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METADATA as we know it: MARC in context


METADATA as we know it: MARC in context An overview Prepared by: Eva Bolkovac As part of a staff training initiative for the JDC/STOD/Cataloging Subcommittee – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: METADATA as we know it: MARC in context

METADATA as we know it MARC in context
  • An overview
  • Prepared by Eva Bolkovac
  • As part of a staff training initiative
  • for the JDC/STOD/Cataloging Subcommittee
  • June 2006

JDC/STOD/Cataloging Subcommittee
  • Chair Marena Fisher
  • Core members since October 2005
  • Kathryn Trotti
  • Eva Guggemos
  • Ana Amelia Contrastano
  • Additional members
  • Joan Swanekamp
  • Shaundolyn Slaughter
  • Eva Bolkovac
  • Consultant Stephen C. Jones, Chair of STOD

Quote from an early Metadata Practitioner, or is
it déjà vu (all over again)
  • I can not help thinking that the golden age
    of cataloging is over, and the difficulties and
    discussions which have furnished an innocent
    pleasure to so many will interest them no more.
    (Charles A. Cutter, published in 1904)

Reference work relies on good catalog records
  • The work of the reference department covers
    everything necessary to help the reader in his
    inquiries, including expert aid in the use of
    the catalog.
  • (Isadore Gilbert Mudge, 1936)
  • from Guide to reference books. 6th ed.
  • Chicago American Library Association

What does this mean for us?
  • CatalogingMetadata
  • Metadata can be harvested automatically by
    indexing robots
  • Metadata can be embedded in a digital object
  • Cataloging is a Public Service that increases
    the usefulness of information, it aids resource
    description and discovery ? metadata helps
    people find the information they are looking for

What does this mean for us? Cont.
  • Managing information (including access/rights
    management), and the long-term preservation of
    information (digital archiving)
  • Metadata is broader in scope than the traditional
    role of the technical services librarian/Cataloger
  • Increased collaboration

  • When we catalog a book, a serial, a map, etc., we
    describe that particular item using a metadata
    standard, MARC21, together with other rules, like
    AACR2. We create a catalog record.
  • The delivery platform, or mechanism for the
    catalog record is the LMS, the Library Management
    System (like our Orbis).
  • Cataloging requires special skills.

  • When we catalog digitized objects, an image of a
    picture, a manuscript, a finding aid, etc., we
    describe that particular item, using a metadata
    standard, DC, TEI, EAD, together with other
    standards, perhaps AACR2 (or its future version
    RDA). We create a metadata record.
  • The delivery platform, or mechanism for the
    metadata record is the Web, or some other digital
    management software. The LMS is not designed to
    deliver metadata records on the web, it is
  • Cataloging requires special skills.

Sounds similar?
  • Yes, traditional library cataloging is a form of
  • The technical environment has completely changed
    from the MARC-based system to the Internet, to
    Web delivery, when applying non-MARC XML-based
    metadata standards.
  • Cataloging principles remain very similar whether
    applying the MARC21 metadata standard or other
    non- MARC metadata standards.
  • The new technology brings new sets of rules with

The librarys goal is
  • To provide simultaneous access to its traditional
    library collections as well as its digital
    collections, in a seamless, integrated manner
    searching across multiple data types and

If we didnt catalog.
  • For the user it would mean

Metadata chaos
Metadata is
  • A simple and classic definition data about data
    or information about information
  • More accurately structured data or information
    about an information resource
  • Used differently in different user communities
    according to their needs
  • Machine understandable information designed to be
    indexed and retrieved on the Web not by online
  • In libraries a formal scheme used to describe an
    object/resource (including digital)
  • MARC21 is metadata (ISO 2709) - an
    international standard used for bibliographic
    data in library catalogs. It can also be used to
    describe digital objects (it has limitations)

Metadata does
  • Through cataloging facilitates discovery of
    relevant information
  • Facilitates interoperability
  • Facilitates resource discovery. Same as in a
    quality catalog record!

