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Title: Science FCAT Benchmark Review


1
Science FCAT Benchmark Review
2
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • What is matter?
  • Anything that has mass and takes up space.
  • Density the amount of matter in a given volume
    (DM/V)
  • Ductility the ability to be pulled into a thin
    strand, like a wire
  • Malleability the ability to be pressed or
    pounded into a thin sheet

3
These are examples of?
4
Formula for Density
  • D M/V
  • Where
  • DDensity
  • MMass
  • VVolume

5
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Electrical Conductivity How well a substance
    allows electricity to flow through it
  • Solubility The ability to dissolve in another
    substance

6
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Physical Properties
  • Are those that can be observed without changing
    the make-up, or identity of the matter.
  • Chemical Properties
  • Describe matter based on its ability to change
    into a new kind of matter. Ie, paper/flammability,
    iron/O2

7
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Physical Change occurs when a physical property
    (size/shape) of a substance is changed many
    physical changes can be undone. Ie, folding paper
  • Chemical Change occurs when a one or more
    substances are changed into new substances with
    different properties cannot be undone by
    physical means

8
Strand A The Nature of Matter
9
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Defining Features
  • Solid
  • Keeps it shape and volume
  • Liquid
  • Takes the shape of its container
  • Keeps the same volume, in a container or not
  • Can flow
  • Gas
  • Takes the shape of its?
  • Takes the volume of ?
  • Can ?

10
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Boiling Point temperature at which a substance
    changes from a liquid state to a gaseous state
  • Freezing Point temperature at which a substance
    changes from a liquid state to a solid state
  • Melting Point temperature at which a substance
    changes from a solid state to a liquid state
  • Condensation Point temperature at which a
    substance changes from a gaseous state to a
    liquid state
  • Sublimation change from the solid state to the
    gaseous state
  • Deposition change from the gaseous state to the
    solid state

11
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Temperature measure of the average kinetic
    energy of the particles of a substance. Scales
    used?

12
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Waves
  • Crest peak/highest point of wave
  • Trough valley/lowest point of wave
  • Amplitude distance the wave oscillates from its
    resting position. The larger the amplitude, the
    more energy carried by the wave.
  • Wavelength the distance from one point on one
    wave to a corresponding point on an adjacent
    wave, ie. crest to crest, rp to rp, trough to
    trough
  • Resting Position

13
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14
  • http//id.mind.net/zona/mstm/physics/waves/partsO
    fAWave/waveParts.htm

15
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Element simplest form of matter
  • Atom smallest particle into which an element
    can be divided and still have properties of that
    element.
  • Compound/Molecule Two or more elements that are
    combined.
  • Mixture a combination of two or more substances
    that have not combined chemically

16
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Subatomic Particles
  • Proton positive charge nucleus
  • Neutron no charge nucleus
  • Electron negative charge outside the nucleus
    (electron clouds)
  • Proton and neutrons have about the same mass.
    Electrons are significantly smaller.
  • An atom is identified by the number of protons in
    its nucleus

17
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18
Strand A The Nature of Matter
  • Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element
    that have a different number of neutrons.
  • Hydrogen has one proton.
  • 0 neutron protium
  • 1 neutron deuterium
  • 2 neutrons tritium

19
A. Mixture
B. Solution
C. Compound
D. Pure Substance
20
You are correct!
Why are B, C and D not correct?
21
Strand B - Energy
  • Energy the ability to do work
  • Geothermal energy obtained from the thermal
    energy inside Earth
  • Mechanical energy an object has because of its
    motion or position (kinetic/potential)
  • Nuclear energy contained in the nuclei of atoms

22
What kinds of power plants are these?
23
Strand B - Energy
  • Wind using the wind (turbines)
  • Hydroelectric using water
  • Tidal using the waves/tides
  • Solar using sun (photovoltaic cells)
  • Fossil fuels oil, coal, natural gas (formed
    millions of years ago).
  • Electrical energy produced by electric charges

24
  • Turbines, turbines, turbines!!!!
  • Remember that most power plants have a turbine
    somewhere in them that allows them to convert
    (not create) energy.
  • Remember that energy can never be created or
    destroyed.

25
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26
What kinds of power plants are these?
27
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28
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29
Strand B - Energy
  • Sound energy carried by sound waves
  • Light energy carried by light and other kinds
    of electromagnetic waves
  • Chemical energy stored in chemical bonds
  • Thermal Energy related to the temperature of a
    substance
  • Conduction, Convection, Radiation

30
Strand B - Energy
  • Conduction transfer of heat from a warmer
    substance to a cooler substance (contact)
  • Convection transfer of heat warmer fluid/gas
    rises and cooler sinks
  • Radiation transfer of heat in the form of
    electromagnetic waves at random

31
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
32
Strand B Energy
  • Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be
    created nor destroyed, it can only change form or
    be transferred
  • Kinetic Energy energy an object has in motion
  • Potential Energy stored energy an object has

33
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34
Strand B - Energy
  • Energy from Sun (electromagnetic spectrum)
  • Energy inefficiency (heat loss) ie, lamp example
  • Heat flow ? warmer to cooler
  • Energy flow sun ? plants ? animals ? fossil
    fuels ? heat

35
Benchmarks SC.B.1.2.2, SC.B.1.2.3,
SC.B.1.2.4, SC.B.1.2.5 and SC.B.1.2.6
F. Electrical
G. Heat
H. Light
I. Mechanical
36
You are correct!
Why are G, H and I not correct?
37
Strand C Force and Motion
  • Force push or pull

38
Scalars Vectors
  • The motion of objects can be described by words -
    words such as distance, displacement, speed,
    velocity, and acceleration. These mathematical
    quantities which are used to describe the motion
    of objects can be divided into two categories.
    The quantity is either a scalar or a vector.
    These two categories can be distinguished from
    one another by their distinct definitions
  • Scalars are quantities which are fully described
    by a magnitude alone.
  • Vectors are quantities which are fully described
    by both a magnitude and a direction.

