The Human Body: An Orientation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Human Body: An Orientation PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 8067b0-YWIzM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Human Body: An Orientation

Description:

The Human Body: An Orientation Author: ERIKA REIN Last modified by: ERIKA REIN Created Date: 8/3/2010 10:46:13 PM ... Levels of Structural Organization: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:100
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 25
Provided by: ERIKA205
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Human Body: An Orientation


1
The Human BodyAn Orientation
  • Chapter 1 (Unit 1)

2
An Overview of AP
  • Anatomy
  • Study of the structure of body parts and their
    relationship to one another
  • Physiology
  • Study of the function of the the bodys
    structural machinery
  • Unifying Concepts
  • Complementarity of Structure and Function
  • Hierarchy of Structural Organization
  • Homeostasis

3
Topics of Anatomy
  • Gross (Macroscopic)
  • Regional
  • Systemic
  • Surface
  • Microscopic
  • Cytology
  • Histology
  • Developmental
  • Embryology

4
Topics of Physiology
  • Sub-divisions generally consider the operation of
    specific organ systems
  • Renal physiology
  • Neurophysiology
  • Cardiovascular physiology
  • Focus is often at the cellular or molecular level

5
Complementarity of Structure Function
  • What a structure can do depends on its specific
    form
  • Bones support and protect body organs b/c they
    contain hard mineral deposits
  • Lungs serve as a sight for gas exchange because
    the walls of their air sacs are extremely thin

6
Levels of Structural Organization
7
Summary of the Bodys Organ Systems
  • Integumentary
  • Skeletal
  • Muscular
  • Nervous
  • Endocrine
  • Cardiovascular
  • Lymphatic/Immunity
  • Respiratory
  • Digestive
  • Urinary
  • Reproductive

8
Necessary Life Functions
  • Maintaining Boundaries
  • Movement
  • Responsiveness (Irritability)
  • Digestion
  • Metabolism
  • Excretion
  • Reproduction
  • Growth

9
Survival Needs
  • Nutrients
  • Oxygen
  • Water
  • Appropriate temperature
  • Appropriate atmospheric pressure

10
Homeostatic Control
  • Body communication carried out by the nervous
    system (electrical impulses) the endocrine
    system (hormones)
  • Three interdependent components are involved in
    regulation of a variable
  • Receptor
  • ? (Afferent pathway)
  • Control Center
  • ? (Efferent pathway)
  • Effector

11
(No Transcript)
12
Feedback Mechanisms
  • Negative Feedback
  • Withdrawal reflex
  • Body temperature
  • Control of blood glucose (insulin/glucagon)
  • Heart rate
  • BP
  • Rate depth of breathing
  • Positive Feedback
  • Blood clotting
  • Enhancement of labor contractions during birth

13
Negative Feedback Loop
14
Positive Feedback Loop
15
Homeostatic Imbalance
  • Age decreases the efficiency of body control
    systems and disrupts feedback mechanisms
  • Negative feedback mechanisms decline
  • Positive feedback mechanisms occur more often
  • As a result internal environment becomes less
    stable
  • This leads to increased risk of illness as well
    as the changes associated with aging

16
Anatomical Position and Directional Terms
  • Anatomical Position
  • Directional Terms
  • Used to explain where one body part is in
    relation to another

17
Axial v. Appendicular Regions
18
Orientation Directional Terms
  • Intermediate between a more medial and more
    lateral structure
  • Superficial toward or at the body surface
  • Deep away from body surface, more internal

19
Regional Terms
20
Body Planes Sections
Horizontal a.k.a. Transverse
Horizontal Section a.k.a Cross Section
Oblique sections diagonal between horizontal
and vertical
21
Body Cavities
22
Serous Membranes
23
Additional Body Cavities
  • In addition to the large body cavities are
    several smaller cavities. These are mostly in
    the head and open to the body exterior
  • Oral Digestive Cavities
  • Nasal Cavity
  • Orbital Cavities
  • Middle Ear Cavities
  • Synovial Cavities

24
Abdominopelvic Regions Quadrants
About PowerShow.com