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History and Culture of Europe


History and Culture of Europe The political and cultural differences in Europe today were affected by events dating back to the ancient Roman Empire. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History and Culture of Europe

History and Culture of Europe
  • The political and cultural differences in Europe
    today were affected by events dating back to the
  • Roman Empire.

Roman Empire
  • Started around 753 BC by Romulus
  • Conquered surrounding regions until it reached
    its greatest expanse around 117 AD
  • The northern
  • and eastern
  • European
  • borders were
  • set at the Rhine
  • and Danube Rivers (why?)
  • (p. 290)

Roman Empire
  • Around 330 AD, Emperor Constantine moved the
    Roman government to the city of Byzantium on the
    Bosporus Strait (later named Constantinople).
  • Because of its location, this city controlled
    most trade between Asia, Africa and Europe. This
    brought wealth to the east, and reduced influence
    of Rome.

Silk Road
Division of the Roman Empire
  • The empire became too big to control from Rome,
    so, in 395 AD, Emperor Diocletian divided the
    empire into
  • a Greek
  • speaking
  • east and
  • Latin
  • speaking
  • west.

Division of the Christian church
  • This division would later lead to the split in
    Christianity with the Catholic (west) and
    Orthodox (east) Churches.
  • Catholic churches followed the leadership
  • of the Pope in Rome and used Latin as
  • the official language.
  • Orthodox churches established local
  • leadership and used local language

Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Because of political division, the western half
    of the Roman Empire became weak, and was invaded
    by Germanic tribes from just outside the
  • This led to
  • Rome being
  • conquered
  • by Vandal
  • tribes in
  • 476 AD.
  • (vandalize)

European Languages
  • This explains the division between the three
    major language families of Europe
  • Germanic German, Dutch,
  • English in northern Europe
  • Romance Italian, French,
  • Portuguese, and Spanish in
  • western Europe
  • Slavic Polish, Czech,
  • Ukranian, Slovak in eastern
  • Europe

Guten Tag
Middle Ages a Dark time
  • For the next 1000 years, society in western
    Europe broke down into small, hostile, separate
  • Learning, science, and technology stopped.
  • The one unifying
  • force remaining was
  • the Catholic church,
  • led by increasingly
  • politically strong
  • Popes.

Muslim Expansion into Iberia
  • In 711 AD, Muslim from north Africa (called
    Moors) crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and
    conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula
  • Expansion was stopped at the Pyrenees mountains
    (physical boundary) by Frankish (French) troops.
  • The occupation
  • lasted until they were
  • defeated by the army
  • of Isabella and
  • Ferdinand (Spain)
  • in 1492.

The Crusades
  • From 1096 to 1291, Catholic Popes in Rome order a
    series of Crusades in an effort to retake the
    Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims, and to
    unite the warring kingdoms of Europe against a
    common enemy (Islam).
  • It didnt work
    (10 tries).
  • It did lead
  • to increased
  • trade between
  • Italy and Asia.

Eastern Roman Empire
  • The Byzantine Empire, centered in Constantinople,
    focused on trade throughout the Balkan Peninsula.
  • Traveling traders, and mountainous terrain
    resulted in many ethnic groups developing close

Ottoman Empire
  • The eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) lost
    influence with the rise of Islam in Turkey and in
    1299, the Ottoman Empire was established.
  • It spread through
  • eastern Europe
  • and lasted until
  • after World War I
  • (more later)

Trade leads to Plague
  • From 1347 to 1352, increased trade from Asia led
    to the spread of Black Plague
  • Fleas on pack rats in land-based cargo carried
    this disease to trade hubs, then it spread to
  • Spread to/from trade ports
  • Ring around the rosy (cheeks)
  • Pocket full of posies (smell)
  • Ashes, ashes, (dead burned)
  • We all fall down (1/3 of
  • Eur. pop. died 25 million)

(No Transcript)
  • Whos Hungry!!!