39
Scalars Vectors
  • Distance and speed are scalar quantities
  • Displacement and velocity are vector quantities.
  • Examples While speed (like 30km/hr) is a scalar,
    velocity (30km/hr North) is a vector, consisting
    of a speed and a direction (north).

40
Scalar or Vector?
  • 5 m
  • 30 m/sec, East
  • 20 degrees Celsius
  • 256 bytes
  • 4,000 calories
  • 5 mi., right

41
Distance/Displacement
  • Distance and displacement are two quantities
    which may seem to mean the same thing, yet they
    have distinctly different meanings and
    definitions.
  • Distance is a scalar quantity which refers to
    "how much ground an object has covered" during
    its motion.
  • Displacement is a vector quantity which refers to
    "how far out of place an object is" it is the
    object's change in position.

42
Distance/Displacement Check
  • A student walks 4 meters East, 2 meters South, 4
    meters West, and finally 2 meters North.


4 meters 2 meters 2 meters 4
meters
43
Distance/Displacement
  • Even though the student has walked a total
    distance of 12 meters, her displacement is 0
    meters. During the course of her motion, she has
    "covered 12 meters of ground" (distance 12 m).
    Yet, when she is finished walking, she is not
    "out of place" i.e., there is no displacement
    for her motion (displacement 0 m).
    Displacement, being a vector quantity, must give
    attention to direction. The 4 meters east is
    canceled by the 4 meters west and the 2 meters
    south is canceled by the 2 meters north.

44
Distance/Displacement Check
  • The diagram below shows the position of a
    cross-country skier at various times. At each of
    the indicated times, the skier turns around and
    reverses the direction of travel. In other words,
    the skier moves from A to B to C to D. Use the
    diagram to determine the distance traveled by the
    skier and the resulting displacement during these
    three minutes.
  • A B
  • 40 m 40 m___
  • 100 m
  • C D

45
Distance/Displacement
  • Seymour Action views soccer games from under the
    bleachers. He frequently paces back and forth to
    get the best view. The following diagram below
    shows several of Seymour's positions at various
    times. At each marked position, Seymour makes a
    "U-turn" and moves in the opposite direction. In
    other words, Seymour moves from position A to B
    to C to D. What is Seymour's resulting
    displacement and distance of travel?

46
Distance/Displacement
  • D B C A
  • ___________________________________
  • -10 0 10 20 30

47
Lets Check
  • What is the displacement of a cross country team
    that begins a ten mile course ending up back at
    the school?
  • What is the distance and displacement of the race
    car drivers in the Indy 500?

48
Speed
  • Speed is a scalar quantity which refers to "how
    fast an object is moving." A fast-moving object
    has a high speed while a slow-moving object has a
    low speed. An object with no movement at all has
    a zero speed.

49
Constant Speed
  • Moving objects don't always travel with erratic
    and changing speeds. Occasionally, an object will
    move at a steady rate with a constant speed. That
    is, the object will cover the same distance every
    regular interval of time. For instance, a
    cross-country runner might be running with a
    constant speed of 6 m/s in a straight line. If
    her speed is constant, then the distance traveled
    every second is the same. The runner would cover
    a distance of 6 meters every second. If you
    measured her position each second, you would
    notice that her position was changing by 6 meters
    each second. The following data tables depict
    both constant and changing speeds

50
Constant Speed
Time (s) Position (m)
0 0
1 6
2 12
3 18
4 24
51
Changing Speed
Time (s) Position (m)
0 0
1 1
2 4
3 9
4 16
52
Instantaneous Speed
  • Since a moving object often changes its speed
    during its motion, it is common to distinguish
    between the average speed and the instantaneous
    speed. The distinction is as follows
  • Instantaneous Speed - speed at any given instant
    in time.
  • Average Speed - average of all instantaneous
    speeds found simply by a distance/time ratio.

53
Instantaneous Speed
  • You might think of the instantaneous speed as the
    speed which the speedometer reads at any given
    instant in time and the average speed as the
    average of all the speedometer readings during
    the course of the trip.

54
Average Speed
  • As an object moves, it often undergoes changes in
    speed. For example, during an average trip to
    school, there are many changes in speed. Rather
    than the speedometer maintaining a steady
    reading, the needle constantly moves up and down
    to reflect the stopping and starting and the
    accelerating and decelerating. At one instant,
    the car may be moving at 50 mi/hr and at another
    instant, it may be stopped (i.e., 0 mi/hr). Yet
    during the course of the trip to school the
    person might average a speed of 25 mi/hr.

55
Average Speed
  • The instantaneous speed of an object is not to be
    confused with the average speed. Average speed is
    a measure of the distance traveled in a given
    period of time. Suppose that during your trip to
    school, you traveled a distance of 5 miles and
    the trip lasted 0.2 hours (12 minutes). The
    average speed of your car could be determined as

56
Average Speed
  • Average Speed Distance/Time
  • Average Speed 5 miles/.2 hour
  • Average Speed 25 miles/hour
  • On the average, your car was moving with a speed
    of 25 miles per hour. During your trip, there may
    have been times that you were stopped and other
    times that your speedometer was reading 50 miles
    per hour yet on the average you were moving with
    a speed of 25 miles per hour.

57
Average Speed Check
  • While on vacation, Lisa Carr traveled a total
    distance of 400 miles. Her trip took 8 hours.
    What was her average speed? To compute her
    average speed, simply divide the distance of
    travel by the time of travel.
  • Lisa Carr averaged a speed of 50 miles per hour.
    She may not have been traveling at a constant
    speed of 50 mi/hr. She undoubtedly, was stopped
    at some instant in time (perhaps for a bathroom
    break or for lunch) and she probably was going 65
    mi/hr at other instants in time. Yet, she
    averaged a speed of 50 miles per hour.

