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Organic Chemistry and Macromolecules

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Organic Chemistry and Macromolecules What makes a molecule organic? Carbon How many bonds does carbon want? Carbon can form molecules of all different sizes and shapes – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organic Chemistry and Macromolecules


1
Organic Chemistry and Macromolecules
2
What makes a molecule organic?
3
Carbon
  • How many bonds does carbon want?
  • Carbon can form molecules of all different sizes
    and shapes

4
Organic Molecules
  • Large carbon chains are called polymers or
    macromolecules
  •  Polymers are made or synthesized through
    dehydration synthesis , also called a
    condensation reaction.
  • Polymers are broken by hydrolysis, which means
    breaking water apart.

5
4 types of macromolecules
6
Carbohydrates
  • Examples?
  • Functions Energy storage
  • Atoms Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
  • Building blocks Monosaccharide (mono means?)

7
Carbohydrates
  • How are multiple carbohydrates joined together?
  • Dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction

8
Types of carbohydrates
  • 1. Monosaccharide (1) - simple sugars!
  • Ex glucose, fructose
  • 2. Disaccharides (2)
  • Ex Sucrose or table sugar
  • 3. Polysaccharides (3)
  • Ex Cellulose (fiber ), Chitin, Glycogen (animal
    storage, and Starch (plant storage)

9
Lipids
  • Examples?
  • Functions biological membranes and energy
    storage
  • Atoms Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

10
Types of lipids
  • Fats
  • 2. Oils
  • 3. Waxes
  • 4. Sterols (steroids)
  • Phosopholipids-used in the making of plasma
    membrane (Bi-layer or two layers).

11
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
  • Saturated Fats
  • Contain only single bonds for the carbon
  • Solid at room temperature
  • Sources dairy products (cheese, yogurt, milk,
    etc), meats and etc.
  • Unsaturated Fats
  • Contain at least one double bond
  • One double bond is monounsaturated
  • Two or more double bonds is polyunsaturated
  • Liquid at room temperature
  • Sources oils (olive, canola, etc)

12
Nucleic Acids
  • Examples?
  • Functions heredity (genetics)
  • Atoms Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus,
    Nitrogen
  • Building blocks Nucleotides (ATCGU)
  • Structure Sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogenous base

13
(No Transcript)
14
Protein
  • Examples?
  • Atoms Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulfur, Nitrogen
  • Functions building material, transport,
    regulation, and aiding chemical reactions.
  • Building blocks Amino Acids

15
Amino Acids
16
Organic Chemistry Macromolecule Vocabulary List
  • Carbohydratesorganic molecule that stores fast
    energy examples are sugars and starch
  • Lipidsorganic molecule that is not soluble in
    water, stores energy and provides insulation ex
    fats and oils
  • Proteinsorganic molecule that is structural and
    speeds up chemical reactions ex enzymes and
    hemaglobin

17
Vocabulary List Continued
  • Nucleic Acidsorganic molecule that carries
    genetic information ex DNA RNA
  • Benedicts Solutiona blue reagent that changes
    color in the presence of simple sugars
  • Starcha major source of carbohydrates for living
    things made of bonded glucose molecules

18
Vocabulary List Continued
  • Enzymesa type of protein found in all living
    things that changes (usually speeds up) the rate
    of chemical reactions
  • Insulina protein hormone that affects metabolism
    by breaking down glucose
  • Glycogena complex carbohydrate used to store
    energy typically found in liver and muscle cells

19
Vocabulary List Continued
  • Cellulosea polysaccharide carbohydrate made of
    many bonded glucose units typically found in
    cell walls of plants and provides nutritional
    roughage.
  • Hemoglobina type of protein that is in red blood
    cells contains iron and carries oxygen from
    lungs to body cells.
  • Biurets Solutiona blue reagent that turns purple
    in the presence of proteins.
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