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History and Culture of Europe

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History and Culture of Europe The political and cultural differences in Europe today were affected by events dating back to the ancient Roman Empire. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History and Culture of Europe


1
History and Culture of Europe
  • The political and cultural differences in Europe
    today were affected by events dating back to the
    ancient
  • Roman Empire.

2
Roman Empire
  • Started around 753 BC by Romulus
  • Conquered surrounding regions until it reached
    its greatest expanse around 117 AD
  • The northern
  • and eastern
  • European
  • borders were
  • set at the Rhine
  • and Danube Rivers (why?)
  • (p. 290)

3
Roman Empire
  • Around 330 AD, Emperor Constantine moved the
    Roman government to the city of Byzantium on the
    Bosporus Strait (later named Constantinople).
  • Because of its location, this city controlled
    most trade between Asia, Africa and Europe. This
    brought wealth to the east, and reduced influence
    of Rome.

Silk Road
4
Division of the Roman Empire
  • The empire became too big to control from Rome,
    so, in 395 AD, Emperor Diocletian divided the
    empire into
  • a Greek
  • speaking
  • east and
  • Latin
  • speaking
  • west.

5
Division of the Christian church
  • This division would later lead to the split in
    Christianity with the Catholic (west) and
    Orthodox (east) Churches.
  • Catholic churches followed the leadership
  • of the Pope in Rome and used Latin as
  • the official language.
  • Orthodox churches established local
  • leadership and used local language

6
Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Because of political division, the western half
    of the Roman Empire became weak, and was invaded
    by Germanic tribes from just outside the
    Empire.
  • This led to
  • Rome being
  • conquered
  • by Vandal
  • tribes in
  • 476 AD.
  • (vandalize)

7
European Languages
  • This explains the division between the three
    major language families of Europe
  • Germanic German, Dutch,
  • English in northern Europe
  • Romance Italian, French,
  • Portuguese, and Spanish in
  • western Europe
  • Slavic Polish, Czech,
  • Ukranian, Slovak in eastern
  • Europe

Privet
Hello
Guten Tag
Witaj
Bonjour
Ciào
Hola
8
Middle Ages a Dark time
  • For the next 1000 years, society in western
    Europe broke down into small, hostile, separate
    kingdoms.
  • Learning, science, and technology stopped.
  • The one unifying
  • force remaining was
  • the Catholic church,
  • led by increasingly
  • politically strong
  • Popes.

9
Muslim Expansion into Iberia
  • In 711 AD, Muslim from north Africa (called
    Moors) crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and
    conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula
  • Expansion was stopped at the Pyrenees mountains
    (physical boundary) by Frankish (French) troops.
  • The occupation
  • lasted until they were
  • defeated by the army
  • of Isabella and
  • Ferdinand (Spain)
  • in 1492.

10
The Crusades
  • From 1096 to 1291, Catholic Popes in Rome order a
    series of Crusades in an effort to retake the
    Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims, and to
    unite the warring kingdoms of Europe against a
    common enemy (Islam).
  • It didnt work
    (10 tries).
  • It did lead
  • to increased
  • trade between
  • Italy and Asia.

11
Eastern Roman Empire
  • The Byzantine Empire, centered in Constantinople,
    focused on trade throughout the Balkan Peninsula.
  • Traveling traders, and mountainous terrain
    resulted in many ethnic groups developing close
    together.

12
Ottoman Empire
  • The eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) lost
    influence with the rise of Islam in Turkey and in
    1299, the Ottoman Empire was established.
  • It spread through
  • eastern Europe
  • and lasted until
  • after World War I
  • (more later)

13
Trade leads to Plague
  • From 1347 to 1352, increased trade from Asia led
    to the spread of Black Plague
  • Fleas on pack rats in land-based cargo carried
    this disease to trade hubs, then it spread to
    humans.
  • Spread to/from trade ports
  • Ring around the rosy (cheeks)
  • Pocket full of posies (smell)
  • Ashes, ashes, (dead burned)
  • We all fall down (1/3 of
  • Eur. pop. died 25 million)

14
(No Transcript)
15
  • Whos Hungry!!!