58
Velocity
  • Velocity is a vector quantity which refers to
    "the rate at which an object changes its
    position."
  • Imagine a person moving one step forward and one
    step back. Because the person always returns to
    the original position, the motion would never
    result in a change in position. Since velocity is
    defined as the rate at which the position
    changes, this motion results in zero velocity.
  • If a person in motion wishes to maximize his/her
    velocity, then that person must make every effort
    to maximize the amount that he/she is displaced
    from his/her original position. Every step must
    go into moving that person further from where
    he/she started. Heading in the opposite direction
    effectively begins to cancel whatever
    displacement there once was.

59
Describing Velocity
  • The task of describing the direction of the
    velocity vector is easy! The direction of the
    velocity vector is the same as the direction in
    which an object is moving. It does not matter
    whether the object is speeding up or slowing
    down, if the object is moving rightwards, then
    its velocity is described as being rightwards. If
    an object is moving downwards, then its velocity
    is described as being downwards. Thus an airplane
    moving towards the west with a speed of 300 mi/hr
    has a velocity of 300 mi/hr, west. Note that
    speed has no direction (it is a scalar) and that
    velocity is simply the speed with a direction.

60
Terminal Velocity
  • The terminal velocity of an object falling toward
    the earth, in non-vacuum, is the speed at which
    the gravitational force is pulling downwards and
    an opposing force is faced by the resistance of
    air (resistance) pushing upwards. 9.8 m/s2

61
Acceleration
  • Acceleration is a vector quantity which is
    defined as "the rate at which an object changes
    its velocity." An object is accelerating if it is
    changing its velocity.
  • Sports announcers will occasionally say that a
    person is accelerating if he/she is moving fast.
    Yet acceleration has nothing to do with going
    fast. A person can be moving very fast, and still
    not be accelerating. Acceleration has to do with
    changing how fast an object is moving. If an
    object is not changing its velocity, then the
    object is not accelerating.

62
Strand C Force and Motion
  • Non-contact forces magnetism/gravity
  • Weight v. Mass
  • Series Circuit connecting a circuit in a line
  • Parallel Circuit divide the current among
    different devices

63
Which is parallel? Which is series?
64
Force
  • A force is a push or pull. If an object
    accelerates (speeds up, slows down, or turns), a
    force is acting upon it.
  • The total force felt by an object is called the
    net force.
  • Some force are not visible (i.e. gravity,
    magnetism or earths gravitational field).

65
Forces
  • Balanced forces are two or more forces that
    cancel out each others effects and do not cause a
    change in motion. Net force equals zero.
  • Unbalanced forces exceed zero and therefore cause
    motion.

66
Newtons First Law of Motion
  • Also know as Newtons law of inertia.
  • An object will remain at rest or move with
    constant velocity until it is acted upon by a net
    force
  • Difficult to prove because of friction.

67
Friction
  • The unbalanced force that brings nearly
    everything to a stop.
  • The smoother the surface, the ?
  • Static friction prevents an object from moving
    when force is applied (i.e. pushing something
    heavy or walking).
  • Sliding friction slows an object that can slide
    (i.e. skidding tires, shuffling shoes).

68
Friction
  • Rolling friction needed to make a wheel turn.
    Rolling friction pushes back so that a tire can
    roll forward.
  • Air resistance acts against the direction of
    motion and gets stronger as an object goes faster.

69
Newtons Second Law of Motion
  • An object acted upon by a net force will
    accelerate in the direction of the force
    according to the following equation
  • Acceleration net force/mass
  • a F net/m or F net ma
  • Force is measured in Newtons (N)
  • 1 N 1 kg . m/s2

70
Newtons Third Law
  • For every action, there is an equal and opposite
    reaction.
  • While driving down the road, an unfortunate bug
    strikes the windshield of a bug. Quite obviously,
    this is a case of Newton's third law of motion.
    The bug hit the bus and the windshield hit the
    bus. Which of the two forces is greater the
    force on the bug or the force on the bus?

71
  • Rockets are unable to accelerate in space because
    ...
  • a. there is no air in space for the rockets to
    push off of.
  • b. there is no gravity is in space.
  • c. there is no air resistance in space.
  • d. ... nonsense! Rockets do accelerate in space.

72
A. Earths Shape
B. Earths Gravity
C. Earths Mountains
D. Earths Atmosphere
73
You are Correct!
Why are A, B, and C not correct?
74
Benchmarks SC.C.2.2.4, SC.C.2.2.2, SC.C.2.2.3
F. Ice Block
H. Sand Block
G. Sponge Block
I. Plastic Block
75
You are Correct!
Why are G, H and I not correct?
76
Strand D Processes that Shape the Earth
  • Igneous Rocks formed when magma or lava cools
    and becomes solid.
  • Sedimentary formed when sediment is pressed and
    cemented
  • Metamorphic formed when rock have been changed
    over time with high pressure and temperature

77
Strand D Processes that Shape the Earth
  • Melting hot temperatures deep inside Earth melt
    rocks, forming magma
  • Cooling and Hardening Magma that rises from
    deep inside earth cools and hardens into rock
    (both above/below surface).
  • Weathering and Erosion breaks apart existing
    rocks, forming sediment. Erosion moves sediment.
  • Compacting and Cementing Pressure compacts
    water between particles evaporates.
  • Heat and Pressure melt and squeeze minerals
    changing the minerals or grain size.

78
Rock Cycle
79
Weathering Processes
  • Mechanical Weathering process whereby rock
    physically break down into smaller pieces but do
    not change chemical composition.
  • Chemical Weathering process whereby rock is
    broken down and chemical composition changes.