A metadata record is
  • A file of information, usually presented as an
    XML document
  • It captures the basic characteristics of a data
    or information resource structured data about
  • (same concept as in a MARC catalog record)
  • Data elements are defined for a metadata record
    by the rules of a particular standard that is
  • Created and maintained

Different metadata standards for different folks
  • DC Dublin Core (ISO15386) the CIP of the
    digital world simple
  • DC can be expressed in XML (RDF/XML) Resource
    Description Framework
  • (RDF a data model designed to integrate
    multiple metadata schemes)
  • QDC Qualified Dublin Core more sophisticated
    than simple DC
  • EAD Encoded Archival Description created to
    display finding aids on the web
  • TEI Text Encoding Initiative for electronic
    text (Lite version, too)

Different metadata standards for different folks
  • MathML Mathematical Markup Language (an
    application of XML), represents mathematical
    symbols and formulae
  • FGDC Federal Geographic Data Committee -for
    maps (although MARC can be used to describe a
    map, it is not designed to convey complex numeric
    information for GIS Geographic Information
    Systems - data sets)
  • Onix Online Information Exchange for book
    industry, bibliographic, trade used by
    publishers, an international standard, XML based,
    libraries may receive Onix records in the future

Simple Dublin Core DC (can be embedded in the
head of an HTML document)
  • The Simple Dublin Core Metadata Element Set
    (DCMES) consists of 15 metadata elements
  • Title Type
  • Creator Format
  • Subject Identifier
  • Description Source
  • Publisher Language
  • Contributor Relation
  • Date Coverage
  • Rights
  • Each Dublin Core element is optional
    and may be repeated. The Dublin Core Metadata
    Initiative (DCMI) has established standard ways
    to refine elements and encourage the use of
    encoding and vocabulary schemes. There is no
    prescribed order in Dublin Core for presenting or
    using the elements.

Qualified Dublin Core QDC
  • Refines the 15 DC elements, making them more
  • Some of these are Title refinement Alternative
  • Date refinement Created
  • Date.Issued Date.Modified
  • Format.Extent
  • Relation refined Is Version Of
  • Is Part Of
  • Is Format Of
  • QDC includes recommended encoding schemes which
    help in the interpretation of the element value
    (eg LCSH)

XML Extensible Markup Language
  • Is not a metadata format itself, but can be used
    to express metadata formats
  • a language container a metalanguage
  • a W3C WWW Consortium standard
  • XML tags have no predefined meaning.
  • XML is a syntax for data structure standard
  • A flexible text format, important for data
    exchange on the Web
  • Unlike HTML it does not specify how to display
    data on the Web (bold, color, etc). That is done
    through XSLT Extensive Stylesheet Language

Example of a simple XML record
  • lt?xml version"1.0" encoding"ISO-8859-1" ?gt
    lt!-- Edited with XML Spy v2006 (http//www.altova.
    com)   --gt
  • ltnotegt
  • lttogtTovelt/togt
  • ltfromgtJanilt/fromgt
  • ltheadinggtReminderlt/headinggt
  • ltbodygtDon't forget me this weekend!lt/bodygt
  • lt/notegt

Same XML record with an error
  • The XML record is transformed using XSLT a
    stylesheet language for XML - to display it on
    the Web. The record has to be well formed and has
    to be validated, otherwise it cant be
  • http//

Mappings and crosswalks between metadata formats
  • Crosswalks facilitate moving metadata from one
    scheme to another mapping of the data elements,
    semantics, and syntax.
  • They facilitate interoperability and exchange of
  • Like translating from one language to another
  • Examples at http//
  • and http//
  • Difficulties betweens crosswalks of different
    metadata formats (field definitions)
  • Best practices for standardized records
  • http//

One size does not fit all
  • No single standard is suitable for all purposes
  • Proliferation of standards
  • Obvious advantages exist to having a single
    standard for cataloging both digital and
    non-digital materials

Searching empowered by metadata
  • Through analysis of resource content
  • Appropriate thesauri
  • Designated fields for data exchange and migration
  • Richer than keyword

  • Descriptive (such as author, title, abstract) it
    is the most standardized -- MARC, MODS, DC
  • Structural (such as how resource is put together,
    pages, chapters) METS (Metadata Encoding and
    Transmission Standard), XML
  • Administrative (such as technical information,
    file type, track history of creation and changes,
    access/rights management and intellectual
    property, preservation metadata to archive the
    resource) ERMI (Electronic Resource Management
    Initiative), PREMIS (PREservation Metadata
    Implementation Strategies)

Descriptive metadata type/format MARC21
  • Machine Readable Cataloging record, an
    international communication standard, ISO 2709
  • Originally designed in the late 1960s to aid in
    the transfer of bibliographic data onto magnetic
    tape, and to replace the printed catalog cards
    with electronic form
  • MARC is not a cataloging code
  • A carrier for bibliographic information, such as
    titles, names, subjects, notes, publication
    information, and physical descriptions of objects

  • Standard for exchanging bibliographic, holdings
    and other data between libraries.
  • Allows for data elements for different types of
    material a foundation that most library catalogs
    are built on.

