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Cambridge IGCSE Biology Extended Level

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Title: Cambridge IGCSE Biology Extended Level


1
Cambridge IGCSE BiologyExtended Level
ClickBiology
  • Cells

2
You should be able to
  • Identify and describe the structure of plant
    cells and animal cells, and describe the
    functions of their parts.
  • Describe the difference between animal cells and
    plant cells.
  • Explain the structure and function of specialised
    cells red blood cell, muscle cells, ciliated
    cells, xylem vessels and root hair cells.
  • Define the terms tissue, organ and organ systems,
    with examples.

3
A section through a liver cell (animal cell)
controls what enters and leaves the cell
contains the DNA and so controls the cell
metabolic (chemical) reactions occur here
contains the coded instructions to make proteins
4
Section through a palisade cell of a leaf (plant
cell)
cell membrane
nucleus
cytoplasm
5
You should be able to
  • Identify and describe the structure of plant
    cells and animal cells, and describe the
    functions of their parts.
  • Describe the difference between animal cells and
    plant cells.
  • Explain the structure and function of specialised
    cells red blood cell, muscle cells, ciliated
    cells, xylem vessels and root hair cells.
  • Define the terms tissue, organ and organ systems,
    with examples.

6
Comparing animal and plant cells
Found in both animal and plant cells Found only in plant cells
cell membrane cellulose cell wall
nucleus large sap vacuole
cytoplasm chloroplast
7
You should be able to
  • Identify and describe the structure of plant
    cells and animal cells, and describe the
    functions of their parts.
  • Describe the difference between animal cells and
    plant cells.
  • Explain the structure and function of specialised
    cells red blood cell, muscle cells, ciliated
    cells, xylem vessels and root hair cells.
  • Define the terms tissue, organ and organ systems,
    with examples.

8
Red blood cells transport oxygen
cytoplasm contains no nucleus
cell surface membrane
allows more room for haemoglobin
cytoplasm contains haemoglobin
haemoglobin is a protein which carries the oxygen
molecules
bi-concave disc shape
increases surface area over which absorption of
oxygen can occur
9
Muscle cells contract and enable movement of the
body
muscle
Muscle cells have many nuclei
The strands of protein slide over each other
making the muscle cell (fibre) shorter and
causing the muscle to contract
10
Ciliated cells move bacteria and dust away from
the lungs
cilia
Cilia are small extensions of the cell. They beat
rhythmically to sweep mucus, which has trapped
bacteria and dust, away from the lungs
nucleus
magnification X3000
11
Xylem vessels transport water and minerals up the
plant
xylem vessels are continuous tubes
xylem vessel
no cytoplasm
hollow allows for continuous flow of water and
dissolved mineral ions
lignin
water-proof and strong helps support the plant
longitudinal section
cross-section
12
Root hair cells absorb minerals and water from
the soil
Cross-section of a root hair cell
cell membrane
semi-permeable, so will allow water and mineral
ions into the cell
cytoplasm
contains no chloroplasts as no photosynthesis is
needed
root hair
increases surface area for absorption of water
and mineral ions
13
You should be able to
  • Identify and describe the structure of plant
    cells and animal cells, and describe the
    functions of their parts.
  • Describe the difference between animal cells and
    plant cells.
  • Explain the structure and function of specialised
    cells red blood cell, muscle cells, ciliated
    cells, xylem vessels and root hair cells.
  • Define the terms tissue, organ and organ systems,
    with examples.

14
A tissue is a group of cells of similar
structure that perform a shared function
15
An organ is a structure made of a group of
tissues working together to perform specific
functions
heart
liver
lungs
stomach
kidneys
brain
  • Plant organs include the stem and the leaves

16
An organ system is a group of organs that
coordinate to perform related functions
lymphatic system
digestive system
endocrine system
reproductive system
skeletal system
circulatory system
respiratory system
excretory system
muscular system
nervous system
  • In plants the shoot is an organ system consisting
    of leaves and the stem

17
Levels of organisation
organ systems
cell
tissue
organ
organism
nerve cell
nervous tissue
brain
nervous system
Homo sapiens
18
Now you should be able to
  • Identify and describe the structure of plant
    cells and animal cells, and describe the
    functions of their parts.
  • Describe the difference between animal cells and
    plant cells.
  • Explain the structure and function of specialised
    cells red blood cell, muscle cells, ciliated
    cells, xylem vessels and root hair cells.
  • Define the terms tissue, organ and organ systems,
    with examples.

19
Now write down everything you remember from the
presentation
  • Dont refer to your text book straight away, see
    what information you have retained.
  • Check the notes you have made by checking your
    book.

20
Edexcel AS Level Biology
ClickBiology
Next video Transport into and out of the
cell (diffusion, osmosis and active transport)
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