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Birth of the Cold War Era

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Birth of the Cold War Era #2 Eisenhower, McCarthyism, and The Cold War – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Birth of the Cold War Era


1
Birth of the Cold War Era
  • 2 Eisenhower, McCarthyism, and The Cold War

2
  • Essential Question
  • How the Cold War increase fears in the United
    States?
  • Warm-Up Question
  • Consider the numerous events in the Cold War
    create a scoreboard to show how many points
    the USA USSR have by 1950. Who is winning?

3
The Cold War by the 1950s
  • In the 1950s, Cold War tensions led to anxiety
    fear in America
  • The USSR dominated Eastern Europe China fell to
    communism
  • The Korean War almost led to a full-scale war
    with China
  • The U.S.-Soviet atomic arms race led to fears of
    a nuclear attack
  • The discovery of Soviet spies in the U.S. led to
    a new Red Scare

4
The Red Scare
From 1947-1951, 3.2 million govt employees were
investigated 212 were dismissed as security
risks (2,900 resigned rather than face
investigation)
  • During the Red Scare, the govt became concerned
    about the growth of communism in America
  • The Loyalty Review Board was created to
    investigate dismiss disloyal govt employees
  • The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
    investigated suspected communists in the
    entertainment other industries

5
In 1947, numerous Hollywood writers executives
were investigated by HUAC 500 were blacklisted
from the film industry some were sent to
prison for refusing to testify (the Hollywood
Ten)
6
The Red Scare
  • Red Scare fears in America were heightened by the
    discovery of spies working for the USSR
  • State Dept employee Alger Hiss who was eventually
    convicted of spying for the USSR
  • Ethel Julius Rosenberg were convicted
    executed for passing atomic bomb secrets to the
    USSR

7
Alger Hiss
Julius Ethel Rosenberg
8
McCarthyism Activity
  • Examine the document titled McCarthys Telegram
    to Truman answer the questions provided
  • After a brief class discussion, read Trumans
    Response answer the questions provided

9
McCarthyism
  • In 1950, Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy
    emerged as the leader of anti-Communism in the
    U.S.
  • He attacked Truman the Democrats for allowing
    communists to infiltrate the govt
  • He used public trials to make unsupported
    accusations against suspected communists in the
    State Dept the U.S. military

10
McCarthyism in Action
  • McCarthys attacks lasted 4 years
  • But McCarthyism did not result in a single
    confirmed Communist or spy in the U.S. govt
  • McCarthy was briefly popular but by 1954, the
    Senate American public grew tired of his
    bullying techniques McCarthyism faded

11
  • Essential Question
  • How did the Cold War evolve by the 1950s how
    did President Eisenhower respond to these foreign
    policy challenges?
  • Warm-Up Question
  • What was the Red Scare?
  • What was HUAC?
  • How did Joe McCarthy increase the tensions of the
    Red Scare?

12
Eisenhower the Cold War
  • In 1952, World War II hero Dwight Eisenhower was
    elected president
  • At home, he tried to promote the good times
    of the 1950seconomic boom
  • In foreign policy, he took a strong stand
    against Communism

13
Brinksmanship
  • Eisenhower began a New Look to fight the Cold
    War
  • He invested heavily in new long-range nuclear
    missiles (ICBMs)
  • In foreign policy, he used veiled threats of
    nuclear war to achieve his goals (called
    brinksmanship)
  • In case of a Soviet attack, the U.S. would use
    massive retaliation thus making the use of
    nuclear weapons unlikely on either side

14
The stockpiling of ICBMs
Nuclear submarines
15
What are the stakes of war? Massive
Retaliation?Mutual Assured Destruction?
16
Americans were anxious by the threat of nuclear
war built fallout shelters for protection
17
Eisenhower the Cold War
  • In response to the threat of a Soviet nuclear
    attack, Eisenhower pushed Congress to create the
    Interstate Highway System in 1956
  • 41,000 miles of divided highway to connect major
    U.S. cities
  • In addition to helping promote trade travel,
    these highways were vital to evacuate cities
    during a nuclear attack

18
Interstate Highway System
19
Covert CIA Operations
  • In addition to relying on nuclear weapons,
    Eisenhower increased the role of the CIA in
    foreign policy
  • The CIA spied on foreign nations carried out
    covert operations to weaken communist governments
  • The CIA led successful coups in Iran Guatemala
    and tried to overthrow Fidel Castro in Cuba

20
The Eisenhower Doctrine
In 1957, the president issued the Eisenhower
Doctrine, pledging the USA to protect the Middle
East from Communism
  • After Stalins death in 1953, new Soviet leader
    Nikita Khrushchev began to challenge U.S.
    influence
  • In 1955, the USSR formed the Warsaw Pact alliance
  • In 1956, the Soviet military violently suppressed
    an anti-communist revolt in Hungary
  • In 1956, the USSR began to make moves towards the
    Middle East

21
Sputnik the Space Race
  • In 1957, the USSR launched the 1st space
    satellite, Sputnik I
  • People feared that the U.S. had lost its
    competitive edge
  • The National Aeronautics Space Administration
    (NASA) was formed in 1958 to catch up to the
    Soviets
  • National Defense Education Act was created to
    promote math, science, technology education

Advanced placement (AP) classes were created as a
result of the NDEA
22
The space race intensified the Cold War
between USA USSR
The Original Seven NASA Mercury Astronauts
23
Eisenhower the Cold War
  • Eisenhower failed to thaw the Cold War by the end
    of the 1950s
  • In 1960, an American U-2 plane was shot down over
    the USSR proving we were spying on Russia
  • He was unable to negotiate with the USSR weapons
    reduction
  • Before leaving office, he warned against
    overspending on defense (Military Industrial
    Complex)

24
Francis Gary Powers the U-2 Incident
25
Conclusions
  • By 1960, the Cold War remained the major focus of
    U.S. foreign policy
  • Truman contained communism in Europe while
    Eisenhower used the CIA brinksmanship to limit
    Soviet global influence
  • But, Americans remained anxious due to
    McCarthyism, threats of nuclear war, increasing
    govt spending on defense

26
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27
Closure Activity
  • Compare contrast the Cold War policies
    actions of Presidents Truman Eisenhower
  • List the events and/or policies that each
    president faced
  • When you compile your list, which president was
    the better Cold Warrior? Explain
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