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ENERGY Unit

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ENERGY Unit Essential Question: How do we power our lives? Vocabulary Ethanol Biodiesel Natural gas petroleum geothermal energy tidal energy hybrid vehicle – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ENERGY Unit


1
  • ENERGY Unit
  • Essential Question
  • How do we power our lives?
  • Vocabulary
  • Ethanol
  • Biodiesel
  • Natural gas
  • petroleum
  • geothermal energy
  • tidal energy
  • hybrid vehicle
  • methane
  • Fission
  • Fusion
  • Generator
  • Photovoltaic cell
  • Biofuels
  • Fuel cell
  • Electric Motor
  • Standard SEV4. Students will understand and
    describe availability, allocation, and
    conservation of energy resources
  • Differentiate between renewable and nonrenewable
    resources including how different resources are
    produced, rates of use, renewable rates and
    limitations of sources.
  • Describe how technology is increasing the
    efficiency of utilization and accessibility of
    resources.
  • Describe how energy and other resource
    utilization impact the environment and recognize
    that individuals as well as larger entities have
    an impact on energy efficiency.
  • e. Describe the commonly used fuels (e.g.
    fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, etc.) and some
    alternative fuels (e.g. wind, solar, ethanol,
    etc.) including the required technology,
    availability, pollution problems and
    implementation problems. Recognize the origin of
    fossil fuels and the problems associated with our
    dependence on this energy source.
  • f. Describe the need for informed decision
    making of resource utilization

2
http//ogoapes.weebly.com/unit-11--energy-fossil-f
uels-and-alternative-energy-sources.html
draw the pie chart- write all the notes!
  • Energy Use in the U.S.

Residential- cooking, heating/cooling, lights
Industrial- manufacturing of chemicals, mining,
smelting metals
Commercial (businesses serving customers)-
cooking, heating/cooling, lights
Transportation
Vampire Appliance- devices using electricity even
when turned off (flat screen T.V., Play Station,
computer, etc.) Makes up to 10 of electricity
bill
3
  • Electricity Generation
  • Electric generator converts mechanical energy
    into electrical energy

Fossil fuels are burned to heat water to produce
steam turns a turbine generator makes
electricity (magnet spins inside coils of wire
putting electrons in motion
4
draw the pie chart- do not draw renewable
extension section, write the info. in the blue
boxes
in 2004 U.S. had 4.6 of global population used
24 of global energy
Burning fossil fuels accounts for 80 of U.S.
air pollution 80 of CO2 emissions
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vdO9GxdMEGME
5
  • Net Energy
  • total available energy- amount used for locating,
    extracting, processing, transporting it
  • energy out / energy in net ratio
  • Oil has high ratio due to large, accessible,
    cheap to- extract sources mainly in Middle East
  • Nuclear has low ratio due to extracting,
    processing, plant requirements (including
    building dismantling), storage of radioactive
    wastes for 10,000-240,000 yrs

6
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vVXYOOvGLzfI
U.S. has 2.9 of proven oil supply, but is 1
user
Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Iran
World reserves good for about 90-100 years
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries- have 78 of worlds proven oil
-greatest source of global economic power
7
fossil fuels
  • Remains of ancient organisms that contain
    energy-rich
  • carbon-based molecules
  • Coal- swampland plants
  • Oil natural gas -marine organisms
  • Pros Cons

Petroleum oil that is pumped from the ground,
Used in fuels, chemicals, plastics (very
versatile)
efficient cleaner burning, composed of mostly
methane
Nonrenewable, Responsible for air, water, land
pollution, including acid rain, strip mining,
mountain top removal, oil spills
Inexpensive, easily transported, versatile
8
Energy from fossil fuels
studies show considerable oil spills occur,
possible degradation of area not worth the risk

Surface Coal Mining, Wyoming
Pipeline, Alaska
Report from March 12, 2015 stated 5 oil trains
exploded in the previous18 months
Off shore drilling platform, Alaska
Natural Gas Drilling, Texas
9
Wind Pros Produces no air or water pollution,
renewable, Coastal areas and high altitude areas
have sufficient wind speeds to generate
electricity Cons depends on local weather
geography, may affect birds, noise
pollution? 280,000 homes in CA use wind power
optional notes The electric current is sent
through cables down the turbine tower to a
transformer that changes the voltage of the
current before it is sent out on transmission
lines.
10
http//www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_
impacts/impacts/farming-the-wind-wind-power.html
11
Hydroelectricity energy produced from moving
water Pros renewable, no air pollution, cheap
efficient to run, In Accounts for 20 of the
worlds electricity
Cons Expensive to build, causes habitat
fragmentation, flooding, requires fish ladders,
changes to natural river flow, degraded water
quality
  • How a Hydroelectric Plant Works optional notes
  • To make electricity, a dam opens its gates to
    allow water from the reservoir above to spin the
    blades of a turbine. The turbine is connected to
    a generator to produce electricity. The
    electricity is then transported via huge
    transmission lines to a local utility company.