80
Agents of Mechanical Weathering
  • Ice Wedging water seeps into cracks or joints
    in rocks and freeze.
  • Organic Activity Roots of plants and animals
    burrowing.
  • Abrasion collision of rocks with one another
    because of gravity, running water, or wind

81
Agents of Chemical Weathering
  • Hydrolysis minerals chemically reacting with
    water. Minerals affected may be transported by
    water causing leaching.
  • Carbonation minerals chemically reacting with
    carbonic acid (CO2 H2O)
  • Stalactites on ceiling holding tight (tite)
  • Stalagmites on ground might make it up

82
Agents of Chemical Weathering
  • Oxidation metallic minerals chemically reacting
    with oxygen causing oxidation.
  • Acid Precipitation CO2 precipitation
  • Plant acids weak acids produced by plants

83
Rates of Weathering
  • Rock Composition Quartz is least affected
    limestone is most affected.
  • Amount of Exposure the more exposure the faster
    it will weather
  • Climate Climates with much rainfall and
    freezing contribute most. Very hot or very cold
    little weathering. Moist/humid much weathering.
  • Topography temperature/slope

84
Continental Drift
  • Theory stating that continents moved.
  • Proposed by Alfred Wegener.
  • Evidence included
  • Identical fossil remains on the coast of South
    America and Africa
  • Age and type of rock on the coastline
  • Appalachian mountain chain
  • Glacier debris in Africa and South America

85
Pangaea
86
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87
Seafloor Spreading
  • Suggested by Harry Hess.
  • A break or rift in the earths crust allowing
    magma to go out.
  • Ocean floor Paleomagnetism

88
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89
Plate tectonics
  • Combines continental drift and seafloor spreading
    not only describes continental movement but
    proposes an explanation on why it moves.
  • Two types of earths crust.
  • Oceanic makes up the ocean floor.
  • Continental makes up the continental landmasses.

90
Lithospheric Plates
91
Lithospheric Plates
  • Lithosphere the rigid upper mantle of the
    earths crust.
  • Divergent Boundary Plate moving apart.
  • Convergent Boundary Plates moving toward each
    other.
  • Subduction Zone
  • Plate density
  • Transform fault boundary Plate grind past each
    other.

92
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94
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95
Convection Cells
This is the major theory on how lithospheric
plates move. In which direction is heat flowing?
96
Earthquakes
  • Caused by transform plate boundary movement.
  • Aftershocks
  • Focus is where the earthquake begins.
  • Epicenter is the place directly above the focus.

97
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98
Seismic Waves
  • Primary waves or P waves fastest and first to
    be recorded on a seismograph.
  • Secondary waves or S waves second to be
    recorded on a seismograph.
  • Surface waves or L waves slowest moving waves
    and last to be recorded.

99
Locating an Earthquake
100
Earthquake Measurement
  • Richter scale measures the amount of energy
    released by an earthquake.
  • Largest recorded was 9.6
  • Mercalli scale measures the amount of damage an
    earthquake causes.
  • Measured by Roman numerals I - XII

101
Tsunamis
  • A giant ocean wave usually caused by a major
    earthquake with its epicenter on the ocean floor.

102
Earthquake Safety
  • Before an earthquake, be prepared.
  • During an earthquake, stay calm.
  • After an earthquake, be cautious.

103
Volcanism
  • Any activity that includes the movement of magma
    toward or onto the surface of the earth.
  • Magma versus lava.
  • Vent opening through
    which molten rock flows.
  • Volcano vent and
    volcanic material.

104
Pacific Ring of Fire
105
Hotspots
106
Volcanic Cones
  • Shield Cones broad, gentle sloping
  • Cinder Cones steep slopes caused by explosive
    eruptions
  • Composite or stratovolcano features of both

107
Shield Cones
108
Meteorology
  • Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere.
  • The atmosphere is a layer of gases and particles
    that surround the earth.
  • Influences almost every living thing.
  • Weather is the general condition of the
    atmosphere at a particular place and time.
  • Climate is the general weather condition over
    many years.

109
Composition of Atmosphere
  • The most abundant elements in the air are the
    gases nitrogen (75), oxygen (24) and argon
    (1).
  • The most abundant compounds in the air are the
    gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O).
  • Ozone (O3) is found in the upper atmosphere. It
    absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun.

110
Atmospheric Pressure
  • Gravity pulls the gases of the atmosphere toward
    the earths surface and holds them there.
  • The ratio of the weight of the air to the area of
    the surface on which it presses is called
    atmospheric pressure.
  • Since there is less air at higher altitudes,
    there is less weight pressing down. This explains
    why there is lower atmospheric pressure at higher
    altitudes.

111
Barometer
  • A barometer is an instrument that measures
    atmospheric pressure. Two types mercurial and
    aneroid. Miami averages 30 inches of Hg.

112
Layers of the Atmosphere
  • Four basic layers.
  • Troposphere closest to the earth. Nearly all
    weather changes occur here.
  • Stratosphere second layer from the earth. Most
    of the ozone is found here.
  • Mesosphere known for its significant
    temperature drop.
  • Thermosphere Last layer. Very thin air.

113
Air Pollution
  • Any substance in the atmosphere that is harmful
    to people, animals, plants or property is an air
    pollutant.
  • Main source is the burning of fossil fuels.
  • Gases emitted by the burning of fossil fuels form
    acids when combined with water in the air Acid
    Precipitation.
  • International and federal intervention is needed.

114
Solar Energy
  • All the energy the earth receives from the sun
    travels through space between the earth and the
    sun as radiation.
  • Light is a form of radiation we can however,
    there are many other forms that cannot be seen.
  • The waves that make up all forms of radiation are
    called electromagnetic waves.

115
Electromagnetic Spectrum
116
Electromagnetic Spectrum
117
Scattering
  • Water and dust suspended in the atmosphere
    reflect and bend the suns rays. As a result,
    sunlight comes from all directions.
  • Short wavelengths (blue) are easier to scatter
    making the sky blue.
  • Long wavelengths (red) are last to be scattered
    making the sun red at dawn/dusk.

118
Reflection
  • Of the total amount of solar energy reaching the
    earths atmosphere, about 20 is absorbed by the
    atmosphere.
  • About 30 is scattered back into space or
    reflected by the clouds or surface.
  • About 50 is absorbed by the surface.
  • The different surfaces on earth vary their
    absorption and reflection rate.