Catalog this! Using MARC21 formats!
  • Books
  • Continuing resources (serials)
  • Integrating resources
  • Maps
  • Music (scores)
  • Sound recordings
  • Visual materials
  • Electronic resources
  • Mixed materials

Levels of description full, minimal and
  • Describe a book
  • Describe a collection, a whole set, separate
    volumes in the set
  • Describe a photograph
  • Describe a chapter in a book
  • Describe a video
  • Describe an electronic resource, a digital object

Describing information on the web
  • MARC is designed for use in library catalogs, by
    automated library systems, not for use on the web
  • MARC can be transformed to be displayed on the
  • To describe other objects on the web use Dublin
    Core metadata standard, use XML, use TEI for
    text, EAD for digital finding aids, etc

  • A framework for working with MARC data in an XML
  • Complete MARC record is represented in XML, no
    loss of data
  • Can convert back to MARC easily, no loss of data
  • All MARC formats (book, map, music, etc) are
  • Customizable for local solutions

MARC record
  • LDR 01281cam 2200337 a 4500
  • 001 ocm25508902\
  • 003 OCoLC
  • 005 20060530010502.0
  • 008 920219s1993\\\\caua\\\j\\\\\\000\0\eng\\
  • 010 \\a 92005291
  • 020 \\a0152038655 cdollar15.95042 \\alcac
  • 050 00aPS3537.A618bA88 1993
  • 082 00a811/.52220
  • 049 \\aYUSS

MARC record continued
  • 100 1\a Sandburg, Carl,d1878-1967.
  • 245 10a Arithmetic /cCarl Sandburg
    illustrated as an anamorphic adventure by Ted
  • 250 \\a 1st ed.
  • 260 \\a San Diego bHarcourt Brace
  • 300 \\a 1 v. (unpaged) bill. (some col.)
    c26 cm.
  • 500 \\a One Mylar sheet included in pocket.
  • 520 \\a A poem about numbers and their
    characteristics. Features anamorphic, or
    distorted, drawings which can be restored to
    normal by viewing from a particular angle or by
    viewing the image's reflection in the provided
    Mylar cone.

End of MARC record
  • 650 \0a Arithmetic vJuvenile poetry.
  • 650 \0a Children's poetry, American.
  • 650 \1a Arithmetic vPoetry.
  • 650 \1a American poetry.
  • 650 \1a Arithmetic v Poetry.
  • 650 \1a American poetry.
  • 650 \1a Visual perception.
  • 7001\a Rand, Ted, e ill.

  • Where MARC exists within the world of XML
  • -XML - just a different way of encoding MARC
  • Tags are preserved in their semantics
  • 11 mapping
  • No loss of data during conversion
  • Extensible can be customized
  • http//

MODS Metadata Objects Description Schema
  • XML-based descriptive metadata standard
  • A subset of data elements are derived from
    MARC21, uses language-based tags
  • Highly compatible with MARC21, (but not a MARC
  • Richer than Dublin Core
  • Uses natural language tags rather than numeric
  • Accommodates special requirements for digital

MARC limitations in the digital environment
  • Lack of expandability due to rigorous record
    formats (goes back to the production of printed
    card catalog cards)
  • Weaknesses in describing bibliographic attributes
    of digitized resources
  • Incompatible with other MARC formats
  • Bibliographic relationships are not easily
  • Cant be processed directly by web applications

So, is MARC still needed? YES!
  • But its one of the metadata standards we can use
    not the only one
  • OPAC is not necessarily the center of discovery
  • Can be retooled, repurposed, transformed
  • Still the best way to describe resources for
    discovery, identification and retrieval in
    traditional library catalogs (like Voyager)

MARC21 standards
  • MARC21 Format for Bibliographic Data
  • MARC21 Format for Authority Data
  • MARC21 Format for Holdings Data
  • MARC21 Format for Classification Data
  • MARC21 Format for Community Data

Bibliographic record type
  • A carrier primarily for bibliographic information
    about printed or manuscript textual materials,
    maps, music, serials, visual materials,
    electronic resources
  • ..or any source of information which can be
    represented in a catalog record

Authority records
  • Are a carrier for information concerning the
    authorized forms of names, titles, subjects (and
    subject divisions) to be used in constructing
  • Describe names and terms which need to be
    standardized for optimal retrieval of data
  • Include personal, corporate, geographic names and
    controlled vocabularies

Value of Authority control
  • Most efficient and effective mechanism for
    optimal retrieval of information
  • Without authority control, access to information
    can be severely compromised