(No Transcript)
Trade leads to Rebirth
  • Starting around 1350, the Renaissance began in
    Italian city-states like Venice, Genoa and Milan.
  • Rich families would pay (patronize) talented
    artists to create works of art to show off their
  • Famous artists include daVinci
  • and Michaelangelo
  • Started a period of study
  • in science and nature,
  • and a time of invention

European Religion
  • Inventions like the printing press (1455,
    Gutenberg) allowed for widespread learning and
  • This led to questioning of the Catholic Churchs
  • 1517 Martin Luther
  • protests Catholic church
  • practices (95 Theses)
  • This starts the
  • Protestant Reformation
  • in Germany

Age of Exploration
  • New navigation technology (new sail design,
    compass from China, astrolabe) and expensive
    goods from Asia encourage ocean exploration
  • 1490s ? 1500s - Spain and Portugal in C/S Amer.
  • 1600s ? 1700s - England and France in N. Amer.
  • Not all countries were involved
  • Germany Atlantic access blocked by England
  • Italy focused on Mediterranean trade

Age of Empires (WP)
  • Desires to have more (resources, space, control)
    than other countries led to taking control of
    land to benefit the mother land
  • Spain Central and South America, Philippines
  • England North America, Caribbean, Australia,
    India, Hong Kong, Africa (sun never set pg.
  • France North America, Vietnam, Africa
  • Not all countries had productive colonies, some
    were just empty land (see pg. 404 and 419)
  • Wealth Phys. Res. ( I have more than you!!)

Age of Revolution (Industrial) (WPt)
  • Industrial Revolution begins in 1780s England
  • Coal iron steel
  • Steel oil machinery
  • Countries now realized that more
  • technology can also build wealth
  • Wealth Physical resources technology
  • Increased manufacturing and weapons leads to
    nations taking more colonies (Conference of
    Berlin 1885)

Age of Revolution (Political)
  • Kings abused their absolute power
  • This led to many independence movements in
    European colonies
  • 1776 - United States breaks from England
  • 1789 France beheads Louis XVI, Napoleon gets
  • 1820s Central and South American colonies
    break away from Spain and Portugal

Nationalism and Conflict
  • During the 1800s and 1900s, fear of other
    cultures created fear of other nations
  • Strong sense of national pride led to intense
  • Countries form alliances with others of similar
    culture, economies,
  • governments, or
  • common enemies
  • The enemy of my
  • enemy is my friend

World War I (1914-1918)
  • Due to alliances throughout Europe, one localized
    event resulted in widespread declarations of war.
  • Austria blamed Serbia for the death of their
  • Central Powers Austria,
  • Ottoman Emp., Germany
  • Allies Serbia, Russia,
  • France, England, Italy
  • Ger. invaded Fr. through
  • neutral (and flat) Belgium
  • Allies win

After the War to end all wars
  • As punishment for losing the war, all Central
    powers lost land (resources).
  • Poland created as a buffer zone between
  • Germany and Russia
  • Germany lost Alsace
  • region (coal and iron)
  • Ottoman Empire and
  • Austria-Hungary broken
  • into separate, ethnically
  • pure countries,
  • except Yugoslavia (p. 322)

World War II (1939-1945)
  • Germans and Italians, unhappy with post-war
    govt., choose radical new leaders, Hitler and
  • Hitler invaded Poland in 1939 to reclaim lost
  • Allies did nothing at first
  • Germany invaded France
  • through Belgium, AGAIN
  • Allies England, France,
  • United States
  • Axis Powers Germany,
  • Italy, Austria, Hungary
  • Russia neutral until

End of /After World War II
  • Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, the U.S.S.R.
    joined Allies and forced Germany back
  • After the war, U.S.S.R. kept control of occupied
  • Allies divide Germany into E/W Germany
  • Berlin Wall split capital
  • This began 50 years of
  • Communist control
  • over Eastern Europe
  • Led to heavy pollution
  • and poor development

European Union
  • France and Germany were tired of fighting over
    resources, so they decided to SHARE resources
  • ECSC established (1951) to control coal/iron use
  • EC (1967) joined by countries for access to trade
  • EU (1993) started as a
  • Europe free trade zone
  • In 2000, EU most
  • countries start
  • using a common
  • currency (Euro)

Ethnic conflict in the Balkans
  • After the fall of Communism, Yugoslavia fractured
    into 6 mostly ethnically pure countries
  • Areas of multiple cultures experienced ethnic
    cleansing where one group kills only one other
    group to cleanse
  • the area of outsiders
  • Worst cases were in
  • Bosnia /Herzegovina
  • and Kosovo
  • Region still
  • experiencing tension
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