119
The Greenhouse Effect
  • Gas molecules in the atmosphere trap heat energy
    and prevent it from escaping back into space. As
    a result the lower atmosphere becomes warm.
  • Essentially, rays come in but cant get out.
  • Similar to a vehicle on a hot day.

120
The Greenhouse Effect
121
Conduction and Convection
  • Not all heating of the atmosphere comes from
    radiation.
  • Conduction has particle to particle contact.
  • Convection involves the movement of gases or
    liquids when they are heated unevenly.
  • Cooler air sinks.
  • Warmer air rises.

122
Winds
  • More solar energy at equator cause a belt of low
    pressure.
  • The poles have colder, heavier air that tends to
    sink.
  • Pressure differences in the atmosphere at the
    equator and at the poles create a general
    movement of air worldwide.

123
Winds
124
Breezes
  • Gentle winds that extend over distances of less
    than 100 km are called breezes.
  • Land surfaces heat up faster and cool more
    rapidly than water surfaces do.
  • During the day, warm air above the land rises and
    the cool air above the water moves in to replace
    it.
  • During the night, vice versa.

125
Atmospheric Moisture
  • The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is
    known as humidity.
  • When the air holds all the water vapor it can, it
    is said to be saturated.
  • The higher the temperature, the more water vapor
    it can hold.
  • Relative Humidity compares the mass of water
    vapor in the air with the amount of water vapor
    the air can hold at that temperature.

126
Atmospheric Moisture
  • A psychrometer, hair hygrometer or electric
    hygrometer are instruments used to measure
    relative humidity.
  • Specific humidity refers to the actual amount of
    water vapor in the air.
  • The temperature to which air must be cooled to
    reach saturation is dew point. Any temperature
    below dew point will cause dew.
  • If the dew point is below the freezing
    temperature of water, water vapor will change
    directly into solid ice crystals, or frost.

127
Dew and frost.
Remember condensation and deposition?
128
Clouds and Fog
  • Clouds and fog are visible masses of tiny water
    or ice particles suspended in the atmosphere.
  • Both originate from water vapor in the air.
  • Not all clouds cause rain.
  • Fog generally forms near the surface of the earth
    when air close to the ground is cooled.

129
Clouds
130
Fog
131
Precipitation
  • Any moisture that falls from the air to earths
    surface is called precipitation.
  • Rain is liquid precipitation. Measured with rain
    gauge.
  • Drizzle if lt .5 mm in diameter.
  • Snow is the most common form of solid
    precipitation.
  • Sleet is ice pellets that form when rain falls
    through a layer of freezing air.
  • Hail is lumps of ice. Can be spherical or
    irregular.

132
Air Masses
  • A large body of air with uniform temperature and
    moisture content is called an air mass.
  • Air masses over polar regions are usually very
    cold and dry.
  • Air masses over tropical regions are usually warm
    and moist.
  • Air masses are classified according to their
    source region.

133
Fronts
  • When two unlike air masses meet, density
    differences usually keep the two air masses
    separate.
  • The boundary that forms between the two air
    masses is called a front.
  • The kind of front that forms depends on how the
    air masses are moving.

134
Types of Fronts
  • Cold front when a cold air mass overtakes a
    warm air mass.
  • A long line of thunderstorms, called a squall
    line, may occur just ahead of a fast moving cold
    front.
  • Warm front when a warm air mass overtakes a
    cooler air mass.
  • Stationary front when two air masses meet and
    neither is displaced.
  • Occluded front when a fast moving cold front
    overtakes a warm front, lifting the warm air
    completely off the ground.

135
Cyclones
  • A severe tropical storm, with windspeeds starting
    at 120km/hr is called a hurricane.
  • In the North Pacific they are called typhoons.
  • A storm accompanied by thunder, lightning and
    strong winds is called a thunderstorm.
  • A tornado is a whirling, funnel shaped cyclone.
  • Tornadoes over the ocean are called waterspouts.

136
Weather Instruments
  • Thermometer measure temperature.
  • Anemometer measures wind speed.
  • Wind vane determines wind direction.
  • Radiosonde instrument package to investigate
    weather conditions in the upper atmosphere.
  • Radar uses radio waves to detect precipitation
    and storms.
  • Supercomputers store weather data, interpret
    data, and forecast.

137
A. Sandy flatlands
C. Underground caves
B. Offshore islands
D. Mangrove swamps
138
Congratulations,
You are correct!
Why are A, B and D not correct?
139
Which of the following did NOT cause the
formation of the Grand Canyon
F. Weathering
H. Water
G. Lava
I. Wind Erosion
140
You are correct!
141
Strand E Earth and Space
  • Tides daily rise and fall of the oceans caused
    mainly by the moon
  • Neap least extreme (happen twice a month)
  • Spring most extreme (happen ?)

142
Astronomy is
  • The study of the universe beyond earth
  • One of the oldest branches of science
  • Ancient Babylonians charted the positions of
    planets and stars 4,000 years ago.
  • Modern astronomers use telescopes and other
    instruments.

143
Stars
  • A star is a body of gases that gives off a
    tremendous amount of energy in the form of light
    and heat.
  • Stars can vary in size, shape, and color.
  • Distances between the stars and earth are
    measured in light-years a light year is the
    distance that light travels in one year.

144
Star Brightness
  • Apparent Magnitude the brightness of a star as
    it appears from the earth
  • Absolute Magnitude the true brightness of a
    star how bright the star would appear if it was
    seen from a distance of 32.6 light-years

145
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
  • The H-R Diagram graphs the surface temperatures
    of stars against their absolute magnitudes
  • Most stars are called Main-Sequence Stars,
    including the sun and other stars in the night
    sky
  • Cool, large, bright stars are Giants or
    Supergiants
  • Hot, small, dim stars are White Dwarfs

146
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
What scale is used here?
147
A Star is Born
  • A star begins as a nebula, a cloud of gas and
    dust.
  • The particles of gas and dust come together, and
    the nebula shrinks in size and begins to spin.
  • The shrinking, spinning nebula flattens into a
    disk of matter called a protostar.
  • When nuclear fusion occurs, a prostar begins to
    generate energy and is classified as a star.

