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Carbohydrates

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Chapter 14 Carbohydrates Chapter 14 14.1 - Carbohydrates Chemistry of Life Carbohydrates are produced by photosynthesis in plants such as glucose are synthesized in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Carbohydrates


1
Chapter 14
  • Carbohydrates

2
Chapter 14
  • 14.1 - Carbohydrates

3
Chemistry of Life
4
Carbohydrates
  • are produced by photosynthesis in plants
  • such as glucose are synthesized in plants from
    CO2, H2O, and energy from the sun
  • are oxidized in living cells to produce CO2, H2O,
    and energy

5
Types of Carbohydrates
  • monosaccharides, the simplest carbohydrates
  • disaccharides, consist of two monosaccharides
  • polysaccharides, contain many monosaccharides

6
Monosaccharides consist of
  • 3-6 carbon atoms typically
  • a carbonyl group
  • aldehyde (aldose)
  • ketone (ketose)
  • several hydroxyl groups
  • carbohydrates that cannot be
  • split (or broken down) in to
  • smaller carbohydrates

7
Monosaccharides (based on of C)
8
Chapter 14
  • 14.2 Structure of Monosaccharides

9
Fischer Projections
10
Identifying D and L Isomers
  • Look for the chiral carbon furthest from the
    carbonyl group
  • Which direction is the hydroxyl group pointing in
    when the carbonyl group is drawn at the top?
  • If its on left
  • give a L designation
  • If its on right
  • give a D designation

11
Important Monosaccharides
  • Most common hexose is D-glucose
  • (also known as dextrose or blood sugar)
  • Found in fruits, vegis, corn syrup honey
  • Building block of disaccharides
  • sucrose, lactose and maltose
  • Building block of disaccharides
  • starch, cellulose and glycogen

12
Important Monosaccharides
  • Galactose is an aldohexose that does not occur in
    the free form in nature
  • Obtained as a hydrolysis product of
  • the disaccharide lactose
  • Important in the cellular membranes
  • of the brain and nervous system
  • Only difference from D-glucose is
  • the OH arrangement on C 4

13
Important Monosaccharides
  • Fructose is the sweetest carbohydrate (2x as
    sweet as sucrose table sugar)
  • After it enters the bloodstream it is
  • converted to glucose
  • Found in fruit juices and honey
  • Also called levulose and fruit sugar
  • Also obtained as one of the
  • hydrolysis products of sucrose

14
Important Monosaccharides
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