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Sports Nutrition

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Title: Sports Nutrition


1
  • Sports Nutrition

2
The Effects of Good Nutrition
  • Gives you vitality and energy
  • Helps you stay at a weight thats right for you
  • Boosts your immune system
  • Prevent some illnesses such as heart disease,
    certain types of cancer and diabetes
  • Delays the effects of aging
  • Builds strong, dense bones
  • Improves sports performance
  • Protects your teeth and keeps gums healthy
  • Enhances your ability to concentrate and possibly
    alter your mood

3
The Effects of Good Nutrition
  • Many foods benefit the physical health of an
    individual, as they are known to have specific
    disease fighting qualities.
  • Tomatoes lower the risk of prostate cancer
  • Broccoli, cauliflower and brussel sprouts can
    help reduce the likelihood of contracting cancer
  • Fish and seafood help to reduce blood pressure
    and steady the hearts rhythm
  • Tea has been found to lower the risk of
    contracting cancer and helps keep the heart
    healthy
  • Red wine helps keep the blood thin and allows a
    smoother flow through the arteries

4
The Effects of Good Nutrition
  • Eat enough food from each of the five food groups
    every day
  • Choose different varieties of foods from within
    each of the five food groups from day to day,
    week to week and at different times of the year
  • Eat plenty of plant foods (rice, cereal, bread
    etc), moderate amounts of animal foods (milk,
    yoghurt, cheese, etc) and small amounts of the
    extra foods, and margarine and oils
  • Drink plenty of water.

5
Enjoy a variety of foods every day
6
Nutrients
  • Nutrients are those essential elements in food
    that we need for life and growth.
  • Over 50 types of nutrients are available in the
    various foods we eat. These different nutrients
    can be grouped into 7 essential categories
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Dietary fibre
  • Water
  • Nutrients are required to perform many needs
  • Supply of energy to the body
  • Normal growth, development and functioning of the
    body
  • Building, repairing and regulation of the
    functioning of cells in the body
  • Resistance to disease and infection

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10
Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates play a vital role in exercise
    performance because they are the most readily
    available source of energy to fuel working
    muscles.
  • Eating adequate carbohydrates is equally
    important for sprint and endurance athletes.
  • Insufficient carbohydrates in the diet may
    compromise performance and cause early fatigue.
  • The more you exercise the greater your
    carbohydrate needs.
  • There are two types of CHOs
  • Complex carbohydrates pasta, rice, potatoes,
    bread
  • Simple carbohydrates fruits, sugar, chocolates,
    biscuits, cakes

11
Protein
  • Is essential for normal growth and development.
  • It plays an important role in the repair and
    recovery of damaged tissue (such as muscle)
  • It acts as a fuel source during exercise only
    when stores are consumed.
  • Athletes require more protein than the
    recommended daily intake for the sedentary
    population, particularly those involved in
    strength programs.
  • Protein intake over the daily requirements is
    converted into and stored as unwanted fat tissue
  • Protein examples include red meat, chicken,
    fish, cheese, eggs, low fat yoghurt,

12
Fats
  • Fat plays an important part in the diet for all
    athletes
  • It provides essential fatty acids and fat soluble
    vitamins necessary to maintain optimal health and
    fitness.
  • Fats are a concentrated source of energy
    providing twice the calories of CHOs and
    protein.
  • Athletes should aim to consume a moderate amount
    of fat without eliminating it all together.
  • There are three types of fats
  • Saturated fats meat, cream, cheese
  • Unsaturated fats olives, nuts, seeds (healthier
    types of fats)
  • Polyunsaturated fats - oily fish, walnuts, sesame
    and pumpkin seeds

13
FLUID AND FUEL PREPERATION
  • The best diet, no matter how good, cant improve
    fitness or sporting skill by itself but a poor
    diet can certainly stop performance.
  • Nutrition requires eating to a lifestyle not just
    a pre-event meal. Remember as an athlete it is
    crucial to prepare the body for the heavy
    requirements of exercise

14
Fluid
  • Most athletes do not properly replace the amount
    of fluid loss during exercise. This results in
    dehydration which negatively affects performance
    and in extreme cases is life threatening.
  • Hints for increasing fluid intake
  • Do not rely on thirst as an indicator for fluid
    needs as it is a poor indicator (especially in
    young children).
  • Monitor your urine the clearer the colour, the
    better hydrated you are.
  • Have drinks readily accessible.
  • Avoid drinking excess caffeine drinks and alcohol
    as they have a diuretic effect and result in
    fluid loss from the body. It is important to
    note that these drinks cause urine to become
    clear and give a false sense of true fluid
    balance.
  • Develop good drinking practices in training as
    a guide drink 150 250 ml every 15 20 minutes
    during exercise.
  • Hot conditions increase the amount of fluid loss
    which is often difficult to replace during the
    event. Therefore it is crucial that fluid intake
    is maximised before exercise (500 -1000 ml per
    hour for 2 -3 hours pre-event)
  • Weigh yourself before and after training /
    competition as weight loss during exercise
    indicates the amount of fluid not replaced due to
    sweating. One kilo of weight loss is equivalent
    to 1 litre of fluid not replaced.
  • Water is suitable for exercise lasting up to 90
    minutes. Sports drinks are better suited for
    extended periods of exercise