148
The Life of a Star
  • 1st Stage Nebula Protostar Star
  • 2nd Stage Main Sequence Star
  • 3rd Stage Giant/Supergiant
  • 4th Stage White Dwarf
  • 5th Stage Black Dwarf
  • No Black Dwarfs exist yet

149
Star Terms
  • A white dwarf which explodes, releasing energy,
    gas, and dust is a nova.
  • A star that has tremendous energy and blows
    itself apart is called a supernova.
  • A hole in space with gravity so great that not
    even light can escape is called a black hole. It
    is caused by the collapse of a large supernova.

150
Constellations
  • Constellations are star patterns that occur in
    shifting, but fixed patterns.
  • Constellations have been used to locate other
    stars in the sky or to guide travelers.
  • Astronomers recognize 88 constellations
  • Many are named after mythical creatures.

151
Constellations
152
Galaxies
  • Galaxies are large-scale groups of stars bound
    together by gravitational attraction.
  • Spiral Galaxies
  • Elliptical Galaxies
  • Irregular Galaxies
  • The Sun is a star in the Milky Way Galaxy, a
    Spiral Galaxy.

153
Spiral Galaxy
154
Elliptical Galaxy
155
Irregular Galaxy
156
The Sun
  • The center of the sun is the core and, like the
    rest of the sun, is made entirely of gas.
  • The process of nuclear fusion, which creates the
    suns energy, occurs in the core.
  • The core is surrounded by the radiative zone and
    the convective zone.

157
The Suns Atmosphere
  • The photosphere (light sphere) is the innermost
    layer of the atmosphere and is often considered
    the surface of the sun.
  • The chromosphere, or color sphere, appears to
    glow with a reddish light.
  • The corona, the outermost layer of the
    atmosphere, prevents the atomic particles from
    the surface from escaping into space.

158
The Suns Composition
159
Solar Activity
  • Sunspots are cool, dark areas of gas within the
    photosphere that are caused by powerful magnetic
    fields.
  • Prominences are clouds of glowing gases which
    form huge arches reaching above the suns surface.

160
Solar Activity, cont.
  • Solar flares are sudden outward eruptions of
    electrically charged atomic particles.
  • Auroras are bands of light that appear in the sky
    after magnetic storms.

161
The Solar System
  • Includes the sun and the bodies revolving around
    the sun.
  • There are 9 major bodies, or planets, that orbit
    the sun.
  • Copernicus suggested a heliocentric, or
    sun-centered universe, in the 1500s. Before, most
    people believed that the sun, planets, and
    stars orbited around the earth.

162
The Inner Planets
  • Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the four
    planets closest to the sun and are known as the
    Inner, or Terrestrial, planets.
  • All of these planets consist mostly of solid
    rock, with a metal core. These planets have no
    rings and a maximum of two moons.
  • The inner planets have impact craters, which
    resulted from the collisions of the planets with
    objects made of rock.

163
Mercury
  • Planet closest to sun
  • Does not have any moons
  • Probably has not changed much since the creation
    of the solar system
  • Has a thin atmosphere because it is so close to
    the sun and so small
  • Huge temperature range (-173C - 427C)

164
Venus
  • Second planet from the sun
  • Sometimes called the earths twin they are
    almost the same size, mass, and density.
  • Average surface temperature is 435C too hot to
    support life
  • May have been oceans and volcanoes on Venus
  • Atmosphere is 96 CO2

165
Earth
  • Fifth largest planet
  • Has one moon
  • Active Geologic History
  • Only planet with known life
  • Only planet with oceans abundant H2O
  • Average surface temperature is 14C

166
Mars
  • Has 2 moons
  • Has similar rotation and seasons as the Earth
  • Geologically Active Volcanic Activity
  • Astronomers believe that Mars once had a warmer
    wetter climate

167
The Outer Planets
  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are called
    the giant planets and are some of the largest in
    the solar system.
  • Called the Jovian Planets
  • Larger and more massive than the other planets,
    but they are far less dense
  • Have thick atmosphere made of H2 and He gases
  • Core of rock, metal, and H2O

168
Jupiter
  • Largest planet in the solar system
  • At least 16 moons and 1 ring
  • Liquid metallic core
  • Mostly made of gases
  • Surface is marked by light- and dark-colored
    bands
  • Great Red Spot giant rotating storm that has
    been raging for several hundred years

169
Saturn
  • Has at least 20 moons and several rings
  • Spins rapidly
  • Has bands of colored clouds
  • Less dense than Jupiter
  • Has a very complex system of rings

170
Uranus
  • Has at least 15 moons and 11 rings
  • Unusual Rotation rotates like a rolling ball
  • Greenish color indicates that atmosphere contains
    methane
  • A core of rock and metals is at the
    center of this planet

171
Neptune
  • Has 8 moons and possibly 4 rings
  • Atmosphere made of helium, hydrogen, and methane
  • Very active weather system
  • Great Dark Spot An earth-sized storm is always
    visible in Neptunes atmosphere

172
Pluto
  • Accidental Discovery
  • No longer considered a planet Orbits sun in
    unusually elongated ellipse
  • Made mostly of frozen methane, rock, and ice
  • One moon Charon which is half as large as
    Pluto
  • Pluto could have once been a moon of Neptune,
    based on its size, unusual orbit, and large moon.

173
Order of the Planets
174
Asteroids, Comets, Meteoroids
  • Asteroids are fragments of rock that
    orbit the sun.
  • A comet is a body of ice, rock, dust,
    methane, and ammonia which orbits
    the sun in a long ellipse.
  • A meteoroid is a small bit of rock or metal that
    moves through the solar system
  • A meteor is a meteoroid that enters the earths
    atmosphere.
  • A meteorite is any part of a meteor that remains
    after it hits the earths surface.