Holdings records
  • Are a carrier for holdings information for three
    types of bibliographic items
  • Single-part
  • Multipart
  • Serial (may include copy-specific information,
    information needed for local processing,
    maintenance, preservation or version information)
  • Indicate the number and locations of copies of a
    resource cataloged in the bibliographic record

Classification records
  • A carrier for information about classification
    numbers and the captions associated with them
    that are formulated according to a specific
    authoritative classification scheme

Community Information records
  • A carrier for descriptions of non-bibliographic
    resources that fulfill the information needs of a

  • In the beginning different flavors.MARC, USMARC,
    CANMARC, UKMARC, AUSMARCharmonization ? MARC21
  • Information is stored in a consistent form
  • Data is manipulated by a computer
  • Allows for communication between systems
  • Accommodates extensive data elements
  • A highly complex communication or data structure
    standard that provides concise data management

MARC has three components
  1. Record structure (based ISO2709 and ANSI Z39.2)
  2. Content designation these are the codes used to
    tag elements of data within a MARC record
  3. Data content of a record the object we are
    coding, a book, a map, etc. according to data
    formatting standards (AACR, LCSH, LC
    Classification, DDC, etc.)

MARC supporting documentation
  • Character sets
  • - MARC-8 (8-bit encoding)
  • - UCS/UNICODE UTF-8 (8/16 bit encoding)
  • - 15,000 characters
  • - Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, CJK
  • Code lists countries, geographical, languages,
    sources, relators
  • http//

Weve got standards!
  • Standards are a set of rules and guidelines that
    provide a common framework
  • Aid interoperability
  • ISO International Organization for
    Standardization and NISO, W3C, DLF Digital
    Library Federation METS Metadata Encoding and
    Transmission Standard OAI Open Archives
  • ISBN, ISSN, ISMN (music) are ISO standards
  • ISO/IEC 11179 IT Metadata Registries (MDR)
  • ISO 2709 Format for information exchange

Cataloging standards
  • Content standards AACR (Anglo-American
    Cataloging Rules) now in its 2nd ed. (AACR2)
  • An international data content standard used by
    approx. 56 countries around the world for all
    types of materials collected by libraries. It
    standardizes the use of MARC
  • Cataloging rules have gone through many
    iterations responding to changing needs, first
    ed. In 1967, 1978 2nd ed.
  • Rules in AACR2 cover the description of library
    materials and also the provision of access points

Change is the only constant
  • RDA Resource Description and Access (not AACR3)
  • RDA is being developed as a new standard for
    resource description and access designed for the
    digital world JSC to be published in 2007
  • Will cover all types of content and media
  • Aligned with FRBR a conceptual model for how
    bibliographic databases might be structured
    (Functional Requirement for Bibliographic
    Records) and FRAR (Functional Requirement for
    Authority Records)
  • FRBR identifies and defines (1) entities of
    interest to users of bibliographic records (2)
    their attributes and (3) the relationships that
    operate between them work (intellectual) being
    the top hierarchy, then expression,
    manifestation, and the item
  • Separates recording of data and the presentation
    of data
  • http//

Some other content standards
  • DACS - Describing Archives A Content Standard
    (replaces APPM- Archives, Personal Papers, and
    Manuscripts ). DACS extends Ch. 4 of AACR2.
  • -- Specific rules for describing archives and
    illustrates how these rules might be implemented
    in MARC and EAD format. It includes crosswalks
    to these and other standards.
  • -- can be used to describe archival materials at
    any level of specificity, from the collection to
    the item level.
  • DCRB Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books
    (concordance of rules between DCRB and AACR2)
  • FGDC Content standard

ISBD standard
  • International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions
    standard - specifies the requirements (a set of
    rules) for description and identification of
    information resources
  • These rules organize the bibliographic
    description of an item in Areas such as title,
    statement of responsibility, edition,
    publication, physical description, series, notes,
    standard numbers (ISBN, ISSN)
  • It is sequential title must come first, then

ISBD punctuation
  • Cataloging rules dictate it
  • Space / space precedes statement of
    responsibility, c in title info (tagged 245)
  • 245 04aThe plays of Oscar Wilde /cAlan Bird.
  • (space before c is system supplied in many
    software programs)
  • Limited space originally on 3x5 catalog cards,
    ISBD was governed by saving space
  • These rules are still useful for computer screen

Classification standards
  • Systems of organizing and coding library
    materials according to their related subject
  • Taxonomic classification placing the object
    into a category or a subject index,
  • List of subject headings controlled
    vocabularies eg, LCSH an integral part of
    bibliographic control and improved searching
  • Classification schemes - eg LC, DDC
  • Assignment of a class number (according to rules)

