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Prosocial and Antisocial Development

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... criminal behavior Adolescence-Limited Kids who ... or thinking about world ... Modeling and communication of values More imitation of those that have a positive ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prosocial and Antisocial Development


1
Prosocial and Antisocial Development
2
Individual Differences in Prosocial Behavior
  • Role of Nature
  • Identical twins show modest correlations in
    tendency to engage in prosocial acts
  • Most likely due to differences in temperament
  • e.g. amount of negative emotion and regulation
    of emotion
  • e.g. Assertiveness
  • Again, a key difference in moral reasoning and
    moral actione.g. how cognitive functioning and
    personality style (moral character) interact to
    influence behavior

3
  • Nurture (e.g. Parents influence in 3 main ways)
  • Modeling and communication of values
  • More imitation of those that have a positive
    relationship with
  • Discussions of consequences on persons feelings
    not just indicating good/bad
  • Opportunities for prosocial activities
  • Snowball effect those that engage in
    prosocial feel better about themselves, others
    treat them more positively, thus engage in more
    prosocial behavior
  • Discipline and parenting style
  • Supportive and constructive parenting is related
    to higher prosocial behavior
  • Physical punishment, threats, and authoritarian
    parenting are related to lower sympathy and
    prosocial behavior
  • Physical rewards for prosocial behavior decrease
    motivation later for prosocial behavior if the
    reward is not present
  • Punishment for not using prosocial behavior leads
    the child to believe the reason for helping is to
    avoid own punishment

4
Antisocial Behavior
  • Comes in many forms, degrees, many paths to it
  • Poor parenting gt child conduct problems
  • gt peer rejection academic failure
  • gt deviant peer group gt antisocial behavior
  • Poor parenting can result from low SES, low
    education, unemployment, marital discord/divorce,
    etc.
  • Amplifying effect stressors greater for those
    who already have negative traits or poor social
    skills

5
Conduct Disorder
  • 9 of males, 2 of females under age 18
  • Basic rights of others are violated, social norms
    and rules violated
  • Disturbance of conduct lasting at least 6 months
    during which 3 of the following have been
    present
  • Has stolen without confrontation of victim
  • Ran away from home more than twice
  • Often lies
  • Deliberately engages in fire setting
  • Often truant from school
  • Broken into someone else care, house, etc.
  • Cruel to animals
  • Forced someone into sexual activity
  • Initiates physical fights
  • Used a weapon in more than one fight
  • Stolen with confrontation of a victim
  • Physically cruel to people

6
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • A personality disorder enduring pattern of
    perceiving, relating to, or thinking about world,
    exhibited in a range of contexts inflexible and
    maladaptive (often recognizable by adolescence or
    earlier)
  • Conduct disorder prior to age 15 and
  • A pattern of irresponsible and antisocial
    behavior since age 15 including at least 4 of the
    following
  • Unable to sustain consistent work behavior
  • Fails to conform to social norms lawful behavior
  • Irritable and aggressive
  • Fails to honor financial obligations
  • Impulsive
  • No regard for the truth (lies, cons, uses
    aliases)
  • Reckless regarding own and others safety
  • If parent, lacks ability to function as
    responsible parent
  • Has never sustained a monogamous relationship for
    more than a year
  • Lacks remorse

7
ASPD Bob Hares Descriptives
  • Emotional/Interpersonal Problems
  • Glib and superficial
  • Egocentric
  • Lack of remorse or guilt
  • Lack of empathy
  • Deceitful and manipulative
  • Shallow emotions
  • Social Problems
  • Impulsive
  • Poor behavior controls
  • Need for excitement
  • Lack of responsibility
  • Early behavior problems

8
Antisocial Personality Disorder
9
Classic Inconsistency
  • Continuity across development (5) but at the
    same time
  • The majority of those with conduct disorders do
    not go on to develop ASPD
  • There is a markedly higher rate of antisocial
    behaviour in teens (peeks at age 17, up to 70 of
    teens) (it may be normative?)

10
Equifinality
  • Moffits (1993) Theory
  • Two paths
  • Life-Course Persistent
  • Starts early and continues into adulthood
  • Adolescence-Limited
  • Starts and ends in adolescence

11
Life Course Persistent
  • Factors that predispose us to ASPD
  • 1. Genetics
  • 2. Prenatal alcohol and drug abuse
  • 3. Obstetrical complications
  • Resulting in neurological damages
  • Neurological damages expressed in 3 ways
  • Difficult temperament (cranky babies)
  • Deficits in verbal skills (expressive and
    receptive speech, reading and writing
    development)
  • Executive deficits (planning behaviours, shifting
    attention, checking the plan)
  • Can be made worse with maladaptive home
    environments (e.g. harsh and unpredictable
    behaviour by parents, abusive, poor monitoring)
  • Note Biological parents may share neurological
    consequences compounding the effect

12
Life Course Persistent
  • E.g. How these traits come together in ASB?
  • Verbal abilities
  • Verbal deficits may lead to the child acting out
    more because they cannot articulate their needs
    appropriately
  • Therefore, they elicit more negative feedback
    from caregivers
  • Difficult Temperment ?Problems forming close
    attachments
  • Happens early (first with parents)
  • And other relationships across the lifespan
  • Poor relationships (lack of empathy), choose
    antisocial mates
  • Executive Difficulties
  • Lead to decreased academic success due to
    inability to plan, impulsive, poor attention
  • Resulting in School failure, occupational
    failure, criminal behavior

13
Adolescence-Limited
  • Kids who associate with antisocial peers may
    mimic the behaviour
  • This behaviour is seen as cool initially, but as
    they age, the rewards are seen differently (not
    so rewarding)
  • They will then shift their behaviour more
    prosocial behaviour (they grow out of it)
  • -----------------------------
  • Life-course persistent
  • Rare 5
  • Inflexible
  • Has biological roots
  • Environmentally influenced
  • Adolescence Limited
  • Common
  • Adaptive? Flexible
  • has sociocultural roots (requires an antisocial
    role model they can mimic)

14
Evidence for 2 paths
  • People who experience birth complications have
    higher rate of adult violent offending (Kandel
    Mednick, 1991)
  • Twin studies (Taylor, 2000)
  • Early onset---life-course (MZ gt DZ)
  • Late onsetadolescence limited (MZ approximately
    equal to DZ)
  • IQ Deficits
  • ASB ½ standard deviation below average IQ
  • PIQ gt VIQ
  • Even after accounting for SES family adversity
    is accounted for
  • Effortful attention (WISC-R freedom from
    distraction is low for ASB
  • Inhibitory problems (Go/No-Go), Working memory
    deficits in ASB
  • Prefrontal cortex structural abnormalities
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