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Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance.

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Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance. Chapter 8, 9,10 BIOL1400 Dr. Mohamad H. Termos – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Fluid and Electrolytes Balance.


1
Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Micronutrients Flui
d and Electrolytes Balance.
  • Chapter 8, 9,10
  • BIOL1400
  • Dr. Mohamad H. Termos

2
Vitamins
  • Essential organic (carbon containing) substances
  • Needed in small amounts
  • For normal function, growth and maintenance
  • They are not energy yielding molecules

3
Vitamins
  • Vitamins can be classified into
  • 1- Water soluble vitamins such as vitamin C and
    the B vitamins.
  • 2- Fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E
    and K.

4
Vitamins
  • Vitamins are needed in the food because many of
    them can't be synthesized in the human body.
  • Exceptions include
  • - Vitamin A can be synthesized from plant
    pigments
  • - Vitamin D can be synthesized by skin in the
    presence of sunlight
  • - Vitamin K can be synthesized by gut bacteria to
    some extent

5
Vitamin Toxicity
  • Fat-soluble vitamins can accumulate in the body
    and have toxic effects
  • Toxicities of vitamin A are observed most
    frequently, with consumption as little as 3x
    human needs
  • Vitamin E, Niacin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin C can
    become toxic when 15-100 times the amount needed
    is consumed, usually from supplementation

6
The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K
  • Absorption of fat soluble vitamins
  • Absorbed with dietary fat
  • Special carriers in the bloodstream
  • Storage in the liver and adipose tissue
  • 40 to 90 are absorbed when fat absorption is
    efficient
  • Diseases affecting fat absorption, some
    medications and laxatives can negatively affect
    fat soluble vitamin absorption

7
Vitamin A
  • Vitamin A is found in foods in different forms
  • - Retinoids are preformed vitamin A only found in
    animal foods
  • - Plants contain pigments called carotenoids
    (provitamin A) which can be turned into vitamin A

8
Vitamin A Functions
  • Vision
  • - Night vision retinal (form of vit. A) allows
    eyes to adjust from bright to dim light.
  • - Xeropthalmia dry eye, cells of cornea lose
    ability to produce mucus which can eventually
    lead to blindness
  • - Deficiency is second leading cause of blindness
    worldwide

9
  • Vision (cont.)
  • - Macular degeneration
  • - Macula of eye contains carotenoids.
  • - High consumption of these carotenoids decreases
    risk of macular degeneration
  • - Carotenoids may also decrease risk of cataracts

10
Vitamin A- functions (cont.)
  • - Health of other cells
  • - Growth, development, and reproduction
  • - Cardiovascular disease prevention
  • Carotenoids are antioxidants
  • 5 fruits and veggies a day can decrease risk
  • Cancer prevention
  • Vitamin A analogs used for acne treatment.

11
Vitamin A sources and needs
  • - Preformed Liver, fish, fortified milk, yogurt
    and eggs
  • - Provitamin A Dark green and orange vegetables
    and fruits also tomatoes
  • - Consuming high amounts of marine oils can lead
    to toxicity
  • - RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) 700 to 900
    micrograms
  • - Daily Value is 1000 micrograms

12
Vitamin A sources and needs
  • Upper level of vitamin A (The highest tolerable
    level)
  • Upper level is 3000 micrograms of preformed
    vitamin A per day for adult.
  • Can lead to fetal malformations, spontaneous
    abortions, and liver toxicity
  • Carotenoids are not toxic

13
Vitamin D
  • - Also considered a hormone
  • - Skin cells can synthesize Vit D using sunlight,
    90 comes from sun
  • - Experts recommend exposing hands, face and arms
    to the sun for 5-10 minutes, 3 - 5 times per week

14
Vitamin D Functions
  • Regulates calcium and bone metabolism
  • - Regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption
  • - Regulates deposition of calcium and phosphorus
    in bone

15
Vitamin-D Deficiency
  • Rickets
  • Vit. D deficiency in children causes bowed legs
  • Osteomalacia
  • - Bones become porous and weak and break easily
  • - Aging decreases Vit D production in skin by
    about 70

16
Vitamin D
  • Dietary sources and needs
  • - Mostly in fortified milk and yogurt, fatty fish
    and fortified cereals
  • - Also found in eggs and butter.
  • - AI (Adequate Intake) 5 micrograms per day,
    higher for older adults

17
Vitamin D Upper Level
  • - 50 micrograms per day
  • - Causes over-absorption of calcium and calcium
    deposits in kidneys
  • - Weakness, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting,
    and increased urine also symptoms
  • - Not from excessive sun exposure

18
Vitamin E
  • - Antioxidant
  • - Resides in cell membranes
  • - Stops free-radicals from damaging components of
    the cell membranes and DNA
  • - Aids in the formation of red blood
  • - Helps maintain nervous tissue and immune
    function

19
Vitamin E Food sources and needs
  • - Plant oils, cereals, eggs, and nuts
  • - Animal fat has almost no Vit E
  • - Adequate intake 15 milligram per day

20
Vitamin E
  • - Upper level is 1000 mg of supplemental alpha
    tocopherol (most common form of Vit. E)
  • - Can antagonize vitamin K role in blood clotting
    leading to bleeding.

