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Matter

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Matter States of Matter Physical and Chemical Changes Physical and Chemical Properties Separation Techniques * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matter


1
Matter
States of Matter Physical and Chemical
Changes Physical and Chemical Properties Separatio
n Techniques
1
2
Classification of Matter
  • Matter is anything that has mass and occupies
    space.
  • We can classify matter based on whether its
    solid, liquid, or gas.

2
3
Classifying Matter by Physical State
  • Matter can be classified as solid, liquid, or gas
    based on the characteristics it exhibits.
  • fixed keeps shape when placed in a container
  • indefinite takes the shape of the container

3
4
Solids
  • Particles are packed close together and are fixed
    in position (some vibration).
  • The close packing results in solids being
    incompressible.
  • The inability of the particles to move around
    results in a fixed shape and volume and prevents
    the solid from flowing.

4
5
Crystalline Solids
  • solids have particles arranged in an orderly
    geometric pattern
  • salt
  • diamonds
  • sugar

5
6
Amorphous Solids
  • Solids where the particles are randomly
    distributed without any clear pattern
  • plastic
  • glass
  • charcoal

6
7
Liquids
  • The particles are closely packed, but they have
    some ability to move around.
  • The close packing results in liquids being
    incompressible.
  • Movement of the particles allows liquids to take
    the shape of their container and to flow

7
8
Gases
  • The particles have complete freedom from each
    other.
  • The particles are constantly flying around,
    bumping into each other and the container.
  • There is a lot of empty space between the
    particles.

8
9
Gases
  • Due to empty space between particles, gases are
    compressible.
  • Gases can also expand to fill and take the shape
    of their container, and will flow.

9
10
Learning Check
  • State whether the following describes a solid,
    liquid or gas
  • Particles have a lot of space in between them
  • Particles can be moved far apart or closer
    together
  • Particles have the least motion
  • The substance will fit into a square shaped and
    round shaped container, but cannot be compressed
  • Particles can either be arranged orderly or
    randomly

11
Classifying Matter by Composition
  • Another way to classify matter is to examine its
    composition.
  • composition includes
  • types of particles
  • arrangement of the particles
  • attractions and attachments between the particles

11
12
12
13
Classification of Matter by Composition
  • Matter whose composition does not change from one
    sample to another is called a pure substance.
  • made of a single type of atom or molecule
  • all samples have the same characteristics.
  • Matter whose composition may vary from one sample
    to another is called a mixture.
  • two or more types of atoms or molecules combined
    in variable proportions
  • different samples have different characteristics.

13
14
Classification of Matter by Composition
  1. made of one type of particle
  2. All samples show the same properties.
  1. made of multiple types of particles
  2. Samples may show different properties.

14
15
Classification of Pure Substances?Elements
  • Pure substances that cannot be broken down into
    simpler substances by chemical reactions are
    called elements.
  • basic building blocks of matter
  • composed of single type of atom
  • all known elements are listed on the Periodic
    Table
  • can be abbreviated with their symbol
  • examples Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen

15
16
Classification of Pure Substances?Compounds
  • Substances that can be broken down are called
    compounds.
  • chemical combinations of elements
  • contain two or more different kinds of atoms
  • all samples of a compound behave the same way.
  • Most natural pure substances are compounds.
  • Examples Water (H2O), Sodium Chloride (NaCl),
    Ammonia (NH3)

16
17
Classification of Pure Substances
  • made of one type of atom
  • abbreviated by a chemical symbol
  • 3) listed on the Periodic Table
  • units contain two or more different kinds of
    atoms
  • 2) abbreviated by a compound formula
  • 3) made of one type of molecule, or array of ions

17
18
Classification of Mixtures
  • homogeneous mixture that has uniform
    composition throughout
  • atoms or molecules mixed uniformly
  • Examples salt water, alloys, air
  • heterogeneous mixture that does not have
    uniform composition throughout
  • atoms or molecules not mixed uniformly
  • Examples oil/vinegar, muddy water, granite

18
19
Classification of Mixtures
  • made of multiple substances, but appears to be
    one substance
  • Portions of a sample have the same composition
    and properties.
  • made of multiple substances, whose presence can
    be seen
  • Portions of a sample have different composition
    and properties.

