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Imperialism in Africa: The Colonization of a Continent

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* European colonists who first saw the Great Zimbabwe could not believe the Africans, who were considered inferior, could have built these great structures. Video ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Imperialism in Africa: The Colonization of a Continent


1
Imperialism in Africa The Colonization of a
Continent
2
  • European colonists who first saw the Great
    Zimbabwe could not believe the Africans, who were
    considered inferior, could have built these great
    structures.
  • Video Clip
  • Zimbabwe Ruins Through Racist Eyes
  • Zimbabwe__Lost_City_of_Africa_.asf

3
Imperialism
  • Imperialism means to create an empire between
    many countries or regions.
  • In order to create an empire, one country must
    take over another country and make it apart of
    their country.
  • Usually, countries try to create empires to
  • A. gain more land
  • B. gain more or better resources
  • C. gain new people or to gain slaves

4
Northern and Western Africa
Take a look at the map, What 2 continents is
Northern Africa closest too? Who do you think
their most likely trade partners would be? Why
wouldnt they be as likely to trade with North
and South America?
5
Indian Ocean Trade Routes
6
North and Western Africa - civilizations
  • A civilization is a society with cities, a
    government, social classes and usually include
    architecture, writing, and art.
  • The earliest civilizations in Africa rose up
    along the major rivers such as the Nile and the
    Niger rivers.
  • These were powerful kingdoms complete with armies
    and they had trade routes across the deserts.

7
Ever heard of Timbuktu? It was a real kingdom on
the Niger River.
8
The power of the North African kingdoms was based
on trading across the Sinai Peninsula with Asia
and across the Med. With Europe. The power of
the West African kingdoms was based on gold and
salt. Have you ever heard the expression, he is
worth his salt? or He is worth his weight in
gold? Thats how you would get paid back then,
based on your weight and your worth.
9
African Trade Routes
10
Voyages of Exploration
11
Until the 1400s, the Europeans and the Asians
traded fairly with the African kingdoms. But, in
1492, something happened that changed the
world. A man named Christopher Columbus
discovered the Americas. After that, the
Europeans began colonizing and taking over Africa.
12
Slave Trade Begins
  • The Europeans were looking for 3 things in
    Africa
  • Land to expand their empires
  • Natural Resources such as gold, salt, and timber
  • Slaves for their new plantations in the Americas

13
African Slave Trade
14
  • European colonialism in Africa
  • The_Scramble_for_African_Colonies_.asf

15
Colonization of Africa by Europe 1st stop
16
  • In a very short time Europe took over a large
    portion of Africa. They used the spread of their
    advanced society to justify the taking of the
    resources available in Africa.
  • European_Imperialism_in_Africa.wmv

17
(No Transcript)
18
Your turn
  • 1. What were the Europeans looking for in
    Africa?
  • 2. Why did the Europeans go from being merchants
    to being colonizers?
  • 3. What does it mean to colonize another
    country?
  • 4. Why did the European colonizing of Africa
    cause problems?

19
So, what happened after colonization?
  1. The Europeans took natural resources out of
    Africa and didnt pay the people for these
    resources.
  2. The Europeans favored some ethnic groups more
    than others which led to more resentment.
  3. The Europeans did some positive things such as
    establish hospitals, schools, roads, and
    railroads.

20
  • Some of the worst oppression at the hands of the
    Europeans occurred in the Congo. Natives of the
    Congo were forced to harvest ivory and rubber for
    European profit.
  • Video Clip
  • The_Congo_and_The_Heart_of_Darkness.asf

21
Why did colonization end?
  • Wars in Europe caused major damage and money had
    to go to repairs.
  • World War I 1914-1918
  • World War II 1938-1945
  • After world war II, many European countries could
    not afford to keep their colonies.
  • Nationalism A fierce belief in and devotion to
    ones country

22
Nationalism
  • 1. Beginning in the early 1900s many African
    leaders were educated in Europe.
  • 2. These leaders saw the way that things could
    be done and they wanted these things for Africa.
  • 3. These leaders took these ideas back to Africa
    and began several nationalist movements.

23
  • Pan African movement Nationalism
  • The Pan African movement called for all Africans
    to come together and demand their independence.
  • Their hope was that the people of Africa would
    rise up and overcome the Europeans.
  • Beginning in the 1950s and lasting until the
    1970s, African nations slowly began gaining
    their independence.

24
Dates of Independence
25
  • The Road to post colonization hasnt always been
    easy.
  • 1. There was ethnic conflict due to long standing
  • rivalries between ethnic groups.
  • 2. Different ethnic groups competed with one
    another
  • to control their new countries.
  • 3. This sometimes led to genocide the mass
    killing
  • of people from one ethnic, political, or
    religious
  • group.

26
  1. In some countries, this led to civil war.
  2. In other countries, governments put into place
    policies of segregation.
  3. In South Africa, a policy of segregation called
    apartheid or apartness was put into place.
  4. Apartheid separated ethnic groups into 3
    categories white, black, and colored.

27
Apartheid
  1. Blacks and whites did not interact with one
    another unless it was servant to employer.
  2. The best jobs and best education went to the
    white South Africans.
  3. Persons of color (both black and colored) were
    not allowed to hold office.
  4. In 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act assigned
    blacks to a homeland according to their record of
    origin.

28
  • 5. In order for a black to leave their homeland
  • a pass book was required - like a passport.
  • (citizens of these townships could not enter
  • their own country without a pass book)
  • 6. If caught without passbooks, they could go to
  • jail.
  • 7. Life was very hard for the non-whites in
    South
  • Africa.
  • 8. Apartheid lasted from the 1920s until 1990.
  • 9. Nelson Mandela lead peaceful protests against
  • the South African government.

29
  1. Mandela started to doubt that this approach would
    work and started up an armed branch of the ANC.
  2. He was classified as a terrorist by the S.A.
    govt and sent to prison for inciting rebellion.
  3. He was in jail for 27 years before being released
    in 1990 by President F. W. DeKlerk.
  4. In 1994, Mandela was elected as the first black
    president of South Africa.
  5. Although apartheid ended, South Africa is still
    struggling to improve their economy for all
    groups.
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