15
Things to consider when choosing Sports Drinks
  • Choose something that you like the taste of.
  • Consider the cost powdered drinks are best for
    frequent users.
  • The concentration of sports drinks can be altered
    they are often too concentrated for what the
    athlete requires.
  • Sports drinks are a great aid to recovery after
    exercise but are best used during exercise to
    enhance sports performance.
  • Sports drinks are often labelled high in salt
    to replace the salt lost in sweat and are
    therefore inappropriate for regular use.
  • The acid in sports drinks effects dental health.
    Washing your mouth with water at the end of
    exercise after using a sports drink may minimise
    any possible effects.

16
The Pre-event meal
  • On competition day the pre-event meal serves to
    top up glycogen stores and fluid levels before
    competition. Try using the following as a guide
  • Larger, more substantial meals such as cereals,
    low fat milk, toast and juice should be consumed
    3 4 hours before competition
  • Smaller snacks such as sports bars and sports
    drinks can be consumed 1 2 hours before.
  • Meals and snacks should be high in carbohydrates
    and low in fat.
  • Eat foods that you are comfortable with now is
    not a good time to try new and exotic foods
  • If nerves affect the ability to eat solid foods,
    try smoothies and liquid meal supplements.

17
SUGGESTED PRE-EVENT MEALS
  • Banana sandwiches or rolls
  • Toast with baked beans or tinned spaghetti
  • Low fat yoghurt, custard or creamed rice with
    fruit salad
  • Breakfast cereal with skim milk and fresh or
    canned fruit
  • Mini pizzas or pasta with tomato based sauce for
    lunch or afternoon meals in preparation for
    afternoon or night competitions
  • Pancakes with syrup and a fruit juice or sports
    drink

18
Replacing fuel and fluid during exercise
  • Athletes need to replace sweat loss and maintain
    fuel stores while exercising. If exercising for
    less than an hour the main nutritional goal is
    too drink enough water competing for periods
    longer than this involves replacing carbohydrates
    also.
  • The following may help you plan your fluid and
    fuel intake for exercise
  • Consider the timing of foods and fluids as it
    is important to consume a combination of both
    regularly in endurance events. Aim for about 0.8
    1.0g of CHO per kilo of body weight each hour
    and 750 1000ml of fluid per hour of exercise
  • To meet fluid and CHO needs simultaneously you
    can either use a CHO drink (sports drink) or
    consume a combination of eating and drinking (eg
    water sports drink banana)
  • Athletes not comfortable with consuming solids
    should use liquid meals
  • Find something that is easily digestible,
    convenient and compact as they are practical and
    best tolerated (sports bars, breakfast bars etc
    are excellent choices)

19
Recovery following exercise
  • Optimal recovery is essential and the type and
    timing of foods and fluids is a part of this.
  • The following will assist recovery following
    exercise
  • Consume CHO foods or fluids within 20 minutes of
    completing exercise (and continue consuming 50
    60 g of CHO within the first 2 hours and every 2
    hours until the next meal)
  • Snacks containing nutritious and refined CHO are
    best avoid high fat CHO foods.
  • High CHO supplements (sports drinks or bars) can
    be useful for athletes that are too tired to eat
    or have other commitments eg media commitments.
  • Athletes who have difficulty eating food
    immediately following exercise should drink
    sports drinks and liquid meal supplements.
  • In addition to CHO, protein may help speed up the
    recovery process, particularly in injured
    athletes.
  • Drink fluids until urine is copious and clear.
  • Alcohol should be avoided as it delays recovery.

20
SUGGESTED 50g CARBOHYDRATE SNACKS
Foods
Jam or honey sandwich (2 slices of bread and 1 tblsp of honey/jam)
Banana sandwich or a salad sandwich with a piece of fruit
2 large pancakes with a tablespoon of syrup
1 2 cups of rice / pasta with a low fat topping (tomato based)
1 cup of baked beans or tinned spaghetti with 2 slices of toast
2 breakfast bars
3 muesli bars chocolate, yoghurt or nut based are high fat
1 sports bar on average
1 cup of breakfast cereal, a small banana and 200ml of low fat milk
1 tub of low fat fruit yoghurt and a piece of fruit
3 average pieces of fruit or 2 medium bananas
10 medium dates, 15 apricot halves or 6 7 medium figs
½ cup (60g) or sultanas or raisins

21
In summary
  • Know what you are eating
  • Eat a balanced diet
  • Reduce snack foods that are high in sugar and
    fats instead choosing nutritious options
  • Prepare adequately for competition
  • Refuel as necessary during events
  • Recover appropriately following competition
  • A poor diet can effect your performance

22
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