175
Halleys Comet
  • A short-period comet that last appeared in 1986.
    It will reappear in 2062.

176
The Moon
  • A body that orbits a larger body is called a
    satellite.
  • The moon is a natural satellite of the earth.
  • The moons gravity is 1/6 less that on earth.
  • The moon has no atmosphere and cannot support
    life.
  • 6 Apollo Spacecraft have visited the moon.
  • Temperature ranges from 170C to 134C.

177
Lunar Surface
  • Highlands of light-colored rock.
  • Dark areas of solidified lava are called maria
    they are the remains of volcanic eruptions.
  • Long, deep channels called rilles run through the
    maria.

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179
Craters
  • Craters are bowl-shaped depressions found on the
    surface of the moon. They were most likely
    created from debris that struck the moon.

180
Eclipses
  • An eclipse occurs when one planetary body passes
    through the shadow of another.
  • When the moon is between the earth and the sun,
    the shadow of the moon may fall upon the earth,
    causing a solar eclipse.
  • A lunar eclipse occurs when then earth is
    positioned between the moon and the sun, and the
    earths shadow crosses the lighted half of the
    moon.

181
Strand E Earth and Space
  • Solar Eclipse
  • When moon passes between Earth and sun

182
Strand E Earth and Space
  • Lunar Eclipse
  • When Earth passes between sun and moon

183
Solar Eclipse
184
Lunar Eclipse
185
The Lunar Cycle
  • For much of history, people were able to measure
    the passing of time by keeping track of the
    changing phases of the moon.
  • Eventually, calendars were created to track the
    passing of time.

186
Days, Months, Years
  • A day is the time required for the earth to make
    one rotation on its axis 24 hours.
  • A lunar month is the time required for the moon
    to go through one cycle of phases as it orbits
    the earth 29.5 days.
  • A solar year is the time required for the earth
    to make one orbit around the sun 365.24 days.

187
How do we get our seasons?
188
Strand E Earth and Space
  • Satellite object that revolves around a larger
    object in space
  • Moons are natural satellites
  • Artificial satellites serve technological
    purposes
  • Difference between probe and satellite?

189
F The shape of the orbit
G The closeness of Mars
H The presence of a moon
I The distance from the Sun
190
You are correct!
Why are F, G and H not correct?
191
Strand F Processes of Life
  • Biology is the scientific study of living things.
  • There are more than 2 million species of living
    things on the earth. They range in size from
    microscopic bacteria to huge blue whales and
    towering redwood trees.
  • Living things also differ greatly in where and
    how they live.

192
Processes of Living Things
  • Characteristics include made up of cells,
    reproduce, grow, obtain and use energy, and
    respond to the environment.
  • Other characteristics may include need water,
    composed of many chemical substances and are
    highly organized, have a definite structure and
    size, have a definite life-span, show adaptation,
    evolve, or change, over long periods of time.

193
Levels of Organization
  • Levels of organization
  • Subatomic Particles -gt Atoms -gt Molecules -gt
    Cells -gt Tissues -gt Organs -gt Organ Systems -gt
    Organism -gt Population -gt Community -gt Ecosystem
    (Biome) -gt Biosphere

194
Levels of Organization
  • Population the simplest grouping of organisms
    in nature (all the frogs in a pond).
  • Community all the populations of different
    organisms within a given area (all the animals in
    the pond).
  • Ecosystem (biome) geographic area that has a
    particular type of community (abiotic/biotic).
  • Biosphere portion of the earth in which living
    things exist (lithosphere/hydrosphere/
    atmosphere).

195
Fields of Biology
  • Traditionally, biology has been divided into two
    major fields. Botany deals with plants, and
    zoology with animals. Botany and zoology are
    further divided into various branches and
    specialized areas of study. But most branches of
    biology--for example, anatomy (the study of the
    structure of living things) and genetics (the
    study of heredity)--apply to both plants and
    animals.

196
Breaking it Down . . .
  • Biology may also be divided into ecology,
    physiology, and systematics. Ecology deals with
    the relationships among living things and between
    organisms and their environment. Physiology
    concerns life functions, such as digestion and
    respiration. Systematics, also called taxonomy,
    is the scientific classification of plants and
    animals.

197
Why is Biology Important?
  • Biological research has greatly affected people's
    lives. For example, farm production has soared as
    biologists have helped develop better varieties
    of plants and new agricultural techniques.
    Biologists also work in industry, especially the
    pharmaceutical and food industries.
    Biotechnologists develop new methods for the
    preparation of products using microorganisms.
    Discoveries in biology have enabled doctors to
    prevent, treat, or cure many diseases. Research
    on the relationships between living things and
    their environment has helped in the management
    of wildlife and other natural
    resources.

198
Prokaryote v. Eukaryote
  • Prokaryote a single celled organism without a
    nucleus
  • Eukaryote - a single-celled or multi-cellular
    organism whose cells contain a distinct
    membrane-bound nucleus.

199
Nutrition
  • Autotrophs organisms that can make their own
    food. Can photosynthesize. Directly or indirectly
    produce food for heterotrophs.
  • Heterotrophs Must obtain food.
  • Herbivores feed on plants.
  • Carnivores feed on animals
  • Predators attack and kill prey
  • Scavengers feed on dead animals they find
  • Omnivores feed both on plants and animals
  • Saprobes obtain nutrients by breaking down the
    remains of dead plants and animals. Bacteria and
    fungus fall into this group.

200
Changes over time
  • Fossils physical remains of organisms.
  • Natural selection the process of organisms to
    change over time.
  • Adaptation a characteristic or trait that helps
    an organism survive in its environment.
  • Genetic variation variety in offspring.
  • Mutation greater variation or random changes.
  • Extinction When the organisms die.
  • Mass extinction many species die at one time.

