May. My big
    guys are not coming through. The guys who are
    supposed to carry the team are not carrying the
    team. They aren't producing. If I don't get big
    performances out of Winfield, (Ken) Griffey and
    (Don) Baylor, we can't win.
  • In July 1990, after Winfield had sued the Yankees
    for not making a 300,000 contribution to his
    charitable foundation as stipulated in his
    contract.
  • Steinbrenner hired Howie Spira, a known gambler,
    and paid him 50,000 to dig up whatever dirt he
    could find about Winfield.
  • Word of this got back to MLB commissioner Fay
    Vincent, who suspended Steinbrenner from baseball
    for a period of two years.
  • In Steinbrenner's absence, his son took control
    of the Yankees, and then relinquished the team
    back to his father when Bud Selig reinstated him
    in 1993. Steinbrenner retired as owner in 2006,
    passing control to his sons permanently and died
    in 2010.

Ken Burns Baseball Steinbrenner 733
28
Pete Rose
Ken Burns Baseball Charlie Hustle 207 Big Red
Machine 201 Rose Breaks Record 143 Rose Banned
532
29
Pete Rose Betting Scandal (1989)
  • Pete Rose, baseball's all-time leader in hits and
    games played and manager of the Cincinnati
    Reds since 1984, was reported as betting on Major
    League games, including Reds games while he was
    the manager.
  • Rose had been questioned about his gambling
    activities in February 1989 by outgoing
    Commissioner Peter Ueberroth and his
    successor, National League president A. Bartlett
    Giamatti.
  • Three days later, lawyer John M. Dowd was
    retained to investigate the charges against Rose.
    During the investigation, Giamatti took office as
    the Commissioner of baseball.
  • A March 21, 1989 Sports Illustrated article
    linked him to gambling on baseball games.
  • The Dowd Report asserted that Pete Rose bet on
    fifty-two Reds games in 1987, at a minimum of
    10,000 a day. It included testimony that Rose
    had bet on his own players while managing, phone
    records to known bookies moments before ball
    games (while no other major sports were in
    season) and a betting slip filled out in Rose's
    handwriting and covered with his fingerprints.

30
Pete Rose Betting Scandal (1989)
  • Rose, facing a very harsh punishment, along with
    his attorney and agent, Reuven Katz, decided to
    seek a compromise with Major League Baseball. On
    August 24, 1989, Rose agreed to a voluntary
    lifetime ban from baseball. The agreement had
    three key provisions
  • Major League Baseball would make no finding of
    fact regarding gambling allegations and cease
    their investigation Pete Rose was neither
    admitting or denying the charges and Pete Rose
    could apply for reinstatement after one year.
  • To Rose's chagrin, however, Giamatti immediately
    stated publicly that he felt that Pete Rose bet
    on baseball games.
  • Then, in a stunning follow-up event, Giamatti, a
    heavy smoker for many years, suffered a
    fatal heart attack just eight days later, on
    September 1.

31
Aftermath Pete Rose Banned for Life
  • The consensus among baseball experts is that the
    death of Giamatti and the ascension of Fay
    Vincent, a great admirer of Giamatti, was the
    worst thing that could happen to Pete Rose's
    hopes of reinstatement.
  • On February 4, 1991, the twelve members of the
    board of directors of the Baseball Hall of
    Fame voted unanimously to bar Rose from the
    ballot. However, he still received 41 write-in
    votes on January 7, 1992.
  • Bud Selig, the former owner of the Milwaukee
    Brewers, succeeded Vincent in 1992.
  • Rose was allowed to be a part of the All-Century
    Team celebration in 1999 as he was named by the
    fans as one of the team's outfielders. He
    appeared with all the other living selected
    players before Game 2 of the 1999 World Series.
  • Rose applied for reinstatement in
    September 1997 and March 2003. In both instances,
    Commissioner Selig failed to act, thereby keeping
    the ban intact.
  • In 2004, after years of speculation and denial,
    Pete Rose admitted in his book My Prison Without
    Bars that the accusations that he had bet on Reds
    games were true, and that he had admitted it to
    Bud Selig personally some time before. Rose,
    however, stated that he always bet on the Reds
    never against.
  • Should Rose be reinstated to baseball and be
    eligible for the Hall of Fame?

32
Conclusion
  • Gambling has been a part of the game since its
    inception.
  • Early players said that they gambled due to low
    salaries.
  • Modern players have gambled for other reasons.
  • Whatever the reason, in the quest for greater
    profits, baseball has been extremely strict in
    penalizing those associated with gambling.

33
References
  • Fisher, Marc. 2012. At the Shoeless Joe Jackson
    Museum iin Greenville, S.C. It Aint So.
    Washington Post.February 3.
  • Ginsburg, Daniel E. 1995. The Fix Is In A
    History of Baseball Gambling and Fixing Scandals
    (Jefferson, NC McFarland Co.).
  • Longoria, Rico. 2001. Baseballs Gambling
    Scandals. ESPN.com, July 30.
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