21
Vitamin K
  • Bacterial synthesis in intestines supplies about
    10 of our needs
  • Functions
  • - Blood clotting
  • - Also helps in calcium binding to bones,
    muscles, and kidneys

22
Vitamin K Food sources and RDA
  • - Liver, soybeans and canola oils
  • - Broccoli, peas and green beans
  • - DV is 80 micrograms

23
Water-soluble vitamins and choline
  • - Readily excreted from the body
  • - Very little stored
  • - Includes the B vitamins and C
  • - Choline is a related nutrient but is not
    classified as a vitamin.

24
Thiamin - B1
  • Functions to release energy from carbohydrates
  • Deficiency may lead to enlarged heart and
    sometimes severe edema

25
Thiamin - B1 Food sources and needs
  • - Meats, milk, fish, and cereals.
  • - Daily Value1.5 milligrams.
  • Toxicity unlikely as it is readily excreted
  • No upper limit

26
Riboflavin - B2
  • Functions
  • - Antioxidant
  • - Releases energy from carbohydrates
  • Food sources and RDA
  • Milk, milk products, enriched grains, meat,
    various greens and eggs
  • DV is 1.7 milligrams.
  • No upper limit

27
Niacin - B3
  • - Functions in fat metabolism
  • Deficiency
  • - Pellagra (means rough or painful skin)
  • - Dermatitis and diarrhea
  • Death can occur
  • Food sources and needs
  • - Poultry, beef, tuna/fish, asparagus, peanuts
  • - Also coffee and tea
  • DV is 20 mg and UL is 35 mg

28
Biotin
  • Functions
  • Acts in fat and carbohydrate metabolism
  • Promotes synthesis of glucose, fatty acids, and
    DNA
  • Breaks down certain amino acids
  • Deficiency
  • Scaly inflammation of the skin
  • Changes in tongue and lips
  • Decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting
  • Anemia, depression, muscle pain and weakness
  • Poor growth

29
Biotin
  • Food sources and needs
  • Cauliflower, Egg yolks, Peanuts, Cheese
  • Intestinal bacteria synthesize some biotin making
    deficiency unlikely
  • Avidin in raw egg whites binds biotin and
    inhibits its absorption
  • DV is 300 micrograms
  • No UL

30
Pyridoxine or Vitamin B6
  • Functions
  • - Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
  • - Synthesis of hemoglobin
  • - Maintain healthy brain function.
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • - Depression, vomiting, skin disorders, nerve
    irritation, decreased immune response. Deficiency
    occur in alcoholism
  • Food sources and needs
  • - Meat, fish, and poultry
  • - Cereals, potatoes, and milk
  • Bananas, broccoli, and spinach
  • Need 2 mg, UL 100mg/day

31
Folate
  • Functions
  • - DNA synthesis
  • - Amino acid metabolism
  • Deficiency
  • - Affects red blood cell division because DNA
    cannot form,
  • - Maternal deficiency in first 28 days of
    pregnancy linked to neural tube defects
  • - All women of childbearing years should take
    400mcg of synthetic folate per day

32
Folate
  • Food sources and needs
  • Green leafy vegetables, organ meats
  • Vegetables, dried beans and orange juice
  • Cereals, milk and bread
  • Destroyed by heat and processing
  • DV 400 micrograms
  • Pregnant women need 600 mcg
  • Upper Limit 1 milligram

33
Vitamin B12
  • Characteristics
  • - Synthesized by bacteria, fungus, and other
    lower organisms
  • Functions
  • - Folate metabolism
  • - Maintains brain and spinal cord
  • - Forms red blood cells
  • Food sources and needs
  • - Animal foods - meat, poultry, seafood, eggs,
    milk, and milk products
  • - RDA 2.4 micrograms per day
  • - Toxicity unknown, no UL

34
Vitamin C
  • Characteristics
  • - Found in all living tissues
  • - Most animals can synthesize from glucose
  • - Vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy weakness,
    poor wound healing, bone pain, fractures,
    bleeding gums, diarrhea, and bleeding.
  • Absorption and metabolism
  • - Absorbed in small intestines, 70-90 is
    absorbed
  • - Percent absorbed decreases with increased
    dosage
  • - High intakes can cause diarrhea

35
Vitamin C
  • Functions
  • - Collagen synthesis
  • Highly concentrated in connective tissue, bones,
    teeth, tendons, and blood vessels
  • Wound healing
  • - Antioxidant (water-soluble)
  • Reduce formation of cancer-causing molecules
  • - Enhanced iron absorption
  • - Immune system
  • Vitamin C in large quantities is not shown to
    prevent colds
  • May reduce symptoms

36
Vitamin C
  • Food sources and needs
  • Almost exclusively in fruits and vegetables
  • Lost in processing and cooking
  • DV 60 milligrams
  • Smokers need an extra 35 milligrams per day
  • Risk of deficiency
  • Alcoholism
  • Elderly men
  • Upper Level 2 grams per day
  • Inflammation of the stomach
  • Diarrhea

37
Choline
  • - Now called an essential nutrient but not a
    vitamin
  • - Functions
  • Precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter
    associated with attention, learning, and memory
    muscle control and other functions
  • - Deficiency is linked to liver damage
  • - Food sources and needs
  • Widely distributed in foods
  • Milk, liver, and peanuts
  • Adequate Intake 425 to 550 milligrams per day
  • Upper Level 3.5 grams per day
  • Fishy body odor
  • Low blood pressure
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