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Physical-Chemical%20Properties%20Mixtures/Elements/Compounds

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Title: Physical-Chemical%20Properties%20Mixtures/Elements/Compounds


1
Physical-Chemical Properties Mixtures/Elements/Com
pounds
  • SNC1D

2
Matter
  • Anything with mass and volume

3
Atoms
  • Smallest particle of an element that has all the
    physical and chemical properties of that element
  • Basic building block of all matter
  • Atoms are mostly empty space

4
Molecule
  • 2 or more atoms bonded together.
  • Smallest particle of a compound that has all the
    properties of that compound.
  • Examples H2O NaCl Cl2

5
Compounds
  • Substance formed when two or more different types
    of atoms bond with one another
  • Composed of 2 or more atoms bonded together
  • Examples NaCl, C12H22O11, NaOH, AgCl

6
Compounds differ
  • Chemical compounds are uniquely different from
    the elements that make them up.
  • Sodium and chlorine are extremely toxic by
    themselves, however sodium chloride is necessary
    for good health.

7
The Particle Theory of Matter
  • All matter is made of tiny particles that have
    empty spaces between them.
  • Different substances are made up of different
    kinds of particles.
  • Particles are in constant random motion.
  • The particles of a substance move faster as its
    temperature increases.
  • Particles attract each other.

8
Classification of matter
  • Matter is classified into 4 classes
  • Matter exists as
  • Mixtures
  • Solutions
  • Elements
  • Compounds

9
Mixture
  • Matter that consists of two or more substances
    mixed together but not chemically combined.
  • The substances keep their separate identities and
    most of their own properties, however their
    chemical composition does not change.
  • 2 types of mixtures are heterogeneous and
    homogeneous mixtures

10
Heterogeneous Mixture
  • mixture which does not appear to be the same
    throughout. Parts are easy to recognize and
    separate.
  • Examples granite, tacos, bowl of cereal,
    Italian salad dressing, concrete, crunchy peanut
    butter, .

11
Homogeneous Mixture
  • Well-mixed, appears to be the same throughout.
    Particles are small, not easily recognizable and
    do not settle when the mixture is allowed to
    stand.
  • Examples air, milk, glass, stainless steel,
    kool aid

12
Colloids
  • Homogeneous mixtures where the particles are
    mixed together but not dissolved. The particles
    in a colloid are relatively large in size and are
    kept permanently suspended.
  • Examples milk, whipped cream, toothpaste,
    suntan lotion
  • Suspensions separate on standing. Colloids tend
    not to separate.
  • Example of suspensions ketchup, mustard
  • What about milk when it spoils?

13
Solution
  • Type of homogeneous mixture formed when one
    substance is dissolved in another. Best mixed
    of all mixtures. Particles are evenly spread
    out.
  • Examples coffee, lemonade, kool aid, tea
  • Solute substance that is dissolved
  • Solvent substance that does the dissolving

14
Properties of solutions
  • Solutions can exist in any of the three phases
    solid, liquid or gas.
  • Property of solution is that particles are evenly
    spread out (dissolved)
  • Solutions can change their states in the
    following ways
  • Sublimation from solid phase to gas phase
  • Deposition from gas phase to solid phase
  • Freezing from liquid phase to solid phase
  • Evaporation from liquid phase to gas phase
  • Melting from solid phase to liquid phase

15
Solubility
  • Amount of solute that can be completely dissolved
    in a given amount of solvent at a specific
    temperature.
  • How can you increase the solubility of a
    substance?
  • Increase temp-increase solubility (add heat
    energy)
  • Increase agitation-increase solubility
  • Decrease temp-decrease solubility

16
Soluble/Insoluble
  • A substance that dissolves in another substance
    is soluble in that substance.
  • (sugar is soluble in water)
  • Insoluble does not dissolve (sand in water)

17
Alloys
  • Alloys
  • Metal solutions
  • Solids dissolved in solids.
  • Gold jewelry is a solid solution of Gold (Au) and
    Copper (Cu) and Silver (Ag)
  • Brass is an alloy of Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn)
  • Sterling silver is an alloy of Silver (Ag) and
    Copper (Cu)
  • Stainless steel is an alloy of Chromium (Cr) and
    Iron (Fe)
  • Bronze is an alloy of copper (Cu) and tin (Sn)

18
Pure Substances
  • Pure substances
  • Matter that cannot be separated by physical means
    (elements and compounds)
  •  Element
  • Substance that contains only 1 type of atom
  • Examples Au, He, O, B anything from periodic
    table

19
Elements, compounds, mixtures
  • See handout document for chart

20
Separate mixtures
  • Explain how you could use physical properties to
    separate the following mixtures
  • Sand-salt
  • Oil-water
  • Salt-water
  • Rubbing alcohol-water
  • Sawdust-sand
  • Gold-sand
  • Iron filings-sulfur

21
Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties describe objects (matter) and
    are used to identify and compare different types
    of matter
  • Colour, odour, size, shape, state (phase),
    texture, hardness, taste, density, boiling point,
    melting point, freezing point, magnetism,
    conductivity, conducts heat, mass, weight,
    volume, solubility

22
Physical Change
  • Physical Change
  • Change in size, state or shape or changes in
    other physical properties. One or more physical
    attributes transform, but the chemical identity
    is unchanged.

