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Animal Reproduction

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Animal Reproduction An overview before we dive in . . . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Reproduction


1
Animal Reproduction
  • An overview before we dive in . . .

2
Conditions for Fertilization
  • Anatomy of Male Female must be compatible
  • Female must be in Heat
  • Egg must be mature

3
What is the function of the Male?
  • produce large numbers of live sex cells
    (spermatozoa)
  • contribute 1/2 chromosomes

4
What are the Male Reproductive Organs?
  • Testicles - produce spermatozoa male hormone
    Testosterone
  • Scrotom - sack which carries testicles
  • functions as a heat regulator
  • Monorchid - one fertile testicle
  • Cryptorchid - both testes remain in body cavity
    (sterile)
  • Castration - removal of testicles
  • lack sex drive
  • gain weight quicker

5
What are the Male Reproductive Organs?
  • Epididymis - tube connects to testes
  • storage of spermatozoa (200 billion at a time)
  • spermatozoa mature as they migrate through
  • Vas Deferens - tube connects to epididymus
  • if removed, can't reproduce vasectomy

6
What are the Male Reproductive Organs?
  • Urethra - begins at bladder and continues through
    penis
  • Sigmoid Flexure - "S" shape in urethra allows for
    extension of penis outside of body for
    reproduction

7
Accessory Sex Glands
  • prostate
  • two seminal vesicles
  • two cowpers glands

8
What is the function of the Accessory Sex Glands?
  • provide medium for transporting sperm
  • adds volume
  • provides nutrients
  • cleans flushes urinary tract

9
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10
Artificial Insemination
11
What is the function of the female?
  • contribute 1/2 chromosomes
  • care for young in uterus and after birth until
    weaning

12
What are the Female Reproductive Organs?
  • Vulva - exterior portion of reproductive tract
  • provides visual signs of heat
  • Vagina - between vulva cervix
  • Cows Ewes semen is deposited here
  • Mares Sows semen is deposited in the cervix

13
What are the Female Reproductive Organs?
  • Cervix - "Mouth of the womb"
  • opening into uterus
  • at birth cervix stretches to allowbaby to pass
    (most painful part)
  • during pregnancy cervix becomes blocked with a
    mucous plug to prevent infection

14
What are the Female Reproductive Organs?
  • Uterine Horns - two branches of uterus
  • Fallopian Tube - uterine horn becomes a small
    tube
  • lined with cilia which aid in egg migration

15
Ovaries
  • located at end of fallopian tubes
  • possesses large number of eggs in all stages of
    development
  • this is all the eggs she will ever have, unlike
    the male
  • very few eggs reach maturity
  • if not fertilized, the egg is reabsorbed by the
    body

16
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17
Reproduction in Males
  • After sexual maturity, sperm production is
    continuous
  • Testosterone is responsible for
  • growth, development activity of accessory
    glands
  • survival of spermatozoa
  • secondary sex characteristicsmale voice, sex
    drive

18
Reproduction in Males
  • Semen - collective term for all fluid ejaculated
  • sperm and fluid from accessory glands

19
Reproduction in Females
  • Farm animals reach sexual maturity at 4 months
    (sow) to 24 months (mare), then
  • Female comes in heat (estrus)
  • Egg released by ovary
  • Egg travels down tube until fertilized by sperm
  • Estrogen - female hormone which regulates estrus

20
What does "in heat" mean?
  • Heat is the time when a female is receptive to
    the male and will allow breeding to take place
  • Heat is actually divided into 4 phases of the
    cycle.

21
Estrous Cycle
  • Proestrus ovary is about to release an egg
  • Estrus female receptivity
  • Metestrus uterus prepares for pregnancy
  • fertilized egg attaches to uterus
  • Diestrus longest period of cycle
  • inactive
  • Estrous Cycles stop after conception, and begin
    soon after Parturition (birth)

22
Females also show external signs of "Heat"
  • aggressive behavior
  • swelling and/or color change of vulva

23
  • Beef Terms
  • A Mature Male is called a
  • Bull
  • A Mature Female is called a
  • Cow
  • The act of Giving Birth is called
  • Calving
  • Gestation
  • 283 days
  • A Castrated Male is called a
  • Steer
  • An Immature Female is called a
  • Heifer

24
  • What do you call a mature male hog?
  • Boar
  • What do you call a mature female hog?
  • Sow
  • What do you call the act of giving birth?
  • Farrowing
  • What do you call a castrated male hog?
  • Barrow
  • What do you call an young female hog?
  • Gilt
  • What is the gestation for hogs?
  • 114 days or 3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days

25
  • Poultry Terms
  • What do you call a mature male?
  • Rooster
  • What do you call a mature female?
  • Hen
  • What do you call a young female?
  • Pullet
  • What do you call a castrated male?
  • Capon
  • Chickens Hatch
  • What is the incubation period?
  • 21 days

26
  • What do you call a mature male horse?
  • Stallion
  • What do you call a mature female horse?
  • Mare
  • What do you call a castrated male horse?
  • Gelding
  • What do you call a young horse?
  • foal or colt

27
  • What do you call an immature female horse?
  • Filly
  • What do you call the act of giving birth for
    horses?
  • Foaling
  • What is the gestation for a horse?
  • 330 days

28
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