16
(No Transcript)
17
Trade leads to Rebirth
  • Starting around 1350, the Renaissance began in
    Italian city-states like Venice, Genoa and Milan.
  • Rich families would pay (patronize) talented
    artists to create works of art to show off their
    wealth.
  • Famous artists include daVinci
  • and Michaelangelo
  • Started a period of study
  • in science and nature,
  • and a time of invention

18
European Religion
  • Inventions like the printing press (1455,
    Gutenberg) allowed for widespread learning and
    knowledge
  • This led to questioning of the Catholic Churchs
    authority
  • 1517 Martin Luther
  • protests Catholic church
  • practices (95 Theses)
  • This starts the
  • Protestant Reformation
  • in Germany

Protestant
Catholic
Orthodox
Muslim
19
Age of Exploration
  • New navigation technology (new sail design,
    compass from China, astrolabe) and expensive
    goods from Asia encourage ocean exploration
  • 1490s ? 1500s - Spain and Portugal in C/S Amer.
  • 1600s ? 1700s - England and France in N. Amer.
  • Not all countries were involved
  • Germany Atlantic access blocked by England
  • Italy focused on Mediterranean trade

20
Age of Empires (WP)
  • Desires to have more (resources, space, control)
    than other countries led to taking control of
    land to benefit the mother land
  • Spain Central and South America, Philippines
  • England North America, Caribbean, Australia,
    India, Hong Kong, Africa (sun never set pg.
    304)
  • France North America, Vietnam, Africa
  • Not all countries had productive colonies, some
    were just empty land (see pg. 404 and 419)
  • Wealth Phys. Res. ( I have more than you!!)

21
Age of Revolution (Industrial) (WPt)
  • Industrial Revolution begins in 1780s England
  • Coal iron steel
  • Steel oil machinery
  • Countries now realized that more
  • technology can also build wealth
  • Wealth Physical resources technology
  • Increased manufacturing and weapons leads to
    nations taking more colonies (Conference of
    Berlin 1885)

22
Age of Revolution (Political)
  • Kings abused their absolute power
  • This led to many independence movements in
    European colonies
  • 1776 - United States breaks from England
  • 1789 France beheads Louis XVI, Napoleon gets
    power
  • 1820s Central and South American colonies
    break away from Spain and Portugal

23
Nationalism and Conflict
  • During the 1800s and 1900s, fear of other
    cultures created fear of other nations
  • Strong sense of national pride led to intense
    rivalries
  • Countries form alliances with others of similar
    culture, economies,
  • governments, or
  • common enemies
  • The enemy of my
  • enemy is my friend

24
World War I (1914-1918)
  • Due to alliances throughout Europe, one localized
    event resulted in widespread declarations of war.
  • Austria blamed Serbia for the death of their
    prince...
  • Central Powers Austria,
  • Ottoman Emp., Germany
  • Allies Serbia, Russia,
  • France, England, Italy
  • Ger. invaded Fr. through
  • neutral (and flat) Belgium
  • Allies win

25
After the War to end all wars
  • As punishment for losing the war, all Central
    powers lost land (resources).
  • Poland created as a buffer zone between
  • Germany and Russia
  • Germany lost Alsace
  • region (coal and iron)
  • Ottoman Empire and
  • Austria-Hungary broken
  • into separate, ethnically
  • pure countries,
  • except Yugoslavia (p. 322)

26
World War II (1939-1945)
  • Germans and Italians, unhappy with post-war
    govt., choose radical new leaders, Hitler and
    Mussolini
  • Hitler invaded Poland in 1939 to reclaim lost
    land
  • Allies did nothing at first
  • Germany invaded France
  • through Belgium, AGAIN
  • Allies England, France,
  • United States
  • Axis Powers Germany,
  • Italy, Austria, Hungary
  • Russia neutral until

27
End of /After World War II
  • Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, the U.S.S.R.
    joined Allies and forced Germany back
  • After the war, U.S.S.R. kept control of occupied
    land
  • Allies divide Germany into E/W Germany
  • Berlin Wall split capital
  • This began 50 years of
  • Communist control
  • over Eastern Europe
  • Led to heavy pollution
  • and poor development

28
European Union
  • France and Germany were tired of fighting over
    resources, so they decided to SHARE resources
  • ECSC established (1951) to control coal/iron use
  • EC (1967) joined by countries for access to trade
  • EU (1993) started as a
  • Europe free trade zone
  • In 2000, EU most
  • countries start
  • using a common
  • currency (Euro)

29
Ethnic conflict in the Balkans
  • After the fall of Communism, Yugoslavia fractured
    into 6 mostly ethnically pure countries
  • Areas of multiple cultures experienced ethnic
    cleansing where one group kills only one other
    group to cleanse
  • the area of outsiders
  • Worst cases were in
  • Bosnia /Herzegovina
  • and Kosovo
  • Region still
  • experiencing tension
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