Module 6 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Module 6 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 80583e-YzVhN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Module 6

Description:

Module 6 Impacts of Tragedies and Society Brief History of OSH Hippocrates (460-377 BC) Pliny the Elder (23-70 AD) Ulrich Ellenborg (1473) A German physician, he ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:42
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: dwa129
Learn more at: http://dhuizenteachingportfoliowmu.weebly.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Module 6


1
Module 6 Impacts of Tragedies and Society
  • Brief History of OSH
  • Hippocrates (460-377 BC)
  • Pliny the Elder (23-70 AD)
  • Ulrich Ellenborg (1473)
  • A German physician, he recognized the dangers of
    metal fumes, described symptoms and preventive
    measures.

2
History of OSH
  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)
  • Paracelsus is best known today as the Father of
    Toxicology because of his observations of dose
    and response
  • All substances are poisons there is none which
    is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a
    poison and a remedy.

3
History of OSH
  • Agricoloa (1494-1555)
  • He noted the need to provide ventilation for
    miners
  • Some mines are so dry that they are entirely
    devoid of water and this dryness causes the
    workmen even greater harm, for the dust, which is
    stirred and beaten up by digging, penetrates into
    the windpipe and lungs, and produces difficulty
    in breathing and the disease the Greeks call
    asthma. If the dust has corrosive qualities, it
    eats away the lungs and implants consumption in
    the body. In the Carpathian mountains women are
    found who have married seven husbands, all of
    whom this terrible consumption has carried off to
    a premature death.

4
History of OSH
  • Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714)
  • Italian physician, known as the patron saint of
    industrial medicine.
  • His book,The Diseases of Workmen, described the
    symptoms of mercury and lead poisoning and issues
    with silica
  • . Advised physicians to learn about occupational
    diseases by studying the work environment, and
    exhorted them to always ask their patients Of
    what trade are you?

5
History of OSH
  • Sir George Baker (1722-1809)
  • Discovered that Devonshire colic was caused by
    lead contamination in cider.
  • Percival Pott (1714-1788)
  • A London physician, he was the first to link
    occupational exposure to cancer.
  • Scrotal cancer among chimney sweeps, caused by
    soot
  • Sir Humphry Davy (1788-1829)
  • Investigated problems of mine explosions and
    developed the first miners safety lamp.

6
History of OSH
  • Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970)
  • First woman faculty member at Harvard University
    (1919).
  • A social activist who worked to improve
    occupational health and safety.
  • Her autobiography Exploring the Dangerous
    Trades details her experiences in the mines and
    mills across America (for example, she writes of
    deplorable conditions in Salt Lake City area
    mines).
  • http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/hamilton/hamhist.html

7
Question???
  • Why do we think or believe work is not risky
    (unsafe)?
  • Think Sandman
  • When do We learn of Occupational Safety
    Incidents?

8
US OSH Tragedies and Effects
  • 1860 Pemberton Mills - Lawrence MA.
  • Mill Collapses 145 Deaths 166 Injured
  • 1878 Washburn Mill - Minneapolis MM
  • 18 Killed Flour Dust Explosion
  • Leveled 7.5 story building
  • 1900 Pleasant Valley Coal Mine
  • 200 Workers killed (Black Powder Explosion)
  • 1902 Fraterville Coal Mine - Coal Creek TN
  • 194 Men and boys - Methane Explosion

9
Tragedies
  • 1907 - Monongah WV Monongah 6 and 8
  • 362 0f 380 Men and Boys working that day died
  • 3200 miners lost their lives of 14,000 Workers in
    US
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v8Nq2ryRSdpk

10
Tragedies
  • 1911 - Triangle Shirtwaist Company
  • The Triangle Shirtwaist Company was a New York
    City sweatshop where dozens of mostly young
    female immigrant workers crowded together to cut
    and sew shirtwaists
  • http//video.pbs.org/video/1817898383/\

11
Tragedies
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
  • The tragedy led to 36 laws reforming the state
    labor code
  • http//www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/legacy/ind
    ex.html

12
Tragedies
  • 1913 Stag Canon Coal Mine Dawson NM
  • 261 out of 284 die in mine, 2 rescue Workers
  • Dust Explosion
  • 1930s Hoover Dam Boulder City NV
  • 112 deaths
  • 42 died of pneumonia
  • CO exposure diversion tunnels
  • Compared to 11 on Golden Gate Bridge Construction
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vKLRCZAXfEa4

13
Tragedies
  • 1927 - 1935 Hawks Nest Tunnel Disaster
  • Americas worst industrial disaster
  • Construction of the Hawks Nest tunnel near Gauley
    Bridge, West Virginia, caused massive exposures
    to silica dust
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vR2BaqHo07cQfeature
    related

14
Tragedies
  • At least 476 men died estimates as high as 1500
    deaths by silicosis
  • Most victims were African-American men given the
    undesirable work in the tunnel
  • Silica exposures were so high men were dying from
    acute silicosis from only two months exposure
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vtMmBsXzkj4I

15
Tragedies
  • 1944 Port Chicago CA
  • 320 killed when 4600 tons of munitions explode
    loading a ship.
  • 1944 East Ohio Gas Co. Cleveland Ohio
  • 130 die as result gas exploding in sewers in
    residential area

