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Strategic Management

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Strategic Management Dr. Jangkung Handoyo Mulyo,M.Ec. Strategic management process.. An eight-step process encompassing strategic planning, implementation and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Strategic Management


1
Strategic Management
  • Dr. Jangkung Handoyo Mulyo,M.Ec.

2
Strategic management process..
  • An eight-step process encompassing strategic
    planning, implementation and evaluation.

Identify the Opportunities And threats
Identify Organizations Current
mission, Objective and strategies
Analyze the Environment
Formulate Strategies
ImplementStrategies
Analyze the organizations resources
Analyze the organizations resources
Evaluate results
3
Identify the Opportunities And threats
Analyze the Environment
Identify Organizations Current
mission, Objective and strategies
Formulate Strategies
ImplementStrategies
Analyze the organizations resources
Identify the sthrengths weaknesses
Evaluate results
Strategic Management Process
4
1. Identify Organizations Current mission,
Objective and strategies
  • Every organization need a mission that defines
    its purposes and answers the question What is
    our reason for being in business?
  • Defining the organization's mission forces
    management to identify the scope of its products
    or services carefully.
  • A mission is formal statement as to the purpose
    of the venture. It defines the nature of the
    venture, what it aims to achieve and how it aims
    to achieve it.

5
2. Analyzing the External Environment
  • External environment is a primary constraint on
    a managers action. It is a crucial step in the
    strategy process. Why
  • Because an organizations environment , to a
    large degree, defines managements available
    options.
  • A successful strategy will be one that aligns
    well the environment

6
3. Identifying Opportunities and Threats
  • After analyzing the environment, management needs
    to assess what it has learned in terms of
    opportunities that the organization can exploit
    and threats it faces.
  • Opportunities are positive external environmental
    factors. Threats are negative external
    environmental factors .
  • Keep in mind that the same environment can
    present opportunities to one organization and
    pose threats to another in the same industry
    because of their different management of
    resources.
  • What an organization considers an opportunity or
    threat depend on the resources it control.

7
4. Analyzing the organizations resources
  • Management has to recognize that every
    organization, no matter how large or powerful, is
    constrained in some way by the resources and
    skills it has available.
  • What skills and abilities do the organizations
    employee have?
  • What is the organization cash flow?
  • How do consumers perceive the organization and
    the quality of its products or services?

8
5. Identifying strengths and weaknesses
  • Strengths activities the firm does well or
    resources it control.
  • Weaknesses activities the firm does not do well
    or resources it needs but does not have.
  • Distinctive competence the exceptional or unique
    skills and resources that determine the
    organizations competitive weapons.

9
SWOT analysis
  • The merging of step 3 and 5 results in an
    assessment of the organization's internal
    resources and abilities and opportunities and
    threats in its external environment.
  • This is frequently called SWOT analysis, that is
    analysis of an organizations strengths and
    weaknesses, and its environmental opportunities
    and threats.

10
6. Formulating strategies
  • The formulation of the strategy follows the
    decision making process.
  • ((Decision making process is a set of eight
    steps that include identifying a problem,
    identifying decision criteria, allocating
    weights to criteria, development of alternatives,
    analyzing of alternatives, selecting the
    alternative, implementing the alternative,
    evaluation decision effectiveness))
  • Management needs to develop and evaluate
    strategic alternatives and then select that are
    compatible and that allow the organization to
    best capitalize on its strengths and
    environmental opportunities.
  • Step 6 is complete when management has developed
    a set of strategies that will give the
    organization competitive advantage.

11
7. Implementing strategies
  • No matter how effectively a company has planned
    its strategies, it can not succeed if the
    strategies are not implemented properly.
  • Top management leadership is a necessary
    ingredient in a successful strategy.

12
8. Evaluating results
  • The final step in the strategic management
    process is evaluating results. How effective have
    our strategies been? What adjustments, if any,
    are necessary?
  • The strategic adjustments are developed after
    assessing the results of previous strategies and
    determining that changes were needed.

13
Strategi Dalam Perencanaan
  • 1. Perencanaan Sedikit Demi Sedikit
  • (Camel head in the fent) atau tindakan
    infiltrasi. Bila keseluruhan mungkin ditolak,
    lalu digunakan cara menawarkan sedikit atau
    sebagian kecil saja sehingga bagian itu dapat
    disetujui. Kemudian diteruskan sebagian lagi,
    sebagian lagi sampai akhirnya semua dapat
    dilaksanakan.

14
Strategi Dalam Perencanaan
  • 2. Menebarkan Bibit di Tanah Subur
  • (Sowing seeds on fertile ground) menggunakan
    sebagian anggota kelompok yang respektif terhadap
    rencana yang ditawarkan, mereka diberi
    penjelasan, diajak untuk mengerti, dijawab semua
    pertanyaannya, dijelaskan keuntungannya dan
    sebagainya. Akhirnya melalui mereka maka
    keseluruhan kelompok bisa menerima.

15
Strategi Dalam Perencanaan
  • 3. Penyerangan Secara Terkonsentrasi
  • (Mass concentrated offensive)
    melaksanakan aksi total secara menyeluruh yang
    dianggap perlu agar rencana secara cepat dapat
    dilaksanakan.
  • 4. Kacaukan Isu yang Bersangkutan
  • (Confuse the issue) diusahakan agar
    mengalihkan perhatian kelompok dengan jalan
    mengajukan pertanyaan atau menekan cara-cara yang
    tidak ada hubungannya sama sekali dengan persolan
    yang sedang dibicarakan.

16
Strategi Dalam Perencanaan
  • 5. Gunakan Taktik Keras Hanya Bila Perlu
  • (Use strong tactics only when necessary)
    sebaiknya tidak menggunakan lebih banyak energi
    dan motivasi, simpan untuk cadangan dan digunakan
    pada situasi-situasi tertentu.
  • 6. Lepaskan Tanggung Jawab
  • (Pass the buck) tanggung jawab atau
    kesalahan dilimpahkan pada pihak lain. Rencana
    yang dibuat memungkinkan untuk pihak lain
    melaksanakan tugas-tugas yang diinginkan.

17
Strategi Dalam Perencanaan
  • 7. Waktu Merupakan Alat Penyembuh yang Mujarab
  • (Time is great healer) dengan
    berlangsungnya waktu banyak tindakan-tindakan
    yang terlaksana dengan sendiri. Oleh karena itu,
    untuk problem-problem tertentu waktu merupakan
    pemecah terbaik.
  • 8. Laksanakan Tindakan Pada Saat yang tepat
  • (strike while the iron is hot) terapkan
    rencana dengan segera bila terlihat gejala bahwa
    orang tidak menentang.

18
Strategi Dalam Perencanaan
  • 9. Hasil Pemikiran Beberapa Orang Lebih Baik dari
    Hasil Pemikiran Sekarang
  • (Two heads are better than one) perlu ada
    teman dan perlu menerapkan tindakan-tindakan
    secara bergabung.
  • 10. Lakukan Tindakan Memecah-Belah
  • (Devide and rule, devide et impera)
    pimpinan berusaha memecah belah anggota sehingga
    dia tetap kuasa, ini akan efektif. Namun demikian
    kerja sama bisa terhambat dan kepemimpinan
    dinamis juga akan terhambat.
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