23
Chemical Properties
  • Chemical Properties
  • The properties that describe how a substance
    changes into other new substances.
  • The tendency of a substance to change chemical
    identity (transforms into a different substance)

24
Chemical property-change
  • A Chemical Property describes a substances
    ability to change into a different substance, a
    Chemical Change is the process by which the
    substance changes.
  •  
  • (Example, the ability of a substance to burn is a
    chemical property, the process of burning is a
    chemical change)

25
Chemical Reaction
  • Chemical Change (Chemical Reaction)
  • New substances with different properties are
    formed
  • A substance changes its chemical identity, atoms
    are re-arranged to produce a new substance with
    different properties
  •  Chemical Reaction
  • New substance is formed by the re-arrangement of
    atoms

26
Evidence of Chemical Change
  • Evidence of chemical change
  • Color change, rust, exothermic (hot-produces
    heat energy), endothermic (cold-absorbs heat
    energy), light, bubbles, burning, explosion
    (releases energy), flammabilityability to burn

27
Physical or Chemical Change?
  • The main difference between a physical and a
    chemical change is that a chemical change
    involves the production of a new substance.
    Physical changes are easily reversed.

28
Physical or Chemical
  • Physical or Chemical change
  • Light a match
  • Slice a cake into 4 pieces
  • Ice cream melts into mush
  • Alka-seltzer in water
  • Crumple a piece of Al foil
  • Baking soda and vinegar

29
Physical or Chemical
  • Water freezes into ice
  • Water boils
  • Jeans fade in the sun
  • Bleach clothes
  • Digest food
  • A candle melts
  •  List physical properties for clock, table,
    person, ..etc

30
DemosLabs
  • Demonstrations
  •  Roast marshmallowsC12H22O11 draw rxn on the
    board
  • Complete and turn in metal salts flame lab
  • Investigate aquarium experiment
  • Deep rock jug

31
Grocery Store
  • How is a grocery store (supermarket) set up?
  • Produce, meats, dairy, frozen foods, drinks, etc
  •  Imagine how hard it would be to find items if
    there were no organized way of groceries in a
    grocery store.
  • Frozen pizza next to panty hose

32
Chemical Symbol
  • Chemical Symbol
  • Shorthand way to represent an element
  • Single letter or first letter is always
    capitalized
  • Second letter is always lower case
  • As, Fe, Se, He, Ar, .

33
Chemical Formula
  • Elemental (Chemical) formula
  • Combination of chemical symbols to represent a
    substances identity
  • Atomic symbol along with a numerical subscript to
    indicate the number of atoms grouped together

34
Chemical formulas
  • O2 - 2 - O atoms
  • O3 - 3 O atoms
  • S8 - 8 S atoms
  • 4 O2 - 4 O2 molecules - 8 O atoms
  • NaCl, Fe2O3, KCl

35
Applied Chemical Formulas
  • List the element and the number of atoms for each
    element
  • NaHCO3
  • C12H22O11
  • 3 H2SO4
  • 5 CaCO3

36
Remember
  • Rememberchemical compounds are uniquely
    different from the elements from which they are
    made.
  • Na - toxic explosive in water
  • Cl- - toxic green gas, death in less than
    1.5 seconds
  • NaCl table saltsodium chlorideessential for
    good health

37
The real world
  • In nature, it is rare that elements or compounds
    are found in a purified state. We find them
    mixed together in mixtures, which can be
    separated by differences in physical properties.

38
Chemical Equation
  • Chemical Equation
  • Description of a chemical reaction using symbols
    and formulas
  •  
  • 2 H2 O2 2 H2O
  • Draw molecules on board

39
Chemical Reaction
  • Chemical Reaction
  • Atoms are re-arranged and a new substance with
    different properties is formed
  • Reactants Products
  • Yield, produce

40
Chemical reaction
  • Existing bonds are broken, atoms are re-arranged,
    new bonds are formed to produce new substances
  •  
  • Energy is either absorbed or released

41
Exothermic Reaction
  • Exothermic chemical reaction (HOT)
  • Exo out of thermic heat
  •  
  • Heat energy is released

42
Endothermic Reaction
  • Endothermic chemical reaction (COLD)
  • Endo into thermic heat
  •  
  • Heat energy is absorbed
  • (Need to add heat energy to keep reaction going)

43
Catalyst
  • Catalyst
  • Speeds up a chemical reaction without being
    permanently being changed itself

44
Law of Conservation of mass
  • Law of Conservation of Mass (Matter)
  • Matter is neither created or destroyed in a
    chemical reaction. Atoms are re-arranged,
    however, the same atoms and number of atoms
    remain on both sides of the reaction.
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