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The 1st Americans Prehistory - 1600

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Title: The 1st Americans Prehistory - 1600


1
The 1st AmericansPrehistory - 1600
2
So, how did they get here?
  • Most likely on a landbridge, or area where two
    continents were connected together
  • Two Major Landbridge Theories
  • Trans-Atlantic Landbridge
  • Bering Strait Landbridge

3
Trans-Atlantic Landbridge
4
Bering Strait Landbridge
  • More commonly accepted theory
  • Only 18 miles apart from Russia Alaska
  • Rough climate, many rough storms (any Deadliest
    Catch fans?)
  • Most likely terrestrial, not oceanic, route

5
Bering Strait Landbridge
  • Most water trapped in glaciers
  • Less water more land
  • The landbridge, known as Beringia, was an ideal
    climate for vegetation, hunting, herding
  • Some stayed in Alaska most migrated South

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Migration Theories
  • Bird patterns
  • Sailed Pacific coastline
  • Followed herds east, then south via waterways

8
Life Flourishes in the 'New' World
  • Animals in completely 'natural' habitat
  • Abundance of animals hunting flourishes
  • More food More babies
  • Population increases

9
The Bridge is Closed
  • After 10,000 years, landbridge covered by water
    due to climate change
  • Americas isolated for 11,000 years
  • Next confirmed contact Vikings c. 900

Land Bridge Changes - 20,000 BC to Present
10
Pre-Columbian Contact?
  • Some scholars theorize that there was constant
    contact with Natives
  • Cultural diffusion
  • Similar religions, agriculture, forms of
    government
  • Examples Republicanism Greeks,
    Romans Confederacy Iroquois, Mayans, Aztec

11
Sweet Potato!
  • Sweet potatoes, native to the Americas, begin to
    be cultivated in Polynesia c.700
  • How did they get there?
  • Polynesian Trade Triangle

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13
More in common
  • Sweet potatoes first appear in Polynesia around
    700 - 1000 AD
  • Unlikely that the plant could successfully travel
    across ocean by natural means
  • Chickens also introduced to S. America circa
    1300 - 1400 AD, about 100 years before
    firstEuropeans first arrive
  • Chickens closely resemble Asian species in
    American Somoa, unlike European chickens
  • For any account, it's not until post-Columbus
    that Europeans and others begin to settle in
    Americas

14
So, who are these Native Americans?
  • What do they call themselves? -Indians?
    -Natives? -1st Americans?
  • Most simply refer to themselves as the name of
    their tribe -Passamaquoddy - Cherokee
    Mohawk
  • Inuit (in-yoo-it) - the people
  • Heterogenuos
  • Roughly 100 million natives before arrivalof
    Euros.

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Diversity??
  • Extremely diverse, both in culture
    environment -Newfoundland, Mexico, Brazil,
    Maine, Alaska, New Jersey, Colorado, Florida
  • Various forms of govt.- Theocracy, Oligarchy,
    Republic, Confederacy

17
Diversity??
  • Advanced in science, math, astrology, and
    medicine -over 40 of modern pharmaceutical
    ingredients used in America before 1492!!
  • Why is this diversity so important?
  • Because America was so large diverse, it
    threatened every medieval teaching assumption
    about human nature, origin, and destiny
  • Shockwaves sent through European ethnocentrism

18
European Contact A Clash of Cultures
  • Europeans (Columbus) arrive on Hispaniola in 1492
  • 3 month journey at sea tired, delusional, smelly
  • This island does NOT remind them of the India
    from Marco Polo's stories

19
Impressions of Each Other
  • Europeans?
  • Native Arawaks?
  • Can not speak each other's language

20
A Picture is worth a 1,000 Words
21
Montezuma
22
Quick Write
  • What does this quote mean to you? What does it
    say about the different values of the Europeans
    and the Native Americans?
  • Montezuma, Aztec Ruler - What do you do with
    gold? Do you eat it?
  • Cortes, Spanish Explorer - No, we have an
    illness only gold can cure.

23
North American Tribes
  • No standing army
  • Small groups
  • No official boundaries for property, territory
  • Most did not engage in conquest
  • Placed freedom of community above the freedom of
    the individual

24
Difference in Property Ownership
  • Communal property
  • Land was a necessity for survival, and thus could
    not be owned by an individual, only a tribe
  • Leased land

25
European Views of Property
  • Life, Liberty, and Property
  • Private property part of European culture
  • The end of Feudalism marked beginning of private
    property

26
KING
NOBLES
LORDS
Peasants / Commoners
27
Feudal Contract
LORDS
GIVE SERVICE TO
GIVE PROTECTION TO
Common Folk
28
Ask the Class....
  • Native Americans and Europeans had vastly
    different views, beliefs, and practices when it
    came to property use and ownership.
  • What problems/conflictsmight happen because
    oftheir different beliefs in property ownership?

29
Mercantilism
  • Europeans believe in mercantilism, this is their
    main reason for wanting to acquire property
  • Mercantilism More land More More power

30
Make Me a Map
  • In order to claim property, Europeans first
    needed to explore and map their discoveries

31
Land Conflicts
  • Native Americans already inhabit areas being
    claimed
  • Europeans claim they have no rights to property
    (no maps, contracts, treaties, etc.) -No proof
    of ownership
  • Natives sign contracts, thinking they are
    allowing Europeans to use their land, when they
    actually are selling it to the Europeans

32
Key Events in Early Exploration
  • Conquistadors (c. 1500)
  • Protestant Reformation (1517)
  • Spanish Armada (1588)
  • Pueblo Revolt (1680)

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