19
20
Learning Check
  • Identify each of the following as an element,
    compound, homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture -
  • Gasoline
  • A stream with gravel at the bottom
  • Air
  • Brass
  • Copper
  • Maple syrup
  • Oxygen and helium in a scuba tank
  • Oil and vinegar salad dressing
  • Table salt

21
Changes in Matter
  • Changes that alter the state or appearance of the
    matter without changing its identity are called
    physical changes.
  • Changes that alter the identity of the matter are
    called chemical changes.

21
22
Physical Changes in Matter
  • The boiling of water is a physical change.
  • The water molecules are separated from each
    other, but their structure and composition do not
    change.

22
23
Common Physical Changes
  • Irreversible
  • breaking, cutting, grinding
  • Reversible
  • state changes
  • boiling/condensing
  • melting/freezing
  • Subliming
  • dissolving

23
24
Chemical Changes in Matter
  • Rusting of iron is a Chemical Change
  • Iron and Oxygen (O2) form rust (Iron Oxide)

24
25
Common Chemical Changes
  • Signs of a Chemical Change
  • Color change
  • Gas Production
  • Heat Transfer
  • Formation of a precipitate

25
26
Learning Check
  • Identify each of the following as a physical or
    chemical change -
  • Iron metal is melted
  • Iron combines with oxygen to form rust
  • Wood burns in air
  • A rock is broken into small pieces
  • Milk turns sour
  • Wax is melted over a flame and then catches fire
    and burns

27
Properties of Matter
  • Physical properties are the characteristics of
    matter that can be observed without changing its
    identity.
  • Color, density, melting/boiling points
  • Chemical properties are the characteristics that
    determine how the composition of matter changes
    as a result of contact with other matter or the
    influence of energy.
  • Will it rust?, burn?, tarnish?

27
28
Learning Check
  • Identify each of the following as a physical or
    chemical property -
  • The boiling point of a certain alcohol is 78oC
  • Diamond is very hard
  • Sugar ferments to form alcohol
  • A meta wire conducts electrical current
  • Gallium metal melts in your hand
  • Platinum does not react with oxygen at room
    temperature
  • The slide background is white
  • The copper on the Statue of Liberty has acquired
    a green coating

29
Separation Techniques
  • When two or more materials or substances are
    mixed together but do not chemically combine.
  • This means they retain their original properties.
  • This means they can be separated by physical
    means.

30
What are the different ways of separating
mixtures?
  • Magnetism
  • Hand separation
  • Filtration
  • Sifting or sieving
  • Extraction and evaporation
  • Chromatography

31
Magnetism
  • If one component of the mixture has magnetic
    properties, you could use a magnet to separate
    the mixture. Iron, nickel, and cobalt are all
    materials that are magnetic.
  • Not all metals are magnetic gold, silver, and
    aluminum are examples of metals that are not
    magnetic.

32
Hand separation
  • Separating the parts of a mixture by hand.
  • Only useful when the particles are large enough
    to be seen clearly.
  • Useful for separating parts of a salad.

33
Filtration
  • Used when separating a solid substance from a
    fluid (a liquid or a gas) by passing a mixture
    through a porous material such as a type of
    filter.
  • Works by letting the fluid pass through but not
    the solid.
  • Examples of filters coffee filter, cloth, oil
    filter, even sand!

34
Sifting or sieving
  • Used to separate a dry mixture which contains
    substances of different sizes by passing it
    through a sieve, a device containing tiny holes.

35
Extraction
  • Used to separate an insoluble solid (something
    that doesnt dissolve in a liquid) from a soluble
    solid (something that DOES dissolve in a liquid).
    Done by adding a solvent (liquid that does the
    dissolving) to the mixture. Then pouring the
    liquid through a filter.

36
Distillation/Evaporation
  • Allowing the liquid to evaporate, leaving the
    soluble solid behind.
  • Example heating sugar water. The water
    evaporates and the sugar crystals are left
    behind.

37
Chromatography
  • Used to separate dissolved substances in a
    solution from each other.

38
Learning Check
  • Identify the best separation technique to be used
    in each situation -
  • Paperclips and confetti
  • Pebbles and sand
  • Components of a watercolor marker
  • Cooked pasta and water
  • Dissolved salt and water
  • Components of a sandwich
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