Library Management Systems
  • also called Integrated Library Systems
  • Built on Database technology (Oracle RDBMS -
    relational database all data is stored and
    retrieved based on relations) and GUI (Graphical
    User Interface displays windows, icons through a
    web browser, ) technology
  • Based on MARC, built on standards, utilizes the
    MARC format for storage of data
  • Keep track of library materials
  • Have different clients, or modules Acquisitions,
    Cataloging, Circulation (keeps track of overdue
    books), OPAC
  • Through OPAC can reserve copies online through a
    web interface
  • EndeavorVoyager is an example other major
    ones Ex LibrisAleph, Innovative Millennium,
    Koha ILS, the only open source library software
    available (http//

MARC the pillar of the bibliographic record
  • Computers can interpret the data in the catalog
  • Cataloging staff create and edit MARC records
  • Other staff working with MARC21 records need to
    know how to read, understand, use and interpret
    the MARC record.
  • Different kinds of bibliographic records

Cataloging where it all comes together
deciding exactly what it is we are cataloging
  • Searching locally and the utilities for copy no
    match create original record
  • Analyzing the resource
  • Using AACR we determine the information we have
    to provide for the type of material we are
  • Subject analysis and classification
  • Bibliographic control
  • Coding information into the format required by
    the MARC standards
  • (no surprise! If we didnt code it, you wont
    find it!)

Copy Cataloging or adaptive cataloging
  • Searching for copy
  • Finding exact match still might want to edit
  • No exact match, but variant copy clone record
    (different edition, etc) remove all information
    that does not apply to your resource in hand
  • Follow rules and local procedures for editing
  • (If you didnt add it, you wont find it!)
  • http//

Input standards
  • LC has its established input standard for
    entering bibliographic data in MARC records
    Yale practice is to follow LC (in most cases)
  • OCLC also has its own input standard if using
    OCLC to directly input records
  • Complicated by the varying levels of completeness
    (fullest, brief, etc) of the record
  • LC http//
  • OCLC http//

Knowledge of MARC tells you
  • What data elements your database contains
  • How they are indexed if at all
  • How they can be searched
  • How they are displayed if at all

MARC record format
  • Leader first 24 characters of the record,
    defines parameters for processing the record
  • Directory entries that contain the tag used in
    variable fields, they are constructed by the
    computer from the bibliographic record. In
    communication format the fields are not preceded
    by tags.
  • Variable field variable control field 00X,
    fixed length data elements, and variable data
    field indicators and subfield codes

The raw MARC record
  • 01041cam 2200265 a 450000100200000000300040002000
    3 200235245008700267246003600354250001200390260003
    70 04023000029004395000042004685200220005106500033
    007 3065000120076389048230/AC/r91DLC1991110
    6082 810.9891101s1990mauaj0000eng
    c12.95a 0316107506 (pbk.) c5.95 (6.95
    Can.)aDLCcD LCdDLC00aGV943.25b.B74
    199000a796.334/2220 10aBrenner, Richard
    J.,d1941-10aMake the team. pSoccer ba heads
    up guide to super soccer! /cR ichard J.
    Brenner.30aHeads up guide to super soc
    cer.a1st ed.aBoston bLittle,
    Brown,cc19 90.a127 p. bill. c19
    cm.a"A Sports ill ustrated for kids
    book."aInstructions for impr oving soccer
    skills. Discusses dribbling, heading, playmaking,
    defense, conditioning, mental attitud e, how to
    handle problems with coaches, parents, a nd other
    players, and the history of soccer.0aS
    occervJuvenile literature.1aSoccer.\

The Leader
  • 24 positions from 00 to 23 that provides
    information to the computer for the processing of
    the record.
  • http//

Leader Encoding level 00/17 example
  • Blank () Full level LC standard
  • 1 Full level material not examined
  • 2 Less than full level, material not examined
  • 3 abbreviated level
  • 4 core level
  • 5 partial (preliminary) level
  • 7 minimal level
  • 8 prepublication level (CIP)
  • u unknown
  • z not applicable
  • I Full level OCLC standard
  • K Minimal level OCLC standard
  • Codes indicate the fullness of the bibliographic
    information in the record.