Hoover Dam, Colorado River NV AZ (726.4 ft
x 1,244 ft )
12
  • Geothermal -energy from Earths inner heat

Pro Renewable, releases less carbon dioxide than
fossil fuel plant, scrubber systems cleans out
the hydrogen sulfide, emits 97 less acid
rain-causing sulfur compounds than fossil fuel
plants. Con Vents are limited, can produce
hazardous gases (H2S)
  • Hot water near the Earth's surface can be piped
    directly into
  • buildings and industries for heat, Power plants
    can use steam to turn
  • turbine
  • 2. In 2009, U.S. geothermal power plants produced
    0.4 of total
  • electricity, five States had geothermal power
    plants California,
  • Nevada , Hawaii, Idaho, and Utah
  • 3. Requirements may include
  • pump, turbine, generator

optional notes
13
Biomass
  • Organic matter that can be burned to produce
    heat/ electricity
  • ex. wood, crops, seaweed, animal wastes
  • Methane (made when bacteria decompose organic
    wastes,
  • like in landfills or manure), ethanol (C2H5OH)
  • made by fermenting the sugars found in grains,
    such as corn
  • optional notes Uses- In 2002 Great Britain
    opened the 1st dung powered station, ethanol
    fuels ½ the cars in Brazil

Pros renewable, less air pollution, jobs for
rural communities Cons still makes air
pollution, might require extensive land for
cultivation, for vehicles-lower mpg, not good for
cold weather
Elephant-poo power electrifies zoo http//www.cnn.
com/2011/10/10/world/europe/elephant-dung-biogas-m
unich/index.html
14
  • Tidal (renewable)
  • Pros renewable
  • Caused by gravitational
  • pull, non-polluting, tides change every 6 hours
  • Cons harsh environment,
  • danger to marine organism, expensive,
  • Limited geographically
  • http//inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/a/t
    idal_power.htm

Used in France, Russia, Canada Requires dam,
turbine, generator
15
  • Solar

Active Solar heating requires Photovoltaic or
solar cells which change sunlight directly into
electricity
Passive solar heating -face windows to the south
in the n. hemisphere receive the most solar
energy
Pros Renewable, no air pollutants, minimal
environmental impact Cons expensive, only
suitable for certain locations
16
.
  • Nuclear Fission (nonrenewable) splitting of
    unstable atoms like uranium thorium, atomic
    bomb
  • http//www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/no
    n-renewable/nuclear.html

Requires uranium, neutrons, reactor Pros No air
pollution, Extremely efficient source of power
energy in 1lb uranium 1500 tons of coal Cons
radioactive waste, high start up maintenance
cost , vulnerable to terrorist attacks
Chernobyl (1986)- worst nuclear power plant
accident in world 3-Mile Island (1979)- human
error caused radiation leak
On 6 August 1945, Little Boy" was detonated
over Hiroshima. On 9 August, Fat Man was
exploded over Nagasaki
17
Pripyat
18
The hybrid car gas engine electric motor tends to
be the most energy efficient vehicles available
today,
Fuel cell vehicles zero emissions Substantial
technical hurdles to producing, storing
and distributing hydrogen.
Electric requires batteries, electricity,
electric motor, transmission
Gasoline requires fuel tank, gas, engine,
transmission
19
http//automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/?fromfcx
.honda.com
FYI Space shuttle Fueled with liquid oxygen and
liquid hydrogen, oxygen and hydrogen are mixed
together and ignited to make a very hot fire. The
expanding gases from that fire are what propel
the spacecraft.
20
Biodieselvegetable oil
Pros Cons
Domestically produced Less air pollutants greenhouse gases Biodegradable Can be used in most diesel engines Lower fuel economy More nitrogen oxide emissions May not be suitable for use in low temperatures
21
Energy Conservation Practices
  • Drive less walk, ride bikes, carpool
  • Adjust thermostat (lt68?F) up in summer (gt78 ?F)
  • Turn it off when not in use (use power strips)
  • Shorter showers
  • Compact fluorescent bulbs
  • Recycle
  • Eat locally-grown food
  • Buy long-lasting products

Incentive gov. provides rebates, low interest
loans, tax deductions when people
environmentally friendly products Regulation
Government restrictions on certain chemicals
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