201
Symbiotic Relationships
  • Relationships in which two different organisms
    live in close association to the benefit of at
    least one of them.
  • Mutualism both organisms benefit
  • Commensalism one organism benefits, the
    other remains unaffected
  • Parasitism one organism
    benefits, the other is harmed

202
Specializations
  • Biology is such a broad subject that most
    biologists specialize in some area of study.
  • Zoology study animals
  • Marine Biology study life in the oceans
  • Herpetologist study reptiles
  • Ichthyologist study fish
  • Microbiology study viruses
    and very small things.

203
Strand F Processes of Life
  • Skeletal framework/support
  • Muscular muscles/help things inside your body
    move (voluntary/involuntary)
  • Digestive breaks down food into substances the
    body can use
  • Excretory removes wastes
  • Respiratory getting O2 into body
  • Circulatory transports needed substances and
    carries away waste

204
  • Nervous controls and coordinates the bodies
    activities
  • Endocrine regulates the bodies activities by
    producing hormones
  • Immune protects body against disease
  • Reproductive system involved in creating a new
    organism

205
  • Mitosis cell division/complete process of
    copying and dividing the whole cell
  • Plant cell v. Animal cell Plant cells can have
    all the animal cells structures and a cell wall
    and chloroplasts.

206
What kind of cell is this?
207
Strand F Processes of Life
  • Osmosis diffusion of water across a membrane
  • Diffusion movement from an area of higher
    concentration to lesser concentration

208
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209
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum makes proteins and
    transports materials
  • Mitochondria transforms the energy from the
    food into a source cells can use powerhouse
  • Nucleus contains cells DNA
  • Ribosomes puts proteins together
  • Golgi Bodies helps package and distribute
    products within the cell

210
  • Cytoplasm gel-like fluid that takes up most of
    the space inside a cell
  • Cell wall stiff outer barrier of plant cell
  • Vacuoles holds waste products
  • Cell membrane structure that surrounds the
    cytoplasm of a cell
  • Nuclear membrane structure that surrounds the
    nucleus of a cell
  • Chloroplast contains chlorophyll

211
Strand F Processes of Life
  • Sexual Reproduction combining cells from two
    different parents (gametes)
  • Asexual Reproduction one parent organism
  • Traits inherited from parent
  • Dominant allelle if present, determines trait
  • Recessive allelle masked if dominant allelle is
    present

212
Strand F Processes of Life
  • Genotype set of genes carried by an organism
  • Phenotype physical appearance of an organism
  • Homozygous TT or tt
  • Heterozygous - Tt

213
Strand F Processes of Life
  • Punnett Square used to predict what traits
    offspring will have

214
  • Adaptations structures, behaviors, or other
    traits in an organism that help it to survive in
    its environment.
  • Ie spiny leaves for cacti to reduce water loss
  • Beak shapes for types of seeds available
  • Normal differences within species is genetic
    variation.
  • Random changes are mutations and can be harmful.
    Ie a brown polar bear.

215
  • Fossils plant and animal
  • Pangeae
  • History of Earth

216
A bones
C heart
B ears
D lungs
217
You are Correct!
Why are A, B and D are not correct?
218
Strand G How Living Things Interact with their
Environment
  • Virus microscopic particle that can infect the
    cells of an organism. They replicate themselves
    only by infecting a host cell.

219
Organism Classification
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

220
Classification of Living Things
  • Monera small, simple single prokaryotic cell
  • bacteria, blue-green algae, and spirochetes
  • Protista large, single eukaryotic cell
  • protozoans and algae of various types
  • Fungi multicellular filamentous form with
    specialized eukaryotic cells
  • funguses, molds, mushrooms, yeasts, mildews, and
    smuts
  • Plantae multicellular form with specialized
    eukaryotic cells do not have their own means of
    locomotion
  • mosses, ferns, woody and non-woody flowering
    plants
  • Animalia multicellular form with specialized
    eukaryotic cells have their own means of
    locomotion
  • sponges, worms, insects, fish, amphibians,
    reptiles, birds, and mammals

221
  • Biotic Factor living things or their materials
    that directly or indirectly affect an organism in
    its environment
  • Abiotic Factor non-living physical/chemical
    factors which affect organisms in its environment
    (light, temperature, type of soil/rock, ph level,
    water availability, pollutants)

222
The Water Cycle
  • The continuous movement of water from the earths
    atmosphere to the earths surface and back to the
    atmosphere again.
  • Also known as hydrologic cycle.

223
Water Cycle Processes
  • Evaporation process by which liquid water
    changes into water vapor (86 from ocean 14
    from freshwater sources).
  • Transpiration process by which plants give off
    water vapor into the atmosphere.
  • Evaportranspiration combined processes of
    evaporation and transpiration.

224
Water Cycle Processes
  • Condensation expanding/cooling causing cloud
    formation.
  • Precipitation process by which water falls from
    clouds to the earth (i.e. rain, snow, sleet,
    and/or hail). About 75 of precipitation lands on
    the ocean.

225
  • Runoff water that flows over the land into
    streams and rivers.
  • Groundwater water that soaks deep in soil and
    rock

226
Water Budget
  • Continuous cycle of evapotranspiration,
    condensation and precipitation.
  • Local water budget is usually not balanced.
  • lt evapotranspiration gt precipitation flooding
  • gt evapotranspiration lt precipitation drought

227
Water Conservation
  • Water uses and increased demand.
  • 90 of water used by cities/industries is
    returned as waste water.
  • Water Conservation
  • Finding other sources/Desalination (removing
    salts from ocean water).

228
The Water Cycle
229
The Oxygen Cycle
  • Natural process that maintains the chemical
    balance of oxygen in the atmosphere.
  • Animals, bacteria, plants, forest fires, burning
    of fuels (industry) consume oxygen.
  • Land and ocean plants produce large quantities of
    oxygen during daylight.
  • The oxygen content is in a state of balance.

230
The Oxygen Cycle
231
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • This process maintains the amount of nitrogen in
    the atmosphere.
  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil and roots remove
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