Parts of a MARC record
  • Fields and tags
  • Indicators
  • Delimiters
  • Fixed fields
  • Variable fields

Fields subfields and delimiters
  • Fields can be mandatory, required if applicable
    or optional
  • Can also be repeatable (subfields also)
  • Subfields are marked by subfield codes and
    delimiters (the smallest logical units in a
    variable field) organize the information within a
    given field eg. 245 00 a Money b a
    necessary evil where b represents the
    subtitle. Subfields codes are letters or numbers
    (eg. 650 2 example 2 Source of heading or
    term 650 \7
  • Subfields are specific to each type of field and
    are controlled by content standards
  • delimiters can be represented by different
    characters double dagger, a , a sign
  • Each field is represented by a 3-digit tag, which
    identifies the field eg 245 represents the
    title information
  • OPAC labels display names of the field they are

  • Each tag is followed by two indicators, their
    values may range from 0-9
  • Some fields use both indicators
  • Some fields use one character position only
  • Some fields use none, the position is blank and
    is undefined
  • Supply information about the field for indexing

Functions of Indicators
  • Nonfiling characters - 245 04 a The Adventures
    of Safety Frog. p Fire safety h
    videorecording / c Century 21 Video, Inc. VERY
  • Control of notes and added entries - 246 30 a
    Fire safety h videorecording
  • http//
  • Display constant control eg. first indicator
    display a note or not
  • http//
  • Source of information/thesaurus eg. LCSH 650 \0
    if limit by searching only LCSH
  • Further qualification of field content

Control fields 001-006
  • http//
  • 005 system created, can tell you date and time
    record was last saved, down to a tenth of a
    second you can see if you saved it recently or
  • Note that each 006 represents a material type
    (tabs in Voyager)

007 - Physical Description Fixed Field
  • Contains special information about the physical
    characteristics in a coded form. The information
    may represent the whole item or parts of an item
    such as accompanying material
  • http//

007 example (from OCLC manual)
  • For example, you are cataloging a kit that has
    25 activity cards, 60 artifacts, 3 books, 3
    filmstrips, 1 learning guide, 25 study prints, 2
    sound cassettes and 14 transparencies. The
    activity cards, filmstrips, study prints and
    transparencies share the same physical
    characteristics, respectively.
  • Use a separate 007 field for each group of
    materials (i.e., an 007 for the 25 activity
    cards, an 007 for the 3 filmstrips, etc.). Since
    the sound cassettes are not associated with
    projected material, use a separate 007 field for
    the sound cassettes.
  • 007k b o d c e o007g b o d u e j h f007k
    b f d m e o f c 007s b s d l e u f n g j
    h l i c n e007g b t d c e j h v
  • 300 25 activity cards, 60 artifacts, 3 books, 3
    filmstrips, 1 learning guide, 25 study prints, 2
    sound cassettes, 14 transparencies c in
    container 30 x 25 x 13 cm.
  • http//

008 Fixed-length data elements
  • Otherwise known as the Fixed Field Codes
  • Contains 40 character positions (00-39) that
    provide coded information about the record as a
    whole and about special bibliographic aspects of
    the item being cataloged. These coded data
    elements are potentially useful for retrieval and
    data management purposes.
  • http//

Example of 008 field in OCLC
Same 008 display (fixed field) in Voyager
  • Bib6629379

Fixed fields are used in limits of the OPAC
  • Limit feature allows users to restrict results of
    their searches by
  • Language (character position 35-37)
  • Collection
  • Date
  • Medium
  • Item Type
  • (noteMore limits must be set BEFORE entering
    search terms)
  • http//

01X-04X Number and code fields
  • 010-048
  • 010 LC Control Number or LCCN, since 2001
    normalized, pre-2001 had prefixes, like
    sn89-4567 now entered as a sn89004567. Invalid
    LCCNs are entered in z of the 010 field.
  • 020 ISBN
  • 022 ISSN
  • 024 Other standard identifiers, like a UPC
    Universal Product Code barcode
  • 028 Publisher number, (identifies
    videorecordings, printed music, sound recordings,

01X-04X Number and code fields cont
  • 035 System control number, like OCLC a
    (OCoLC)12345678 (8 digits)
  • 037 Source of Acquisition (mostly used for
    subscription information for serials)
  • 040 Cataloging source MARC code that
    identifies the institution that created the
    record in a YUS, c that input record, d
    edited the record.
  • 041 Language codes, when 008 is not enough, for
    more than one language eg. aengafreager
  • Note 546 field for the user Text is in English,
    French and German.

