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Subjunctive Cum Clauses

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Subjunctive Cum Clauses Causal, Circumstantial, Concessive Cum as a Subordinating Conjunction Usually, cum is used in Latin as a preposition meaning with, which ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Subjunctive Cum Clauses


1
Subjunctive Cum Clauses
  • Causal, Circumstantial, Concessive

2
Cum as a Subordinating Conjunction
  • Usually, cum is used in Latin as a preposition
    meaning with, which takes an object in the
    ablative case.
  • However, cum can also be used as a subordinating
    conjunction beginning a dependent clause, with a
    variety of meanings.

3
Cum with the Indicative
  • When a subordinate clause beginning with cum has
    a verb in the indicative mood, cum is translated
    as when.
  • This is known as a temporal clause, because it
    refers simply to the time at which an event
    occurs. (tempus, temporis n. means time)
  • The subordinating conjunction ubi performs the
    same function.

4
Exempla
  • Cum sol occidit, dormiebam.
  • Cum ad litus advenerunt, viderunt Didonem.
  • Cum Quintus et Horatia a ludo domum redeunt,
    omnes quiescunt.

5
Cum Circumstantial
  • When cum starts a subordinate clause with a verb
    in the subjunctive mood, it can still be
    translated as when, but it shows a stronger
    relationship than mere time.
  • These clauses are called cum circumstantial
    clauses, because they tell the circumstances in
    which an event occurs.

6
Exempla
  • Cum haec audirem, tristis factus sum.
  • Cum servitute liberatus esset, Hercules domum
    rediit.

7
Cum Causal
  • When cum starts a subordinate clause with a verb
    in the subjunctive mood, it can also be
    translated as since or because.
  • Such clauses are called cum causal clauses,
    because they show a causal relationship between
    the subordinate clause and the main clause.
  • The line between cum causal and cum
    circumstantial clauses is not a clear one.

8
Exempla
  • Cum Herculem magnopere timeret, eum dimisit.
  • Cum boves caudis in antrum traherentur, putavit
    Herculem hos non inventurum esse.

9
Cum Concessive
  • When cum starts a subordinate clause with a verb
    in the subjunctive mood, it can also be
    translated although.
  • Such clauses are called concessive because when
    someone says although in a sentence, he is
    conceding a point.

10
Exempla
  • Cum boves amissos undique quaereret, eos tamen
    nusquam reperire poterat.
  • Cum Hercules intellgeret periculum magnum esse,
    tamen negotium suscepit.
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