16
Tragedies
  • 1947 S.S. Grandcamp Texas City TX
  • Explosion following fire of Ammonium Nitrate
    (fertilizer)
  • 581 killed (entire fire department from Texas
    City)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vTworcINhDhQ
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?NR1vV8_KaWg5bI8

17
Tragedies
  • 1965 Titan II Missile Silo Searcy AK
  • Electrical fire and explosion trapped and killed
    53 inside silo.
  • 1968 - Farmington WV
  • 78 miners die coal dust explosion
  • 1978 Willow Island WV
  • Coal Power Plant Cooling tower collapses during
    construction. 51 Killed
  • 1979 Three Mile Island Harrisburg PA
  • No loss of life?
  • Environmental Contamination

18
Tragedies
  • 1984 Union Carbide Bhopal India
  • Methyl Isocynate Gas Leak
  • Varying estimates, 3000 killed, other another
    11,000 related to gas leak
  • 2006 500,000 injuries, 38,000 temporary partial
    disability, and 3900 severe permanent disability

19
Tragedies
  • 1984 Union Carbide Bhopal India
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vuz73rcdSG80
    (3351)

20
Tragedies
  • 1985 Union Oil Romeoville IL
  • Refinery Explosion
  • 17 deaths
  • 1988 Oil Rig Piper Alpha North Sea
  • Explosion
  • 167 deaths
  • 1989 Phillips Chemical Pasadena TX
  • Explosions kills 23 injures 314

21
Tragedies
  • 1991 Imperial Foods Hamlet NC
  • Flash fire
  • 25 workers killed 54 injured

22
Tragedies
  • 2005 British Petroleum, Texas City TX
  • Broken Safety Devices
  • 15 killed 170 Injured
  • http//www.csb.gov/investigations/detail.aspx?SID
    20Type2pg1F_InvestigationId20
  • (320)
  • OSHA issues record breaking fines to BP -
    87,430,000 in proposed penalties to BP for the
    company's failure to correct potential hazards
    faced by employees. The fine is the largest in
    OSHA's history. The prior largest total penalty,
    21 million, was issued in 2005, also against BP.

23
Tragedies
  • 2008- Imperial Sugar, Port Wentworth GA
  • Combustible Dust Explosion
  • 13 killed 30 injured
  • http//www.csb.gov/investigations/detail.aspx?SID
    6

24
Tragedies
  • 2010 BP Deep Water Horizon
  • 11 fatalities
  • Worst Oil Spill
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vdb9T0XYKhrAfeature
    related
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?NR1vtXnFpkJ9au8

25
Tragedies
  • Significance
  • Tragedies were important in getting our nations
    attention, because death on the job as a normal
    everyday event
  • Example in a single Pennsylvania county, 524
    workers died in one year.

26
Tragedies
  • It took a tragedy to get attention, since death
    on the job was a normal every-day event.

Improvements in Workplace Safety United States,
19001999, MMWR, June 11, 1999 / Vol. 48 / No. 22
27
Tragedies
  • Why do we view occupational incidents resulting
    in a tragedy differently?

28
Social Changes and other Factors
  • Accidents Cheap up until 1900s
  • Able to sue employer
  • Who received compensation
  • Average award

29
Social Changes and other Factors
  • Progressive Era
  • What was it?
  • Reforms to keep up with progress (Modernization)
  • Progressive Era of the1890s through the 1920s.
  • OSH reforms
  • Muckrakers
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vh2ppaJwQ9UMfeature
    related

30
Social Changes and other Factors
  • Organized Labor
  • Labor unions
  • For example, the International Ladies Garment
    Workers Union (ILGWU), established 1900, pushed
    for comprehensive safety and workers
    compensation laws
  • http//www.history.com/videos/history-of-labor-day
    the-fight-to-end-child-labor

31
Social Changes and other Factors
  • Workers Compensation
  • What is it?
  • Protections Afforded - Exclusivity
  • Worker
  • Employer

32
Social Changes and other Factors
  • 1914 - Studies in New York City and Youngstown,
    Ohio
  • Revealed unsanitary conditions and tuberculosis
    among workers, leading to the abolishment of
    sweat shops.
  • 1923 - Studies of the dusty trades
  • Led to the development of industrial hygiene
    sampling equipment.

33
Social Changes and other Factors
  • Professional organizations
  • American Society of Safety Engineers, 1911
  • National Safety Council, 1913
  • American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1939

34
Social Changes and other Factors
  • Economic factors
  • The Great Depression, 1929 through the 1930s
  • Government established labor standards and
    encouraged unions through President Roosevelt's
    New Deal
  • World War II
  • Ended the Great Depression and started a period
    of industrial growth
  • Some gains of recent years were lost due to the
    need to maximize wartime production

35
Social Changes and other Factors
  • Environmental and social activism of the 1960s
    and 1970s
  • Laws protecting workers as well as the
    environment were passed during this socially
    active period
  • http//video.google.com/videoplay?docid-489769052
    0976827985

36
Social Changes and other Factors
  • Are we there yet??
  • Or have we changed location??
  • http//www.democracynow.org/2011/3/25/100_years_af
    ter_triangle_fire_tragedy
About PowerShow.com