01X-04X Number and code fields
  • 046 Special code dates, information that cant
    be recorded in 008 Dates, for example a corrected
  • 047 Form of musical composition code for
    printed or manuscript music, or sound recording
    when one code doesnt express the work, 008
    18/19 Comp mu and 047 a or a ct (both
    oratorio and cantata)
  • 049 Local holdings field, OCLC uses for
    institution code of the library, copy holdings,
    volume, part, year designation. OCLC recon

05X-09X Classification and call number fields
  • 050- Library of Congress call number (LC)
  • 082 Dewey Decimal Classification number (DDC)
  • 090 Locally assigned LC-type call number
  • 092 - Locally assigned Dewey call number
  • 096 - Locally assigned NLM-type call number
  • 098 Other type class number
  • 099 Local free text call number

MARC21 Variable Fields by tag groups
  • 00X Control information, numbers, codes
  • 0XX Variable fields, general information
  • 1XX Main entry
  • 2XX Titles, edition, imprint, publication
  • 3XX Physical description
  • 4XX Series statement (as on item)
  • 5XX Notes
  • 6XX Subject entries
  • 7XX Added entries other than subject or series
  • 8XX Series added entries (authoritative forms)
  • 9XX Local use fields

Access points or headings under authority
  • 1XX - Main entry
  • 4XX - Series statement (as on item)
  • 6XX Subject entries
  • 7XX - Added entries other than subject or series
  • 8XX - Series added entries (authoritative forms)

Parallel tag construction
  • X00 Personal names 100, 600, 700, 800
  • X10 Corporate names 110, 610, 710, 810
  • X11 Conference names 111, 611, 711, 811
  • X30 Uniform titles 630, 730, 830
  • (An OPAC personal name search will find 100, 600,
    700, 800 through indexes set up)

1XX fields 100, 110, 111, 130
  • Main entry fields (headings) for the resource
    being cataloged, constructed according to rules
    in AACR2
  • Not repeatable
  • First indicators have important meanings
  • Second indicator undefined
  • Have subfields
  • Source of information is important
  • http//

X00 fields 100, 600, 700, 800
  • First indicator specifies type of name
  • 1surname
  • 3family name
  • Second indicator is undefined
  • List of subfield codes allowed listed under each

1XX examples
  • Personal name
  • 100 1 a Gregory, Ruth W.
  • q (Ruth Wilhelme),
  • d 1910-
  • Corporate name
  • 110 2 a Yale University.
  • b Library.
  • Meeting name
  • 111 2 a International Conference on Dublin Core
    and Metadata for e-Communities
  • d (2002
  • c Florence, Italy)
  • Uniform title main entry
  • 130 0 a Bible.
  • p O.T.
  • p Psalms.

110 authority record
  • LC Control Numbern 80008747 HEADINGYale
    University. Library
  • 00000690cz a2200193n 450
  • 0012364985
  • 00520000509033916.0
  • 008800128n acannaab a ana
  • 010__ a n 80008747
  • 035__ a (DLC)n 80008747
  • 040__ a DLC c DLC d DLC d CtY
  • 1102_ a Yale University. b Library
  • 4102_ a Sterling Memorial Library
  • 4102_ a Yale University. b Sterling Memorial
  • 5102_ w a a Yale College (1718-1887). b
  • 670__ a The Encouragers of the art of printing,
    1966 b p. 4 (Sterling Memorial Library at Yale
  • 675__ a Yale Col. Library. Catalogue of books in
    the Library of Yale-College, New-Haven, 1791.
  • 952__ a RETRO
  • 953__ a xx00 b ba30
  • http//

240 Uniform title
  • The uniform title for an item when the
    bibliographic description is entered under a main
    entry field that contains a personal (field 100),
    corporate (110), or meeting (111) name.
  • http//

245 Title statement
  • Mandatory
  • Not repeatable
  • Indicators are important for indexing
  • If 1XX present first indicator set to 1
  • If no 1XX present first indicator set to 0
  • Order of subfields important
  • Examples
  • 245 00aMan smoking at window.
  • 245 03aLe Bureauhfilmstrip bLa Oficina
  • 245 10aStatistics bfacts or fiction
  • 245 04aThe Year book of general

246 Varying form of title
  • A form of the title appearing on different parts
    of an item or a portion of the title proper, or
    an alternative form of the title when the form
    differs significantly from the title contained in
    field 245
  • Required if applicable
  • Repeatable
  • Indicators important in indexing
  • http//

247 Former title in pre-AACR2 records
  • In Latest entry serial records, where current
    title is in 245 and each former title is entered
    in a separate 247 fields
  • 247 is also used by Conser (Module 31) for Remote
    Access Electronic Serials (Online serials)

250 Edition statement
  • Information relating to the edition of a work as
    determined by applicable cataloging rules.
  • Example 250 // 2nd ed.
  • 250// Canadian ed. bÉd. canadienne.
  • Use abbreviations from Appendix B. and numbers
    from App. C of AACR2
  • Can supply (add edition in brackets if not on
    piece, but obvious).

260 Publication, distribution, etc. (Imprint)
  • Contains publication, printing, distribution,
    issue, release, or production information of a
  • Names as they appear (without prepositions)
  • Name of publisher 260 b is not under authority
    control, in OPAC use a keyword search
  • Scribners
  • C. Scribners Sons
  • Chas. Scribners Sons
  • Charles Scribners Sons BUT if added entry
    exists for the publisher 710 20 a Chas.
    Scribners Sons, it is under bibliographic
    control. (610 if item is about this publisher)

270 - Address
  • Contains an address (as well as electronic access
    data such as telephone, fax, etc, associated with
    the bibliographic item.

3XX Physical description, etc.
  • http//
  • Most frequently used for print
  • 300 Physical description
  • 310 Current frequency for serials
  • 321 Former frequency
  • 362 Dates or sequential designation
    (indicators formatted, unformatted notes
    relationship with dates in fixed fields Example

4XX - Series statement fields
  • http//
  • Separate works but related by a common collective
    title or topic, issued together in a group by
  • Classed together or classed separately
  • Series traced or not
  • 490 relationship with 8XX
  • Recent LC practice controversy.stay tuned!

5XX - Notes area
  • Use notes from any part of the resource
  • Prescribed order of notes
  • Can be very useful in distinguishing records
  • 590 is used for local notes
  • http//
  • Some note fields pair up with other fields, eg
    041 546 58078X

6XX - Subject Access fields
  • 600 Personal name subject added entry
  • 610 Corporate name subject added entry
  • 611 Meeting name subject added entry
  • 630 Uniform title subject added entry
  • 650 Topical term subject added entry
  • 651 Geographic name subject added entry
  • 655 Genre/Form subject added entry
  • 69X locally defined (eg. 692 in Beinecke 692
    14 a Duru, Hippolyte, d d. 1884 x Binding.)

70X-75X - Added entry fields
  • Contain a name and/or title or a term that
    provides access to a bibliographic record that is
    not provided through main entry (1XX), subject
    access (6XX), series statement (4XX), series
    added entry (8XX), or title (20X-24X) fields. The
    roman numeral and the word Title that precede an
    added entry field in some displays are not
    carried in the MARC record. They may be generated
    based on the field tag.
  • Most often used 700, 710, 711, 730, 740
    controlled fields (but 720 is uncontrolled name)

76X-78X - Linking entry fields
  • Contain information that identifies other related
    bibliographic items. Each of the linking entry
    fields specifies a different relationship between
    the target item described in the record and a
    related item.
  • http//
  • Many used for serials, some also for e-resources
  • As with other fields, the coding of indicators
    and subfields are important!

8XX -Series added entries fields
  • Fields 800-830 contain a name/title or a title
    used as a series added entry when the series
    statement is contained in field 490 (Series
    Statement) or field 500
  • http//

841- 88X - Holdings, Location, Alternate
Graphics, etc. fields
  • Contain descriptions for data elements which are
    an integral part of the MARC 21 Format for
    Bibliographic Data and data elements which may
    appear either in bibliographic records or in
    separate MARC holdings records.
  • 850 for minimal holdings data in bib
  • 852 for more extensive holdings data in MFHD
  • 853 -gt880 found in MFHD
  • 856 Electronic location and access to locate

9XX Local fields
  • Any locally defined field
  • Examples from Orbis
  • 927 - //a 9808R when record was sent to RLIN
    and/or OCLC -- now obsolete
  • 928 - //a ACOC1000 was used to send record out
    for authority work now obsolete
  • 948 - //a OCLC RECON still in use

Garbage in, garbage out.
Same volume one as author
Database errors and their consequences.
  • Cant retrieve something? Its likely that its
    because of
  • Typos
  • Miscoded Indicators
  • Errors in access points
  • in call numbers (Call numbers come from the
    Holdings record, the MFHD, not from the bib
  • Miscoded holdings information, etc..

Some eye-catching slipups
  • Bib2994152 (apostr. Missing)
  • Bib5954198 650 the two wars.(PCC record)

Mistakes in the MFHD.
  • Voyager Holdings record 6849742
  • 866 41 8 a 1968-1969 line
  • Holdings record 7326417 852 7 1
  • Holdings record 1155135 852 71 b sml

Not mistakes, yet one wonders about these subject
  • One-leg resting position
  • Baboons Congresses
  • Hamlet -- English translations
  • GodAudio recordings

A brief review exercise
  • On page 29 of your booklet
  • http//

Some selected useful websites
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//

  • Any Questions?